Garden Plants Published: January 20, 2019 Reprinted: Last edits:
Freesia or Cape lily of the valley has not gone out of fashion for hundreds of years. Once she was hunted by court gardeners and perfumers, now - fashionable florists, brides and photographers.
If you dream of growing this shocking celebrity of the flower world on your own, please be patient and arm yourself with the invaluable experience of your colleagues.
Let's figure it out together!
Read more about growing freesia below.
Freesia (lat.Freesia), or freesia - one of the most charming bulbous plants grown both in the garden and at home. Freesia is a genus of herbaceous bulbous perennials of the Iris family (Iris), which includes about 20 species. The most famous is the hybrid freesia, which appeared as a result of the crossing of several species about a century ago. The native land of plants is South Africa, where they grow on wet shores and among shrubs. They were named after Friedrich Vries, a German botanist and physician.
Freesia is elegant, graceful and tender, it exudes a pleasant aroma, reminiscent of the smell of lily of the valley, and for this it is sometimes called "Cape lily of the valley". Thanks to all these qualities, it is now at the peak of popularity among flower growers as a cut crop.
Photo: Growing white freesias in the garden
The hybrid freesia reaches a meter in height, has a bare, highly branched stem, a corm covered with thin brownish scales. The leaves are thin, with a central vein, 15-20 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide. Fragrant flowers 3-5 cm long are collected in weak one-sided inflorescences. The color of flowers can be any - white, red, orange, blue, purple, yellow, cream, pink ... Often the throat of a flower has a contrasting shade in relation to the petals. The freesia fruit is a capsule.
It is best to grow freesia in a greenhouse or greenhouse, where it is easier for her to create the necessary conditions, but this is an activity for experienced or professional flower growers. In principle, freesia can be grown all year round, but since garden freesia does not winter in the soil in our latitudes, in autumn its tubers will have to be removed from the ground. But this plant is also used as a pot culture, and in indoor conditions, home freesia blooms just in the winter. There are general requirements for all types of freesia that we will introduce you to.
Photo: Growing freesia seedlings in a container
Before planting freesia in open ground, it is better to grow freesia bulbs a little. In March-April, clean the corms from scales and, in order to prevent fungal diseases, hold them for half an hour in a 0.2% solution of foundationazole. Then place them in fertile loose soil in peat pots to a depth of 5 cm and hold them on a well-lit windowsill or on a warm loggia until disembarking.
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Some experienced florists practice growing freesia from seedsand while this is a tedious and unreliable process, we'll show you how. Moisten the prepared soil and carefully spread the seeds, cover with a two-centimeter layer of soil mixture for seeds, cover with foil or glass and keep in a bright place. Seedlings will appear in twenty days. When they grow up to 2-3 cm, remove the glass and thin them well. Plant in the middle of May.
Planting freesia in open ground is carried out in the spring, after the last frost has passed (somewhere after May 9). We prepare the holes so that the planting depth is about 3-6 cm. Large tubers are planted at a distance of 5 cm, small ones at a distance of 3 cm. The distance between rows is 15 cm. Level the soil and mulch it with coniferous soil or peat to protect her, and at the same time the roots of freesia, from overheating. By August, your freesias will release 1-3 peduncles, and will bloom until early October.
In the photo: Planting freesia in the ground
During the growth period of freesia, additional feeding is necessary. The first feeding (even on seedlings) is carried out with ammonium nitrate (20 g of nitrate per 10 l of water), then twice a month with potassium salt and superphosphate (20 g and 40 g per 10 l of water, respectively). In addition, freesia in the garden needs loosening soil and weeding, especially in the first half of the growing season.
Growing freesia in the garden provides for a certain regime. glaze plants. During growth and flowering, freesia should be watered abundantly and regularly, the soil should be constantly moist. Freesia bloom for three to six weeks, then watering is gradually reduced until it stops completely.
It is also advisable to increase air humidity spraying freesia stems and leaves. Both are best done in the evening, but so that moisture has time to be absorbed. In the open field, freesia is kept until frost.
The difficulties of freesia are the same as those of gladioli: thrips, aphids, spider mites, as well as scab, fusarium and all kinds of rot. The affected plants must be removed and destroyed, and in order to avoid all these troubles, you just need to disinfect the bulbs before storage with a light solution of potassium permanganate and repeat this procedure before planting. In the process of growth and flowering, observe the mode and degree of watering: do not overmoisten the soil, but also do not let it dry out.
