Flower nepentes (lat.Nepenthes), or pitcher, is the only genus of the monotypic family of Nepentheans. The name "nepentes" comes from the word "nepenthus" - this is how the herb of oblivion was called in ancient Greek mythology.
Where does nepentes grow? Most of the representatives of this genus grows in the tropics of Asia, in particular on the island of Kalimantan. The boundary of the distribution of nepentes in the west reaches Madagascar and the Seychelles, and in the east - New Caledonia, New Guinea and Northern Australia.
The insect-eating nepentes plant has strong symbiotic ties with some of the animal kingdom. For example, large plant species are used by mountain tupai as dry closets: the animals feast on nepenthes nectar and leave their droppings in jugs, which serves as a fertilizer for the plant. And bats climb into traps to sleep - here insects do not pester them and do not have to compete for a sleeping place. As a thank you, the mice leave their excrement to the plant, containing the nitrogen it needs.
Read more about growing nepentes below.
The insectivorous plant nepentes is most often a semi-shrub or shrub mixotrophic liana. Nepenthes with long herbaceous stalks climb the branches and trunks of trees many meters in height in search of sunlight for their narrow terminal paniculate or racemose inflorescences. The leaves of the Nepenthes are large, alternate, with a convex median vein and a drawn apex.
In addition to ordinary leaves, jug-like leaves develop on the plant, the lower part of the petiole of which, connecting with the stem, is flat and wide, and then it is transformed into a thin tendril wrapping around a branch, at the end of which a jug hangs like an outlandish flower. The size, shape and color of the jug depend on the type of nepentes. The length of the trap can be from 2.5 to 30 cm, although there are types with jugs of half a meter. The color of the jugs is usually bright - dull white, mottled, red or light green with crimson dots. The upper edge of the jug is bent inward and covered with purple or pink grooves.
Special cells located on the inner edge of the jug produce sweet nectar, the inside of the jug is filled with water or digestive fluid containing the enzyme nepentesine, and the neck is covered with a lid to prevent debris from entering the trap. Insects, attracted by the scent of nectar, crawl under the lid, slide into the digestive fluid and drown in it. Digestion of food lasts from 5 to 8 hours, as a result, only the chitinous membrane remains from the insects. Sometimes even birds, amphibians and rodents get into the jugs.
The flowers of the nepentes are inconspicuous, dioecious, petal, with tiled sepals. The fruit is a leathery capsule, divided by partitions into chambers, in each of which small seeds ripen.
In room culture, nepentes is still rare, since almost all representatives of the genus are too large for small greenhouses, and it is difficult to keep a predatory nepentes on the windowsill - it requires high humidity. It is best to grow nepentes in greenhouses, and their medium-sized species on a "closed tropical window".
Nepentes needs a bright, but diffused light, so it is best to keep the plant on the southern or eastern windowsill, protecting it from the midday burning rays with a translucent cloth or paper. When growing a pitcher in a west or north window, arrange additional lighting for it. In winter, artificial lighting should work for 16 hours.
According to the requirements for temperature conditions, the types of nepentes can be divided into two groups:
Ventilate the room regularly so that the air does not stagnate in it, but protect the nepentes from drafts and try to move it as little as possible, because the plant does not like movement and turns around the axis. If you disturb him, nepentes can freeze for a month and a half and stop forming jugs.
Since nepentes is a vine, you should prepare a support for him, to which he will need to be tied up as soon as he reaches a height of half a meter. It is best to establish a support when transplanting a one-year-old plant.
Caring for nepentes includes such a mandatory item as regular moisture of the substrate. For watering plants use distilled or at least filtered, settled or rainwater at room temperature, and preferably a couple of degrees warmer. The method of watering nepentes is the lower one, after which it is imperative to allow excess water to drain. In spring and summer, the substrate in the pot should be slightly damp all the time; in winter, nepentes are watered a couple of days after the top layer of the substrate 5 mm thick has dried. If the plant hibernates in a cool place, watering should be careful and not very abundant.
The moisture-loving predator nepentes needs not only moist soil - many species also need increased air humidity in the range of 70-90%. However, among the pitchers grown in room culture, there are many for which a humidity level of 40% during the day and 50% at night is sufficient. Observe the condition of the plant in your usual conditions - it is quite possible that it will be able to adapt to the humidity of the air in your home, but if this does not happen, spray it daily with settled water and place the pot of nepentes on a tray with wet peat or expanded clay.
Nepentes are transplanted only if necessary, which arises, for example, when mold appears on the substrate or the pot ceases to correspond to the size of the root system. Pots, hanging baskets for orchids or flower pots are used as dishes, and the diameter of the dishes should be at least 14 cm. The substrate can be store soil for orchids.
