Midwest plains landscaping

Coming soon. Lavishly illustrated, Gardening with Prairie Plants includes thorough descriptions of plants native to most of North America—from New York to Colorado, and from Texas north to Minnesota and the western provinces of Canada. If you want to create a landscape of maximum beauty with minimum upkeep, Gardening with Prairie Plants tells you everything you need to know to begin and to develop a beautiful, earth-friendly prairie garden. Minnesota and the Upper Midwest , Environment , gardening. Why have home gardeners, professional horticulturists, and landscape preservationists increasingly been attracted to prairie plants? The beauty and hardiness of these flowers, grasses, trees, and shrubs, along with their easy maintenance and environmental friendliness, have spurred a surge of interest in prairie gardens.

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  • The 19th-century landscape design principles that shaped the Midwest are still with us today
  • Northern Plains Landscaping Inc.
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In Minnesota there are very few architects and landscape architects from Native cultures. As this book project progresses, I am seeking out Dakota speakers, historians, and linguists to advise and comment. This essay reflects some of their input.

But more is needed. As a landscape historian, my focus in this article is to introduce a critical gap in academic and professional design discourse—both communities with few Indigenous voices. Thirty-eight human beings suspended in the air, on the bank of the beautiful Minnesota; above, the smiling, clear, blue sky; beneath and around, the silent thousands, hushed to a deathly silence by the chilling scene before them….

Star Tribune , June 1,In May , the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis landed in a public relations disaster over the installation of an outdoor wooden sculpture. They knew little of the U. After a devastating winter of cold and starvation in , warriors of the Dakota Tribes in southwestern Minnesota attacked newly-established towns near the Minnesota River Valley—Hutchinson, New Ulm, Redwood Falls, and others.

Hundreds of settlers were killed or displaced. Yet, even with the Civil War raging, the newly recruited Minnesota 10 th Infantry made a swift and crushing response; and the brief U. Three-hundred-and-thirty-nine Dakota men were sentenced to hanging.

The event remains the largest federal execution in history. In addition, 1, Dakota elders, women, and children were confined and forced to march in the winter to a concentration camp named near Fort Snelling, 65 miles away. The Walker commissioned a new version to be built at the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden, then under renovation. On May 26, , the Walker introduced to the media the new sculptures installed in the Garden for its reopening.

Only then was the true meaning of Scaffold revealed. Why did it take tribal occupation at the Sculpture Garden and a week of national media attention to bring this dark history to light for most Minnesotans and their arts leaders?

Ever since the Civil War, few Midwesterners including myself , ever heard this story. These towns grew out of temporary borderlands, sites of cultural contact, and contested space. These new towns and county seats marked the front line of national expansion in Minnesota.

They anchored an ongoing wave of settlement enabled by railroads, land treaties consistently broken, and tribal expatriation. In grade school through high school, Midwesterners never learned why, after the devastating winter and starvation of , these frontier towns became natural targets for reprisal.

As the military quickly occupied the battle zone across southern Minnesota, the complete removal of Dakota culture from the state was soon ordered to appease terrified and enraged settlers seeking revenge.

On September 9, , Governor Alexander Ramsey proclaimed to a special session of the Minnesota legislature:. Our course, then, is plain. The Sioux Indians [sic] of Minnesota must be exterminated or driven forever beyond the borders of the State. If any shall escape extinction, the wretched remnant must be driven beyond our borders, and our frontier garrisoned with a force sufficient to forever prevent their return. Senator, is remembered through his Second Empire stone mansion and grounds maintained as a museum by the Minnesota Historical Society—an institution that he founded.

The story of his murderous proclamation is far less known. Architecture and landscape tastes played an ideological role in this colonial history of invading, removing, building, and forgetting. The fact that so many parks, pleasure grounds, and exotic gardens grew up in a conquered borderland landscape is no coincidence.

All too rarely has this aspect of American landscape design been considered through such an ideological lens. By studying how East Coast landscape architectural fashions diffused into the vernacular parks, public landscapes, and neighborhoods in new Midwestern towns, we can ask how Euro-American landscape tastes became tools for dominance over, and erasure of, the cultures and landscapes that had been there for millennia.

Even the most pleasurable and seemingly benign civic acts can be expressions of power over space. Landscape architecture and park building in the Upper Midwest of the late 19 th century should be reconsidered for their true ideological impact—as subtle, unconscious, and lasting assertions of conquest, ownership, and destiny. Just a few years after the containment and removal of the indigenous people, settlers rolled out a new landscape veneer alluding to their own origins on the East Coast, the Ohio Valley, and Europe.

By the s, new courthouses, colleges, monasteries, and state hospitals strengthened the nationalization of the Great Plains. Often the least noticed and most taken for granted details of material culture and the vernacular-built environment intersect with larger myths of national identity and evolving signifiers of social status and control.

In the 19 th century, English landscape visual narratives and tastes in the Picturesque, the Beautiful, and the Sublime influenced the painters of the Hudson River School along with the landscape design of Andrew Jackson Downing who practiced in the Hudson Valley and edited The Horticulturalist magazine.

