Before starting the construction of a bath or sauna (in this case, a sauna), it is necessary to clearly define: where to build it, from what materials; what it should be in size, appearance, internal structure and equipment in it. An ideal place for a sauna by a reservoir: river, lake, canal, channel, pond. But not near the water itself, but at a distance of 15-30 meters, where it is dry and there is no danger of flooding. It is highly desirable that the sauna be located away from the road, in a quiet place, with the entrance from the south or west side. A steep slope is fine too. In this case, the sauna can be made in the form of a dugout or a semi-dugout with a terrace on pillars. In Finland, the so-called family saunas, designed for a specific number of people, are widespread. The most commonly used saunas are length and width: 2x2 meters and a little higher. It is hardly advisable to build too large saunas, since in addition to the additional costs of materials, it is necessary to install a large-sized stove.
The simplest is the mini-sauna. It is simply an insulated wardrobe that one or two people can squeeze into in a sitting position. Such a sauna is heated by an electric oven. It is clear that in any sauna it is desirable to have at least one bench or shelves (see Fig. 1). Sauna walls are usually made of logs, mostly coniferous, which create the most favorable conditions for steaming. Solid logs "breathe", and the sauna practically does not require forced ventilation, since it happens as if by itself, since a sufficient amount of air enters and escapes through the logs.
Thanks to the logs, the humidity in the sauna is automatically regulated. But even in a log sauna, ventilation vents must be provided so that the sauna can be cooled down as quickly as possible after use. Moreover, the ventilation vents should be located so that one is 30 centimeters from the floor, the other - on the opposite wall, 30 centimeters from the ceiling. Fresh air enters through the bottom vent located next to the heater, which passes by the hot stones of the stove and, warming up, rises to the ceiling (see Fig. 2). With regular, weekly use of the sauna, log walls almost never completely dry out like, for example, panels inside a panel sauna, and therefore the smell of fresh wood lasts longer. It is advisable (but not necessary) to select the logs for the sauna calibrated (that is, the same in thickness), which will provide the most tight connection to the frame. Log houses can be folded in two ways: "in a cup" or "in a flash" and "in a paw". The execution "in a cup" or "in a flash" provides that the ends of the logs protrude beyond the walls.
This ensures: firstly, sufficient reliability of the laid log house, and secondly, good protection of corners from wind and atmospheric precipitation. The angles made "in the paw" (see Fig. 3) require accurate calculation when cutting out this very "paw", as well as the ability to correctly fold the frame out of them. It should be taken into account that the consumption of timber with this method decreases, but the blowing rate of the corners increases.
It is much easier to fold walls made of beams. The most suitable for this purpose beams with a section of 150x150 or 150x180 millimeters. The sauna can be built with brick, stone or concrete walls and upholstered from the inside with boards with vapor barrier. Again, it is desirable to use coniferous boards because of the favorable combination of such properties as low thermal conductivity, high heat capacity, and porosity.
Frame walls with mineral or other heat-insulating materials retain heat very well. In addition to saving wood 1.5-2 times compared to log walls, the thermal conductivity of properly constructed frame walls is three times less than that of timber walls. That is, heat loss through frame walls is much less than through log, stone and brick walls.
On the outside, the sauna frame is sheathed with planks, which are placed horizontally, which ensures sufficient rigidity of the entire structure. You also need to remember that the main enemy of frame walls is moisture inside the cavity of the frame. It can penetrate there through the cracks between the boards during rain, blizzard, snowfall. In addition, condensation can form in cold weather when the temperature changes abruptly. Therefore, to protect the wooden frame and wall insulation from moisture, it is necessary to install a vapor barrier from the inside of the sauna.
If a log sauna (as well as a bathhouse) is built in compliance with all the necessary requirements and is properly operated, then it does not need special protection of the tree from decay. Heat, smoke and soot largely protect the wood. It is undesirable to use antiseptics, since the toxic substances they contain are very harmful and give off an unpleasant odor. Sauna doors and windows are made smaller than those in living areas to maximize heat retention. It is believed that the optimal door height from the floor is 160-180 centimeters (with a threshold height of 15-20 centimeters), a width of 65-80 centimeters. It is often necessary to enter such a door bent over and sideways. The doors are almost always single-leaf and open outward.