If you prefer to prepare the soil for nepentes yourself, mix three parts of leafy soil, two parts of peat, one part of sand and add some charcoal to this mixture. Or add two parts high peat to two parts perlite and one part vermiculite. Keep in mind that the pitcher does not like acidic soils.
The transplant is carried out in the spring. If the plant is absolutely healthy, it is transferred from the old dish to the new one, being careful not to damage the roots. But if you are worried about the appearance of nepentes, remove the plant from the old pot, clean the root system of the substrate and rinse it with distillate, then finish the transplant in the usual way, water the substrate and spray the pitcher on the leaves with a solution of Fundazol or Topaz so that the composition gets into the substrate. ...
If the rooting of nepentes is successful, after a couple of weeks, spray the flower and spill its substrate with a solution of Zircon at the rate of 2-3 drops of the drug per 200 ml of distilled water. After a correctly performed transplant, nepentes will live in a new pot for 3-5 years, and if you use volcanic stone, mineral wool, coconut shells or any other slowly decomposing materials as a substrate, then the next time the plant will need to transplant only after 10 years.
There is no need to fertilize the nepentes soil, since the carnivorous flower gets its food by eating insects. But there will be no harm if in the summer, once a month, you apply a complex flower fertilizer to the substrate in a consistency three times weaker than recommended for indoor plants: if you overfeed nepentes with fertilizers, it will not form jugs.
At home, Nepentes is fed once a month, throwing bloodworms, a spider or a fly into a jug - one insect per jug, and not all, but only half, otherwise the plant will die from excess nitrogen. The insect must be alive. The digestive secret is formed in the jugs only once, and if the jug is suddenly empty, it will no longer work like a stomach, so do not throw insects into it - this will only lead to the death of the leaf. To extend the life of an empty jug, fill it one third with distilled water.
Nepentes flowers, regular, reddish-brown, collected in erect inflorescences, bloom for quite a long time, sometimes more than six months. You cannot call them spectacular, but nevertheless their unusualness attracts.
Nepentes does not need rest, but due to the fact that our winters are not like tropical ones, the content of the plant has its own subtleties. With the onset of late autumn, all kinds of plant feeding are stopped, and the intervals between watering become longer. Do not be nervous about the fact that the jugs begin to shrink - this is due to the fact that the air in the room is too dry in winter. In the spring, before the start of the new growing season, trim off all the leaves almost to the base, resume normal watering, add a fertilizer solution to the substrate, and the nepentes will grow again.
Generative reproduction of nepentes is an interesting and not very difficult process, if you do not take into account the fact that you will hardly be able to buy seed material: no matter what the sellers promise you, instead of nepentes seeds you will most likely get the seeds of some other plant. Another problem of generative reproduction is that the seeds of the pitcher pot do not germinate longer than 2-3 weeks. But if you manage to get your hands on fresh seed, you will almost certainly be able to grow nepentes from seed.
Seeds are evenly distributed over the surface of moistened sphagnum, thoroughly washed and disinfected for 2-3 minutes in the microwave, then placed in a plastic container with drainage holes. Crops are moistened with a fine spray, immersed in a plastic box, covered with a transparent lid to create maximum air humidity around the crops, and placed in a greenhouse under a phytolamp.
You have to ventilate the crops every day and measure the humidity and air temperature in the greenhouse, which should be maintained at 20 ºC and 90-100%, respectively. As soon as the sprouts appear, care for them as you would any tropical plants, but try to extend their adaptation to the conditions of your home for several weeks.
It is much easier to propagate nepentes by vegetative methods, for example, by cuttings, especially since in early spring after pruning the pitcher, you will have many cuttings for rooting. The ideal cutting is a cut with three leaves, which are shortened by 2/3. If the stalk is apical, the small top sheet can be omitted. Before planting, the cuttings are placed in Kornevin's solution for 30 minutes, after which the slices are sprinkled with crushed coal.
The container for planting cuttings must be well washed with bleach, and then be sure to rinse with distillate. The substrate for grafting is made up of coconut fiber, sphagnum and peat in a ratio of 3: 2: 5 with the addition of a small amount of vermiculite, after which the soil must be processed in the microwave for 15 minutes. Do not forget to moisten the substrate with distilled water before this.
The lower cut of the cuttings is immersed in the soil by at least 5 mm, the substrate is carefully pressed around the cuttings, watered with distillate, and the cuttings are sprayed with a Fundazole solution, after which the container is placed in a greenhouse - under a large plastic bag or a transparent plastic cap. They keep the greenhouse in a bright place at a temperature of 23 ºC. After two weeks, you need to spray the cuttings and shed the substrate with a solution of Zircon - 2-3 drops of the drug are dissolved in 200 ml of distilled water.