In , the year of the American centennial, editor and poet William Cullen Bryant published the two-volume Picturesque America , a massive engraving collection of beauty spots across the country. As entirely new constructions, often built on open prairie, settlers sought a sense of enclosure and permanence. Part of the process of colonizing the West was the civic urge to soften it.

Within a generation of Native containment on reservations, new wooded grove parks, picturesque glens, and verdant town squares played a hypnotic and essential role in the erasure of their presence. Both romantic place descriptions have faded from popular use today, but they were all the rage as Midwestern towns created park systems, constructed schools and streets, and boasted of their progress.

Thirty years after the mass hanging of the Mankato 38 in , Mankato leaders wrote a new history through the creation of large parks and public gardens. The town promoted itself as a place of great scenic beauty and urbanity.

In the late 19 th century, this boom in small-town park building coincided with the worldwide craze for postcards. At their peak of popularity from to , billions were produced and mailed every year.

They were sold everywhere, in pharmacies, newsstands, and grocery stores. By alone, over 7 billion were mailed worldwide with over a billion posted annually in the United States fromThe Columbian Exposition also sparked the City Beautiful movement that fueled a generation of formalized civic improvements in small towns and cities.

New Civic Centers, amphitheaters, formal parks, and parkway overlooks brought gravitas to small towns along with an even more powerful illusion of American wealth, progress, and sophistication. This new classicism and civic pride opened entirely new postcard themes and topics.

Early 20 th -century travelers often bought penny postcards at a pharmacy or train station and mailed them from the next town, or state, or after they returned home. Sometimes travelers bought postcards of towns that they never actually visited. But the very tactility and weight of the card were evidence of a location that recipient friends and family could touch.

They could hold it up to the light or make a note on it of their own. Yet even though every Main Street, central park, or county courthouse depicted was unique, their postcard stylizations, whether picturesque or neoclassical, bore a remarkable visual similarity when compared across different towns and states. Unconsciously mimicking European precedents in landscape composition and visual framing, postcard photographers captured formulaic and mythologized views of civic landmarks and points of pride.

They conveyed how towns wanted to be seen— beautiful, tranquil, monumental, and growing. Certainly, no one questioned them as deeply embedded cultural constructs of landscape ideals dating back to Virgil, Claude Lorrain, Humphry Repton, and Frederick Law Olmsted that had little connection with regional ecologies.

Cook Company. But on a deeper level, they reinforced the underlying homogeneity of English landscape aesthetics, their aura of cultural superiority, inevitability and permanence. New pastoral and formal parks, standardized house designs, and revival architectural styles re-created a familiar environment while also obscuring any reference to indigenous plants, ecologies, or human cultures.

Nostalgic for distant places and times, such landscape tastes and illusions played a subliminal and legitimating role in normalizing American national dominance. Monica Cure sees colonializing postcard view as part of a larger universe of media such as travel guides, home design guides, and national illustrated magazines. Because it was seen as essentially collectible, the postcard cataloged and ordered the Metropole in much the same way as it did the colonies.

The postcard in its new media moment was itself colonial. It sought to subsume everything into its domain and make it available to the postcard user. Like the Internet today, they brought an illusion of completeness, of becoming a catalog of everything that there was to learn about a region.

But, of course, they could never convey how such colonial regions were constructed. This privilege to selectively reconstruct a landscape and its past is an overlooked—yet essential tool in conquest.

So are the persuasive and nostalgic powers of architectural and landscape fashion in legitimating a new colonial culture. Nineteenth-century, Euro-American imperialism linguistically constructed new countries and geographic areas.

These hybrids of geographies and cultures shaped the way we still frame global wars, the saga of national expansion, and conflict zones.

A century later, this multi-nation conglomerate became the official zone of Danger as the American public was sold the dire threat of communist expansion in Vietnam. While ostensibly fulfilling their mandate to civilize backward nations, the French produced a coherent image of Indochina to sustain the myth of its colonial edification. Maps, etchings, and articles transported the reader over great distances to Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the Dakotas. While place names and land can be appropriated, their indigenous cultural meaning and experience cannot.

The generations of immigrants from northern Europe, New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and Ohio who built new Midwestern towns and bought postcards never understood how the tribal groups that they displaced experienced the land, their sense of seasonal time and movement, or their range of cultural and linguistic tribal variation.

Memorials, designated historic sites, and museums often support cultural erasure by bracketing out the darker acts of famous people like Alexander Ramsey and treating past genocides and cultures as completed stories. By freeze-framing events, we create a sense of distance and reify once-living stories and memories as objects and completed stories. Though much useful information may be gleaned from their analyses, such scholarship remains ultimately disempowering to the Dakota population because it rules out present and future justice.

More than monuments and exhibits—commemorative marches, storytelling, and new group events help to keep alive critical messages from the past. In response to revisionist historical scholarship of the last forty years, many Minnesota museums and site interpretive materials now acknowledge the Native American side of the story at U.