Growing freesia at home is carried out mainly for the sake of its winter-spring flowering. Imagine: it's winter outside, it's snowing in the garden, and there is a garden on your windowsill. In order to get blooming freesia in January, freesia bulbs must be planted in the ground before the beginning of September, after soaking them for half an hour in a solution of azotobacterin at the rate of 0.5 g per 10 liters of water.
You can treat the corms with growth stimulants - Epin or Kornevin.
At the bottom of a pot with a diameter of 15 cm, you need to lay a drainage mixture and charcoal, then pour a suitable soil (sand, sod and humus soil 1: 2: 1) with a small amount of potassium-phosphorus fertilizers and place 5-6 bulbs in it to a depth of 5- 6 cm. A pot of freesia is placed in a cool (10-15 ºC) light room and kept without watering, but as soon as leaves appear, the plant is transferred to heat (20-22 ºC) and watering begins.
In the photo: Planting freesia in pots on the windowsill
Planting and caring for freesia at home is much easier than caring for it in the garden or in the greenhouse, but there are nuances that are important to know. In the autumn-winter period, the daylight hours are shorter than in summer, and freesia needs lighting for at least 12 hours a day. So you have to create for freesia additional illumination fluorescent lights if you don't have the ability to keep freesias on east or west windowsills. Also, remember to put up props as weak freesia stalks may not support the weight of the flowers and will break.
Watering carried out with settled water after the topsoil dries up. During the flowering period, watering should be not only regular, but also abundant. During the heating season, it is extremely important that the air around the freesias is not too dry, therefore it is imperative spray plants. Or keep them in a cooler place, such as a glassed-in loggia. Well feed freesia every two weeks with mineral fertilizers until the leaves wither.
In the photo: Growing freesia in an apartment
As soon as your freesia has faded, the leaves and stem are cut off, and the bulb continues to be watered for another month and a half in order for new bulbs to form on it. Then the corm is removed from the ground, disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate, dried for several days in a warm place and sent for storage.
In late September or early October, when the freesia has bloomed, and the leaves turn yellow, but have not yet dried, the corms are removed from the ground, the stem with leaves is cut, the bulbs are cleaned of soil, roots and old scales, kept for 30 minutes in a weak disinfectant solution of sodium permanganate or any fungicide (maxim, phytosporin, foundationazol) and dried for several days at a temperature of 25-28 ºC in a ventilated room. Then the bulbs are sorted, damaged or rotten, and sent to storage.
Photo: Germination of freesia bulbs at home
Freesia bulbs are stored in nets at a temperature of 20-25 ºC in a room with high air humidity (70-80%). If there is no such room, then place a container of water under the net with onions. Planting material must be reviewed at least once a month, separating rotten or diseased corms. One month before planting, the bulbs should be placed in a cooler place (10-15 ºC).
Photo: Freesia bulbs before storage
Some growers recommend storing freesia corms in dry peat. And if in your latitudes there are no cold and frosty winters, you can leave the bulbs in the ground, covering them with fallen leaves or spruce branches.
Most often in floriculture, hybrid freesia (Freesia hybrida) is used, obtained by crossing species such as refracted or broken freesia (Freesia refracta) and Armstrong's freesia (Freesia armstrongii). These same types of freesias gave rise to many varieties, which we will tell you about.
A plant reaching a height of 65-70 cm. Flowers (scarlet, pink or red) bell-shaped, fragrant, collected in panicles of 3-5 pieces. The tube is white with yellow spots. The leaves are xiphoid, long. The varieties of this freesia bloom from May to June.
One of the most beautiful varieties of Armstrong freesia - Cardinal... This freesia is red, non-double, high (70 cm). One bulb produces three flower stalks 35 cm long, the number of flowers in a panicle is from 9 to 11 pieces, the inflorescence length is 9 cm. The flowers are dark red with a yellow spot, the stamens are yellow, the pistil is blue, the anthers are purple.
In the photo: Growing yellow freesias at home
Combines the best qualities of its ancestors. Its bush is tall (up to 1 m) and highly branched, the brushes consist of large (5-7 cm in diameter) fragrant flowers of purple, crimson, yellow and other shades, both monochromatic and two-colored.