Rooting usually lasts a month or a month and a half, but after two weeks it will become clear whether the cuttings have started: if they darkened, then rooting did not take place, but if the planted segments give new shoots with jugs, we can assume that the process was successful. And in a year it will be possible to transfer new plants into personal pots.
Nepentes multiplies by dividing the bush during transplantation, however, its roots are so fragile that they can be easily damaged. If you have experience in such matters, then take the risk of implementing this type of reproduction. The order of dividing the nepentes bush is no different from the process of dividing other plants.
Sometimes the leaves of nepentes are covered with brown or red spots, which is a sign of a fungal disease that develops against the background of increased moisture in the soil and air. To treat a plant from infection, treatment with fungicidal preparations is used. If the stem of a nepentes turns black, and the leaves wrinkle and wither, then you water it too often, and its roots rot.
Why do the leaves of nepentes rot? For the same reason - due to excess moisture. Try to save the flower by removing it from the substrate, carefully cutting off the rotten organs and areas with a sterile tool, treating the sections with crushed charcoal and transplanting the plant into a new sterile substrate. If it was not possible to save the nepentes, root as many cuttings as possible, and it is quite possible that after a while you will grow new nepentes.
Leaves that turn yellow at the wrong time indicate that the plant lacks nutrition, and if the leaves turn red, then it is likely that this is a consequence of sunburn. Brown spots with necrotic areas on the leaves indicate that there is too much light for the nepentes, and the plant stretches painfully from insufficient lighting, but at the same time its development slows down, the leaves grow small, and the jugs are not formed.
Among insects, nepentes damage aphids and mealybugs. Worms suck juices from young shoots and leaves of a plant, which slows down their growth. To protect nepentes from the appearance of worms, remove dry leaves in a timely manner and keep the plant clean - wash and spray it, because the worms do not like moisture. If they do appear, remove them mechanically with a cotton swab or ear stick soaked in beer, alcohol or soapy water, then treat nepentes for six weeks with an imidacloprid-based preparation with an interval of 7-10 days between sessions.
Unfortunately, aphids are found on plants even when the harm caused by them becomes obvious - the colonies of the pest are located on the underside of the leaves, which are covered with honeydew and gradually turn yellow. In addition, aphids carry viral and bacterial diseases for which there is no cure.
The most harmless way for plants to get rid of aphids is to dilute 20 g of grated green potassium soap in one liter of water and wash the plant with this solution, remembering to protect the substrate from soapy water. Laundry soap or liquid dishwashing detergent can be used instead of green. Of the chemical preparations against aphids, Antitlin, Biotlin, Karate and Decis, which have low toxicity, are effective.
In nature, there are 7 species of pitcher, and the place in the classification of another 247 hybrid plants is still in question. Nepenthes grown in room culture are included in one and the other group. We offer you a description of the most common plants in culture:
Or winged nepentes, originally from the Philippines. In nature, it reaches a length of 1.5 to 4 m. The leaf plates of plants of this species are green, oblong or lanceolate, with sharp tops. Jugs of winged nepentes have a light but bright light green color with red specks. Inflorescences are paniculate or racemose;
The rarest and largest liana in the world grows up to 6 m in natural conditions. Its jugs reach 16 cm in width and 35 cm in length. This plant feeds not only on insects, but also on small vertebrates;
Insectivorous perennial from 60 to 90 cm high with oblong-lanceolate leaves and winged crimson jugs up to 25 cm long;
This is a Sumatran epiphyte with oval lanceolate leaves up to 50 cm long and about 10 cm wide.Light green jugs with red stripes and spots reach a length of 10 to 20, and a width of 7 to 10 cm.The inner cavity of the jug is painted in a bluish tint and covered with red spots;
Endemic from the Philippine island of Mindanao, growing in the mountains at an altitude of 230 to 600 meters. Some of its varieties can be found in higher mountainous areas. Jugs of this type reach a length of 50 cm, so the plant is grown mainly in a greenhouse;
In nature, it reaches a length of 5 m. It has long, but narrow leaves and green cylindrical jugs with red and dark green specks;
It is a semi-epiphyte with large pungent green jugs with bright red specks;
It grows in length only up to 3 m. It has long - up to 30 cm - narrow leaves. The upper cylindrical jugs grow up to 30 cm in length, the lower flask-shaped ones are much shorter. The color of the traps is yellow-green, their surface is covered with warty red projections;
It grows on the Philippine island of Palawan. It is a shrub up to 1.5 m high and branches up to 3.5 cm thick, with leathery, almost sessile leaves and jugs up to 1.5 liters in volume, about 25 cm long and about 12 cm wide. The color of the jugs is bright green with a purple streak;
One of the largest and most attractive types of pitcher. It has leathery petiolate leaves of an obovate-lanceolate shape, reaching 80 cm in length and 12 cm in width. The jugs of this species are green, orange or red.
