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They are native to East Asia and northeastern Europe. Most species originate from East Asia and the center of diversity is in China. The genus once included more species, but was split several decades ago [ when?
The naming of these genera has been contentious, but a ruling of the International Botanical Congress in changed the defining species of the genus to Chrysanthemum indicum , restoring the florist's chrysanthemums to the genus Chrysanthemum. Genera now separated from Chrysanthemum include Argyranthemum , Glebionis , Leucanthemopsis , Leucanthemum , Rhodanthemum , and Tanacetum. Wild Chrysanthemum taxa are herbaceous perennial plants or subshrubs.
They have alternately arranged leaves divided into leaflets with toothed or occasionally smooth edges. The compound inflorescence is an array of several flower heads , or sometimes a solitary head. The head has a base covered in layers of phyllaries. The simple row of ray florets is white, yellow, or red; many horticultural specimens have been bred to bear many rows of ray florets in a great variety of colors.
The disc florets of wild taxa are yellow. Pollen grains are appropriately 34 microns. The fruit is a ribbed achene. This is also known as the favorite flower for the month of November. The plant is particularly significant during the Double Ninth Festival. Chrysanthemum cultivation began in Japan during the Nara and Heian periods early 8th to late 12th centuries , and gained popularity in the Edo period early 17th to late 19th century.
Many flower shapes, colours, and varieties were created. The way the flowers were grown and shaped also developed, and chrysanthemum culture flourished. Various cultivars of chrysanthemums created in the Edo period were characterized by a remarkable variety of flower shapes, and were exported to China from the end of the Edo period, changing the way Chinese chrysanthemum cultivars were grown and their popularity. A number of festivals and shows take place throughout Japan in autumn when the flowers bloom.
It is celebrated on the 9th day of the 9th month. It was started in , when the imperial court held its first chrysanthemum show. Chrysanthemums entered American horticulture in when Colonel John Stevens imported a cultivated variety known as 'Dark Purple' from England.
The introduction was part of an effort to grow attractions within Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey. Modern cultivated chrysanthemums are showier than their wild relatives. The flower heads occur in various forms, and can be daisy-like or decorative, like pompons or buttons. This genus contains many hybrids and thousands of cultivars developed for horticultural purposes.
In addition to the traditional yellow, other colors are available, such as white, purple, and red. Over cultivars of chrysanthemum have gained the Royal Horticultural Society 's Award of Garden Merit confirmedChrysanthemums are divided into two basic groups, garden hardy and exhibition. Garden hardy mums are new perennials capable of wintering in most northern latitudes.
Exhibition varieties are not usually as sturdy. Garden hardies are defined by their ability to produce an abundance of small blooms with little if any mechanical assistance, such as staking, and withstanding wind and rain. Exhibition varieties, though, require staking, overwintering in a relatively dry, cool environment, and sometimes the addition of night lights.
The exhibition varieties can be used to create many amazing plant forms, such as large disbudded blooms, spray forms, and many artistically trained forms, such as thousand-bloom, standard trees , fans, hanging baskets, topiary , bonsai , and cascades. The bloom forms are defined by the way in which the ray and disk florets are arranged.
Chrysanthemum blooms are composed of many individual flowers florets , each one capable of producing a seed. The disk florets are in the center of the bloom head, and the ray florets are on the perimeter. The ray florets are considered imperfect flowers, as they only possess the female reproductive organs, while the disk florets are considered perfect flowers, as they possess both male and female reproductive organs.
Irregular incurves are bred to produce a giant head called an ogiku. The disk florets are concealed in layers of curving ray florets that hang down to create a 'skirt'. Regular incurves are similar, but usually with smaller blooms and a dense, globular form. Intermediate incurve blooms may have broader florets and a less densely flowered head.
In the reflex form, the disk florets are concealed and the ray florets reflex outwards to create a mop -like appearance. The pompon form is fully double, of small size, and very globular in form. Single and semidouble blooms have exposed disk florets and one to seven rows of ray florets. In the anemone form, the disk florets are prominent, often raised and overshadowing the ray florets. The spoon-form disk florets are visible and the long, tubular ray florets are spatulate. In the spider form, the disk florets are concealed, and the ray florets are tube-like with hooked or barbed ends, hanging loosely around the stem.
In the brush and thistle variety, the disk florets may be visible. In Japan, a form of bonsai chrysanthemum was developed over the centuries. The cultivated flower has a lifespan of about 5 years and can be kept in miniature size. Another method is to use pieces of dead wood and the flower grows over the back along the wood to give the illusion from the front that the miniature tree blooms.
Yellow or white chrysanthemum flowers of the species C. Chrysanthemum leaves are steamed or boiled and used as greens, especially in Chinese cuisine. Japanese cuisine sashimi uses small chrysanthemums as garnish. Pyrethrum Chrysanthemum [or Tanacetum ] cinerariaefolium is economically important as a natural source of insecticide. The flowers are pulverized, and the active components, called pyrethrins , which occur in the achenes , are extracted and sold in the form of an oleoresin.
This is applied as a suspension in water or oil, or as a powder. Pyrethrins attack the nervous systems of all insects , and inhibit female mosquitoes from biting.
In sublethal doses, they have an insect-repellent effect. They are not persistent, being biodegradable , and also decompose easily on exposure to light. Pyrethroids such as permethrin are synthetic insecticides based on natural pyrethrum. Despite this, chrysanthemum leaves are still a major host for destructive pests, such as leafminer flies including L.