In the photo: Freesia hybrid white
This species is distinguished by its miniature forms (no higher than 40 cm). The stems are thin, spreading, the inflorescence is a paniculate spike, in which there are 2-5 white or yellow-orange flowers. Blooms in April.
In the photo: How freesia blooms in the open field
All three cultivated species are represented by both simple and terry varieties. Simple freesia has one row of petals, terry freesia - two or more. In a flower shop, you can buy not only a certain variety of freesia, but also a mixture of varieties in the kit - a freesia mix will give you the opportunity to grow on your site a whole scattering of beautiful freesias of different shapes and shades.
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Houseplants Beautifully flowering Bulbous flowers Plants on F Iris (Iris)
Freesia is a spectacular flower that can be grown outdoors or in the house and achieve long-lasting bright flowering on its own. Planting and caring for this bulbous plant is within the power of any gardener, although the proud beauty of freesia often makes you think that the flower has a capricious character.
It is grown to create beautiful compositions in the garden or on the site, and sometimes it is used for cutting, since it stays in bouquets for a long time, it is perfectly preserved in water and exudes an aroma reminiscent of the smell of lily of the valley.
Of the 20 plant species, flower growers cultivate three.
|Armstrong||Stem up to 70 cm. Inflorescence like a panicle. It dissolves in May-June.||Bell shape, crimson, pink, lilac, violet.||Citrus.|
|Broken (refracted)||Stunted (40 cm) with weak spreading shoots. Inflorescences 2-4. Blooms in April.||White, light orange.||Lily of the valley.|
|Hybrid||Reaches a height of 1 m, 7-9 inflorescences each.||White, scarlet.||Miscellaneous: floral, weak, odorless.|
There are varieties with petals in one row (terry), two or more.
|Cardinal||Up to 70 cm, has three peduncles 30 cm long.||Scarlet, pink with yellow spots.||Almost imperceptible.|
|Ballerina||On a peduncle 25-30 cm high, there are about 12 flowers.||Corrugated, white, yellow base.||Tart.|
|Odorata||30 cm high, 3-7 inflorescences.||Yellow with orange.||Lily of the valley.|
|Pimperina||Stunted, up to 20 cm, 7 inflorescences.||Large, dark red at the edge, yellow in the middle, corrugated.||Very weak.|
|Lilak||80 cm high. Two straight peduncles, spike-shaped inflorescence. It fades quickly.||Non-double, lilac, white in the center.||Not expressive.|
|Caramel||High, up to 80 cm, 7-8 flowers.||Large, reddish brown.||Not strong.|
|Helsinki||Reaches 60-70 cm, soft, drooping leaves.||Purple, lilac, with a yellow throat.||Strong, thin.|
|Sonnet||Grown in greenhouses, up to 85 cm, 11 flowers.||Scarlet with an orange spot.||Pronounced sweet.|
|Elizabeth||Perennial up to 85 cm. 3-4 peduncles on one plant.||Bright purple, non-double.||Subtle.|
|Red Lion||Tall, up to 80 cm.||Large, double, bright red.||Lily of the valley.|
|Pink||Perennial, blooms up to 25 days.||Pale pink, large with a white center.||Strong, fresh.|
|Ambassador White||Up to 50 cm, long, light green leaves.||Snow-white, with beige patches at the base.||Spicy.|
|Orange Favorite||Up to 40-4-50 cm.||Orange with a dark throat.||Jasmine.|
|White Swan||Strong peduncle up to 50 cm.||White with cream stripes.||Chill turning into floral.|
|Royal Blue||Different heights from 40-70 cm.||Large, blue.||Not expressive.|
Currently, breeders have bred a large number of varieties of this beautiful flower. With all the variety of species, they have the following common features:
The following varieties of this plant are popular among gardeners:
Freesia can be grown in any conditions. The plant will decorate a garden plot, a winter garden or a greenhouse. Many indoor plant lovers grow a freesia flower at home.
Freesia is an attractive plant that adorns flower beds in the garden. Some varieties are only suitable for home cultivation, for example, on window sills or glazed loggias.