In addition to those described, such nepentes are known in the culture as hairy, Pervilla, white-bordered, pitched, stenol-leaved and others.
Sections: Houseplants Epiphytes Ornamental-deciduous Plants on N Predatory plants
The plant Nepentes (Nepenthes) in nature is distributed in the tropical regions of the Old World - about. Madagascar, Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Australia. However, today nepentes are successfully grown at home, providing them with proper care. Most Nepentes are terrestrial plants. In nature, nepentes usually grow on nutrient-poor soils, so at home they are also grown on nutrient-poor substrates, often next to epiphytic plants.
Contents of the article "Nepentes - home care".
In the eighteenth century, research on insectivorous plants began, and a scientific description of Dionea (Venus flytrap) was made. Botanist John Ellis was the first to suggest that the flower feeds on insects. Charles Darwin made a fundamental contribution to the study of this culture.
Little is known about the origin and evolution of insectivorous representatives of the flora kingdom, since there are practically no fossils left. Most species are herbaceous, without dense structures such as wood or bark. The surviving fossils of pollen and seeds contain too little information for scientific conclusions.
As already mentioned, most species are perennial herbaceous crops. Low shrubs and shrubs are less common. Today, the largest representative of such plants is the giant biblis, the length of its branches reaches 50 cm. Lives in Australia. He is able to digest not only insects, but also frogs, as well as small lizards. Tropical liana Nepentes reaches 4 meters in length.
The rest of the species are grasses and low bushes. Carnivorous species can live off water and nutrients from the soil. Animal protein activates development, improves the appearance of ovaries, and seed ripening.
The distribution area of insectivorous crops is quite wide. They grow where there are conditions for flowering plants - from the tropical region to the tundra, from the plains and steppes to the alpine level in the mountains. Predatory plants are common on all continents except Antarctica.
The largest number of species is found in regions with tropical, warm and temperate climates. Most of them grow in swamps and wet meadows, in fresh water bodies. Although crops are known to thrive in dry sands.
Insects and animals serve as a source of protein and trace elements for carnivorous plants. Bright color, attractive aroma, sticky discharge become a trap for prey. The surface of the leaf plates is covered with glands that produce substances designed to digest the caught prey.
These enzymes and organic acids break down animal proteins, the resulting products are absorbed and digested by the flower. The digestion process lasts up to 40 hours. This method of nutrition allows you to assimilate from the victim the elements necessary for development - sodium, calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium.
Predatory plants can be classified according to the way they hunt for active and passive species. Those actively catching have moving organs with which they hold the attracted insects. Passively catching people use sticky secretions on the leaves for this purpose or special devices - traps.
The method of capturing insects has nothing to do with belonging to any family.
The plant does not require complex care. To keep the room you need a lot of light, frequent watering.
Sarracenia is a light-loving plant. During the flowering period, daylight hours lasts at least 10 hours. Recommendations for keeping at home:
Sarracenia does not tolerate changes in its location, therefore it is strictly forbidden to turn the flower towards the light in different directions, to change its location. The plant is planted immediately to a permanent place.
Sarracenia is a marsh moisture-loving plant. Needs constant soil moisture. To maintain moisture levels:
For watering plants use natural (melted snow, rain), distilled or filtered water.
Sarracenia is sick if watered with chlorinated water.
During the rest period, they are reduced. The soil is moistened if necessary, no more than once a week.
When transplanting into new soil, it is recommended to water once a day.
The flower tolerates temperature changes well. During the flowering period, the optimum temperature is +25 ° C, air humidity is 50%. With increased heat, it will require additional moisture, an increase in the volume of irrigation. During the wintering period, the temperature drops to + 10 ° C.
The plant is unpretentious, takes root well in poor soil, without minerals, vitamins. It is recommended to feed sarracenia only at home with small insects (for example, ants), laying them in a flycatcher. If in the summer the flower lives on the balcony, the feeding itself will fall into the trap. Then you should not additionally fertilize.
You can not feed with fertilizers. A small dose can kill the plant.
The flower is transplanted once every two years in the spring, before the beginning of the flowering period. The dishes are chosen with a larger capacity. When moving the sarracenia into a new pot, it is necessary to clean off the remnants of the old soil from the roots, soak it in water. Pour fresh substrate into the container, water once a day to maintain the moisture level.