Persian powder is an example of industrial product of chrysanthemum insecticide. In some countries of Europe e. In some other countries, they represent honesty. In the Victorian language of flowers , the chrysanthemum had several meanings. The Chinese chrysanthemum meant cheerfulness, whereas the red chrysanthemum stood for "I Love", while the yellow chrysanthemum symbolized slighted love. Chrysanthemums first arrived in Japan by way of China in the 5th century.
In the 12th century, during the Kamakura period , when the Retired Emperor Go-Toba adopted it as the mon family crest of the Imperial family , it became a flower that symbolized autumn in Japan. During the Edo period from the 17th century to the 19th century, due to the development of economy and culture, the cultivation of chrysanthemums, cherry blossoms , Japanese iris , morning glory , etc. From the Meiji period in the latter half of the 19th century, due to the growing importance of the chrysanthemum, which symbolized the Imperial family, the creation of ogiku style cultivars with a diameter of 20 cm or more became popular.
In the present day, each autumn there are chrysanthemum exhibitions at the Shinjuku Gyo-en , Meiji Shrine and Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo. Chrysanthemum growing is still practised actively as a hobby by many Japanese people who enter prize plants in contests. Chrysanthemum crest on the battleship Mikasa.
Korea has a number of flower shows that exhibit the chrysanthemum, such as the Masan Gagopa Chrysanthemum Festival. In Iran, chrysanthemums are associated with the Zoroastrian spiritual being Ashi Vanghuhi lit. In , Israel named a new fast-growing Chrysanthemum flower after Narendra Modi , the Prime Minister of India , in a special gesture to mark the first visit of an Indian prime minister to the Jewish nation.
In Australia, on Mother's Day, which falls in May when the flower is in season, people traditionally wear a white chrysanthemum, or a similar white flower to honour their mothers. Chrysanthemums are often given as Mother's Day presents. Italian composer Giacomo Puccini wrote Crisantemi , a movement for string quartet, in memory of his friend Amedeo di Savoia Duca d'Aosta.
As of February [update] , Plants of the World Online accepted the following species: . Chrysanthemum zawadskii. Chrysanthemum indicum. Chrysanthemum japonense var. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Chrysanthemum disambiguation. Discuss FebruaryGenus of flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae. Chrysanthemum shows have been traditionally held in many Japanese towns.
Chrysanthemums in the Japanese Ogiku lit. Korean painting Chrysanthemums, Rock and Bird , 19th century. Chrysanthemum aphrodite Kitam. Chrysanthemum arcticum L. Chrysanthemum crassum Kitam. Chrysanthemum cuneifolium Kitam. Chrysanthemum daucifolium Pers. Chrysanthemum dichrum C.
The topography of Tamil Nadu broadly consists of the coastal plains in the east, uplands and hills as one proceeds westwards. The central plains account for more than half the area of the State. The geographical area of the State has a roughly rhomboidal appearance with the longer diagonal of it stretching from Pulicat Lake in the north to Kanniyakumari in the south and the shorter diagonal from Gudalur in the west to Point Calimere in the east. Tamil Nadu is endowed with rich biodiversity, right from marine coastal systems in the Gulf of Mannar to terrestrial evergreen forests in the Western Ghats. Botanical description of the Presidency's vegetation owe to the hard and dedicated work of few explorers, some of whom served as early foresters here.
Whether you want a fragrant flower garden or want to enjoy varieties of cut flowers for your office Chrysanthemum Multicaule Golden Yellow Flower Seeds.
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The best way to learn proper English is to read news report, and watch news on TV. Watching TV shows is a great way to learn casual English, slang words, understand culture reference and humor. If you have already watched these shows then you may recall the words used in the following dialogs. Mum's the word. Gotta go.
Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. Manu Smrti, law book written by Manu, talks about lot of subjects which makes it a Hindu Encyclopaedia.
They are native to East Asia and northeastern Europe. Most species originate from East Asia and the center of diversity is in China. The genus once included more species, but was split several decades ago [ when? The naming of these genera has been contentious, but a ruling of the International Botanical Congress in changed the defining species of the genus to Chrysanthemum indicum , restoring the florist's chrysanthemums to the genus Chrysanthemum. Genera now separated from Chrysanthemum include Argyranthemum , Glebionis , Leucanthemopsis , Leucanthemum , Rhodanthemum , and Tanacetum.
It focuses on the attributes of plants suitable for food forests, what each can contribute to a food forest ecosystem, including carbon sequestration, and the kinds of foods they yield. The book suggests that community and small-scale food forests can provide a real alternative to intensive industrialised agriculture, and help to combat the many inter-related environmental crises that threaten the very future of life on Earth. Form: Rounded. Chrysanthemum x morifolium. Cultivated Beds;.
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Location: Ooty botanical gardens, nilgiris, tamil nadu, india. Common Name: Bicolor chrysanthemum krumbiegel flower showCommon Name: Yellow chrysanthemum bangalore lalbagh flower show republic day. Flowers: Yellow, folded petals, showy, double, clustered.
Growing plants indoors adds beauty to homes and buildings by softening harsh architectural features or by enlivening a space with color.
One of the most mesmerizing fall colored plants is the chrysanthemum, or mum. Arguably the favorite of all fall flowers, mums come in a wide variety of colors and bloom variations. When choosing a mum from the store, more goes into it besides choosing your favorite color. For long lasting mums this fall, Alabama Extension regional agent Mallory Kelley has the tips and tricks for all things mums. At the store, it may be tempting to purchase the mum that is already in full bloom. However, for longevity, purchase those with most of the buds still tightly closed and only a few blooms open. This will ensure the longest possible bloom period.
I'm not much of a gardener, but I definitely want to learn more. Last year was the first time in many years that I really went for it in a couple small plots. I was pleased as punch that some of what I planted actually grew!