Freesia belongs to the genus of herbaceous perennials. Representatives of this genus belong to the Iris family. In botanical sources, the names of about 20 varieties of these corms are found. The most popular among florists is a hybrid variety obtained by breeders after crossing certain types of flowers.
Freesia began to grow in areas of South Africa along ponds and shrubs. The origin of the name is associated with the name of Friedrich Vries, a famous doctor and researcher of the plant world. Freesia bushes attract not only with their bright variegated buds, but also with a pleasant and dizzying aroma that resembles a lily of the valley. For this reason, flowers are often used in the preparation of bouquets, as they can keep freshness in cut form for a long time.
Freesia hybrid reaches a meter in height and looks like a low bush, the stems of which are bare, and the corms are covered with transparent dark scales. Narrow leaves grow up to 20 cm long. The buds form small inflorescences. Numerous garden varieties of freesia can be colored red, blue, white or yellow. In place of wilted flowers, a box with seeds is formed.
Freesias perfectly complement many flowers. They are used in bouquets and in the perfume industry. The plant decorates flower beds, rockeries or indoor greenhouses. Red and yellow freesias are the fastest growing among other members of this family. Whole poems can be written about the sophistication of forms and the variety of shades of freesia. Previously, it was a closed plant, but restless flower growers have learned to grow it in the garden.
Greenhouses or greenhouses are considered the most optimal place for breeding, only more experienced growers are engaged in this. Under such conditions, it can delight with flowering all year round. Due to the harsh climate of our area, the plant does not tolerate wintering in the fresh air, so the tubers are dug up in the fall. Freesia is chosen for growing in the room, the flowering of which begins in winter. The flower needs to be watered and looked after regularly, like any other indoor plant.
Freesia does not tolerate shade well. The area where the flower will grow should be located in a place far from drafts and well lit, however, exposure to direct sunlight should be avoided. Loose fertile soil with high drainage properties is suitable as a substrate for planting. You can prepare the potting soil yourself. Take peat, leaf, humus and turf soil in equal proportions. The soil mixture should contain a low acidity level. When planting broad-leaved and spreading varieties, it is necessary to leave more free space between the bushes.
To achieve lush flowering, it is important to strictly observe the temperature regime. Freesias can be cut for bouquets after at least two buds have fully opened. It is best to remove them from the bush after flowering is complete, otherwise all nutrients will be wasted. For varieties of broken freesia, supports are installed. The leaves need constant spraying, which is carried out in the evening. Prolonged drought or drafts negatively affect the shape of the flower, barren flowers often appear.
The bulbs are germinated before planting. With the onset of spring, the scales are cleaned and soaked in a diluted foundationol solution for about half an hour, after which they are planted in flowerpots filled with light soil or peat. The planting depth is no more than 5 cm. The containers can be placed near the window or stored on glazed balconies. In addition to bulbs, some gardeners use seeds as planting material, but this procedure is time-consuming. To do this, freesia seeds are laid out on the surface of the moist soil, and on top they are sprinkled with a thin layer of earth and covered with glass. Seed boxes are stored in a lighted place. A few weeks later, the first shoots are shown, which are thinned out after they grow up. Planting in open ground is performed in May. Then you can no longer be afraid that the frost will return.
Holes for young bushes are dug to a depth of 3 to 6 cm. It depends on the size of the corm. A distance of about 15 cm should be maintained between the ridges. To avoid lodging of shoots, twine is pulled between the plants, when they reach a height of 15 cm. After planting, the soil around the young shoots of freesia is mulched. Then the roots will not heat up, and the soil will retain moisture after watering or rain. At the end of summer, flower stalks form on the bushes, which will delight you with flowering until early October.
The main care for freesia is watering, weeding and feeding. When growing freesia outdoors, it requires fertile soil and a warm, semi-shady area. The bulbs are planted on the site after the threat of spring frosts has gone.
When the flower begins to actively develop, the bushes need to be fed repeatedly. They are watered with a solution of ammonium nitrate, after which potassium and superphosphate fertilizers diluted in water are applied a couple of times a month.
Freesias are sensitive to watering regime. When inflorescences begin to form, the plant must be watered abundantly so that the soil is constantly moist. Stems and leaves are sprayed daily during the growth period in the evening, then the moisture is well absorbed.