To plant sarracenia in room conditions, choose a loose breathable soil with a pH level of 5 and higher. The composition of the substrate in a ratio of 2: 4: 1:
Dishes are taken from plastic, glass. These materials have a higher moisture permeability. Fragments of bricks and polystyrene are lined at the bottom as drainage. Some growers recommend taking two pots of different sizes or replacing the larger one with a planter. During the flowering period, the plant needs abundant watering. The water level in the outer container reaches a height of 3 cm.
The flowering period begins in June. Conditions of detention:
During the flowering period, a lot of light is required to acquire a bright and rich color.
Summer bloom is replaced by a dormant period. Comes in late autumn. The plant is placed in a cool room. Watering is reduced to 1 time per week. Daylight hours are reduced.
The temperature regime in the room can vary:
During this period, sarracenia falls into a dormant state, which lasts 3-4 months.
The plant is propagated by seeds. Stratification is carried out before sowing. For a day, the seeds are soaked in cold water. Then they are planted in small bowls with peat or substrate. The finished seedlings are covered with polyethylene, placed in a cold place for 1-1.5 months. Moisten the soil if necessary. Cold is replaced by warmth. The cups with the plant, covered with a protective film, are placed under artificial lighting. Here the flower sprouts within a month, shoots an arrow. A year later, the florist transplants the grown sprout into a separate pot.
The second method of propagation by root segments is applied only to yellow sarracenia. In an overgrown adult plant, part of the root system is separated.
The flower grower must remember that frequent divisions can lead to weakening, death of the flower.
Land turtles have high shells and thick columnar legs. The fingers are spliced and the nails are short. Animals are kept in clean and heated terrariums, among clay sand, sawdust, pebbles. Views:
There are many turtles available for indoor growing. To keep any of them at home, it is only important to arrange suitable conditions for the pet.
Feels great on the windows of western and southern orientation.
In summer, carissa is kept at a warm air temperature, but the plant does not like excessive heat; at high temperatures, the plant forms branches with elongated internodes. The optimum temperature of the content is + 18C + 22C. In winter, the content should be cool at a temperature of + 8C.
Karissa likes bright light with some direct sun (4 hours a day).
Water the carissa with soft water, between waterings the soil should dry out a little. This is a rather drought-resistant plant, so waterlogging is unacceptable, otherwise the root system will rot. Overdrying the earthen coma should also not be allowed.
The plant is suitable for medium humidity.
Karissa is fertilized from spring to autumn once a week with a complex liquid fertilizer for indoor plants, diluted in half. Fertilizers with a high phosphorus content are required for long flowering. Fertilizing watering with a high nitrogen content can lead to increased plant growth, resulting in damage to flowering.Twice during the growing season, they are fed with a fertilizer with a high iron content in order to avoid the occurrence of chlorosis. In December and April, a fertilizing rich in microelements is desirable.
In summer, it is better to take the plant out into the fresh air on a balcony or garden. In mid to late spring, the plant should be pruned, but pruning should only be done when the plant has fully bloomed.
Karissa is transplanted annually until the age of three. Transplant the plant when it has completely bloomed. You can use commercially available, well-drained, alkaline, general purpose soil. Karissa is not demanding on soil fertility.
Karissa is propagated by apical semi-lignified cuttings in August-September at a soil temperature of + 25C. Cuttings are rooted in a wet mixture of peat and sand using growth hormones. Also, the plant is propagated by air layers, seeds that germinate well within two weeks.
Karissa is resistant to pests and diseases. It can occasionally be affected by spider mites, scale insects, aphids, whiteflies, thrips. Can be affected by fungal diseases. But in general, carissa is a very hardy plant and rarely gets sick, and only in conditions of improper maintenance, for example, a plant can get sick or be affected by pests if kept in the shade.
Veronica is often used as a wonderful group plant that can be used as one of the main decorative elements in alpine slides, flower beds and mixborders. The main purpose of using Veronica in landscape design is to give the garden plot a sense of ease and lightness. Veronica is suitable for growing near curbs, where not every plant is able to survive.
An excellent combination of a plant in the garden will be with a buzulnik, bergenia, etc. By the way, even such a simple combination as veronica and chamomile is quite enough to create harmony on any part of the garden.
Advice. If you are willing to take the risk for a spectacular garden plot, try using contrasting combinations: for example, veronica and a rose. The result is a winning composition in which each element is beautifully emphasized by the other.
That's all the subtleties that need to be considered when growing Veronica in the open field. Good luck!