But their well-intended presentation of maps, paintings and images represent this history as a series of acts that cannot be undone, as sagas with little impact on life today. Sam Durant framed and situated this tragic event as one of several hangings. He sited their combined representations in a sculpture commissioned by the Walker for a garden.

He stated that Scaffold was meant to convey a message of historic violence and inequality to a white audience. What Durant and curators missed was the narrative of the acute enduring pain, fear, and anger surrounding this hanging, this singular story for the Dakota people.

For them, the Mankato hangings were not just part of some larger outsider catalog of executions. For artists and historians, the situation of the public hanging in Mankato can be represented in a lithograph, art, or prose.

By assigning historic value only to embodied buildings, cities, ruins, and great leaders cast in bronze, Euro-American historical curation continues to overlook stories like the brutal federal response in the U.

In , I finished three years of graduate school in landscape architecture at the University of Wisconsin. Never once during that time did we discuss Native American history or its memory in our region.

Here was the site of the Concentration Camp where roughly Dakota women, children, and elders died of starvation, winter cold, and disease. We stood together in a floodplain forest as he recounted what happened there.

Kansas Native Plants • Landscaping

Use this design sheet to help you create the perfect Colonial landscape. It is a great starting point for any New England landscaping project. When it comes to outdoor living, St Louis neighborhoods are rich in landscapes with the latest in high powered grills and swimming pools. For anyone lucky enough to own the many styles of vintage homes in this unique city on the plains, there's no end to the ways your backyard can become an oasis of the good life. All you need is a good design and a great contractor to put it all together. This beautiful city is home to the Gateway Arch and the world famous Missouri Botanical Garden, the most important horticultural institution in the United States.

Landscape hazards such as earthquakes, wildfires, hurricanes, tornados, only relatively small patches (Upper Midwest-portions of Michigan, Wisconsin.

Cultural Landscapes of the Midwest

Planners, designers, governmental organizations, and citizens are interested in creating enduring safe buildable environments. Landscape hazards such as earthquakes, wildfires, hurricanes, tornados, flooding, volcanoes, radon, air pollution, sinkholes, avalanche, landslides, and blizzards create a complex set of destructive forces that form disturbances obliterating life and structures. In our study, we examined these forces across the lower 48 states of the United States of America. We applied geographic information system GIS technology to identify areas of extreme hazard and areas of low risk. Safe, enduring, sustainable built environments are of great interest to planners, designers, governmental organizations, and citizens. Yet yearly across the globe, built environments are destroyed by tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, wildfires, tornadoes, volcanoes, flooding, landslides, avalanches, and other environmental hazards. The loss of life and damage to property is extensive. As each event occurs, scholars study the cause of the event, the extent of the damage, and impact upon the environment. For example, Foxworthy and Hill describe the cataclysmic event of the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption of —this event was only a relatively small volcanic eruption [ 1 ].

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September 26,Starting at the eastern foot of the Rocky Mountains in the Midwest United States, the dramatic landscape of the High Plains stretches across several U.

Editor’s Note

Julie is a widely-recognized industry leader with decades of landscape design experience, including high-profile projects such as The Toronto Music Garden in collaboration with Yo-Yo Ma. The author of nine books on landscape design, she wrote Home Outside: Creating the Landscape You Love in to democratize landscape design. She then built a team to develop the Home Outside mobile app so that people everywhere could design their own landscapes. For homeowners who need more help, Julie launched the Home Outside Design Studio and pioneered remote landscape design. Amir is a serial impact entrepreneur and permaculture designer who has built three companies from startup to exit, improving the lives of millions of people worldwide. He is passionate about developing businesses that address systemic global problems.

Aaron Graves Midwest

But that rain comes in the spring and fall, and we typically have hot, dry weather in July and August. Our best strategy for creating gardens that can withstand midsummer drought is to design with native forbs of the central and upper plains. My north border garden, begun 15 years ago, is a good example of this design strategy. Located on an easement between two suburban properties, it measures 45 feet by 20 feet and was initially full of overgrown honeysuckle, a box elder tree, and a large mulberry tree. The bird house set in the midst of Eupatorium perfoliatum and Silphium perfoliatum is used every season. In the background, Viburnum burkwoodii rises above the tall forbs. The re-design started with evergreens not native to Illinois to screen a large utility pole, provide winter interest and balance the large expanse that would be deciduous shrubs and forbs.

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Midwest cultural landscapes tend to be vernacular and rural in character, but many are now facing increasing pressure from the adjacent development of suburbs, oil and gas extraction, or alternative energy facilities. Properties in the midwestern United States encompass the historically significant themes of settlement, exploration, and transportation, and include five presidential homes and seven landscapes reflecting Native American culture. The landscapes of five 19th-century frontier forts have become truncated over time, but fifteen lighthouses and the Wright Brothers practice field in Ohio remain highly intact. Historic features from farming, ranching, fishing, logging, and mining speak quietly about our region's past and its blend of cultures.

This book offers a didactic, practical approach that allows novice to intermediate residential gardeners to experience success with their vegetable, fruit, and ornamental gardens.

The 19th-century landscape design principles that shaped the Midwest are still with us today

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