The plant, planted with seedlings, begins to bloom in July and continues to bloom until October. The flowering of different varieties lasts from 3 to 6 weeks, then the watering is reduced. It is better to remove buds that have faded so as not to spoil the decorative appearance.
In the open air, the flower can be kept until the arrival of frost. By mid-October, the corms are carefully dug out, cutting off the ground part. They are dried for several days, cleaned of old scales and roots, sorted and stored in a warm place.
The danger for this flower is represented by the same pests that infect gladioli. These include: aphids, thrips, spider mites. Due to unscrupulous care, rot and fusarium sometimes appear on the bushes.
Diseased specimens of freesia are dug up to prevent virus infection of healthy bushes. Corms harvested for the next planting must be disinfected so that they are well preserved. They are soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate after collection and again in the spring, before being planted in the soil. To ensure the full and healthy development of the bushes, it is important to regularly but moderately water. The surface of the soil should be kept moist, but do not be zealous and leave the roots in the water.
Often, hybrid freesia is used to decorate a garden plot. This variety was bred by crossing refracted freesia and Armstrong's freesia. It was these varieties that laid the foundation for other varieties, the description of which is discussed below.
Freesia Amstrong is a bush, the stems of which grow to 65-70 cm. It has bright bell-shaped buds, exuding a sweetish aroma and gathering in short paniculate inflorescences. The snow-white pipe is decorated with small yellowish spots. The beginning of flowering falls on the month of May, and it ends at the end of June.
Hybrid freesia is a flower that contains the best properties of all other members of the family. Shoots of this freesia grow no more than 1 m and are distinguished by noticeable branching. There are two-color varieties.
Freesia white, or broken - a short perennial with thin, branched stems, at the ends of which spike-shaped inflorescences are formed, containing from 2 to 5 snow-white or bright orange buds. They begin to unfold in April.
Freesia is a very grateful flower, so if you provide it with proper care, it will pleasantly delight you with its flowering and wonderful aroma.
The cultivation of terry freesia is impossible without its reproduction, which can be done in several ways:
If there are bulbs of an adult plant, then storage should be in rooms with good ventilation with a temperature of 25-27 degrees. With the arrival of March, you should think about preparing for planting plants in open ground.
[warning]Note: if a simple transplant of the "Freesia Orange" plant is planned in open ground, the use of bulbs will be most optimal. [/ warning]
Seed delivery can also be ordered by mail. The flower bulbs with which it propagates are transferred into pots with a soil mixture of 2/3 sod land and 1/3 of a mixture of peat, humus and sand. In addition, superphosphate, potassium fertilizer, bone meal should be added to the soil in proportions of 10, 20, 30 grams per 10 liters of the mixture.
It's important to know: it is necessary to plant with a density of 6 tubers per pot with a diameter of 13-15 cm. Then they are placed in a warm, damp room.
Water the soil without letting it dry out, and 15-18 days after the sprouts appear, the bulbs can be planted in the garden. Reproduction of a plant using seeds is very difficult and only breeders can do this.
Growing freesia in the open field is a very simple process, you just need to follow the most elementary rules of planting and care. This bulbous plant is sure to bloom and fill the air in your gardens with a sweet, aromatic scent.
The first step is the preparation of the planting material.
This operation begins in the spring 2-4 weeks before planting in open ground, if such a planting is scheduled for the end of May, then the bulbs can be planted in mid-to-late April. Watch the video recommendations of an experienced grower, she tells and shows how to prepare and plant freesia bulbs for germination.
During the month when the freesia bulbs are germinating, they need the following care:
A novice florist tells about his way of caring for freesia and the mistakes made in this process in the attached video. Check it out and try not to make such mistakes.
In the spring, when the threat of frost on the soil has passed, at the end of April and until the end of May, freesias can be planted on open flower beds and flower beds, not forgetting that this plant loves heat, so you need to prepare an insulating coating, at least for 2-3 weeks, while the freesia will adapt to the conditions in the new location. Our planting recommendations:
You will receive a practical lesson on how to plant freesia in open ground by additionally watching a useful video.
There are no radical differences in the cultivation of freesia in Siberian conditions, or almost nonexistent, but it can be noted:
These are very insignificant differences in planting in terms of timing. Freesia bloom in Siberia just like in other, less severe regions of the country, until the coldest autumn days.