Perhaps the key point in the construction of a sauna is the choice of the stove. In modern saunas, metal stoves are most often used, heated by electricity or wood. Since they do not have massive brickwork, the electric furnaces heat up quickly, precisely maintain the set temperature, and do not pollute the sauna room and atmosphere with smoke and soot. However, heating up quickly, such a furnace cools down just as quickly, losing its original temperature in a short time. You should also know that when planning the installation of an electric furnace, it is imperative to consult with electricians: will the electrical household network, the power of the wiring and fuses allow you to connect an electric furnace of the required power.
Typically, electric furnaces consist of a body, electric heaters and thermal protection. They can be made with or without a heater. Sauna stoves designed for use with wood consist of a body, a chimney and a heater. They can be made with or without refractory brickwork (see 4). Stoves with brickwork - like in a Russian bath. Firewood is burned on a grate. In stoves without brickwork, due to the low thermal capacity (no need to heat the bricks), the air in the steam room heats up quickly, which significantly reduces fuel consumption. The stove for heat storage is usually located in a special upper channel of the stove. This is very rational, since hot gases, going from the firebox to the chimney, pass through the stones, heating them. The simplest stove-heater can be built from a metal barrel (a barrel with a capacity of 200 liters is especially convenient for this purpose). It is installed on the grate of a brick-built hearth (see 5). An original sauna stove that saves fuel.
It is most convenient to place a sauna, consisting of a dressing room, a shower and a steam room in the part of the plot or estate opposite from the house. For hardening and cooling, it would be very nice to build a pool near the sauna. To clean it from debris, as well as to renew water, a drain pipe connected to an electric pump is installed at the bottom. In order to avoid troubles when using the sauna, observe at least basic rules of fire and personal safety. When constructing stoves, make sure that their heated surfaces and smoke flows do not come into contact with the combustible parts of the sauna. Clean the flue ducts regularly, as a large amount of soot accumulated in them can cause a fire.
And in order to avoid burns, the metal "filling" of the sauna must be securely insulated or placed in inaccessible places. A wooden fence must be built around the stove. In order not to fall, the floor must not be slippery. To prevent fainting and suffocation, it is necessary to constantly monitor the health and proper operation of ventilation. The tree must not be painted, dried or varnished. Well, in all other respects, try to follow the popular wisdom: "Steam - do not burn yourself, give in - do not fall down, do not fall off the shelf ...". So with light steam! ...
No one will argue that wooden buildings are environmentally friendly and being in them is more comfortable and healthy. No wonder our ancestors built their houses and baths only from wood. But such structures are highly susceptible to decay processes. You can build a durable structure made of wood with your own hands if you use larch. But such material is very rare today. Mostly pine is offered, but it is short-lived. Therefore, people are increasingly choosing concrete blocks or bricks for the construction of a bath, especially if they are building with their own hands.
Brick buildings have many positive properties:
But brick buildings have their drawbacks. If you are going to build a brick bath with your own hands, do not forget about its insulation, which can be done both from the inside and outside. In addition, given the low resistance of bricks to moisture, there is a need for high-quality and efficient ventilation of the building. This is especially true for rooms such as the steam room and the washroom.
In a small area, you can build a small bathhouse, which can comfortably fit three to four people.
If the site is small, then you don't have to choose much. But if it is spacious, then there is an opportunity to use all possible advantages.
The simplest and cheapest foundation can be limited if the site has good solid soil and deep groundwater. The bathhouse should not stand close to the well, since it is considered a source of pollution, the house (so that moisture from the drain does not damage the foundation), the toilet and the compost pit (so as not to erode their contents).
The bath is recommended to be located away from all buildings
Although a bathhouse can now be built from anything, for example, brick, polystyrene concrete, aerated concrete, expanded clay or foam blocks, there are physical laws that confirm the appropriateness of the conservative practice of our ancestors. And all due to the fact that it heats up very much, and then cools down, high humidity is created in it, and after airing the room, it dries quickly. Blocks and bricks in this mode must have a special multi-layer cladding.
Wall cladding made of polystyrene concrete should be with thermal and moisture insulation
The tree, on the other hand, may not have any veneer. In addition, it is this material that, when warmed up, gives an exceptionally healthy and beneficial heat. Therefore, for aesthetic and practical reasons, it is recommended to dwell on it.
The intensity of the steam depends on the wood from which the walls of the steam room are made:
It is very difficult to buy a linden log house
The frame can be made of linden, but with an oak lower crown
Larch is ideal for a bath
What you need to look for when buying wood:
The forest must be free of any defects
Glued imitations are suitable for any building, except for a bath. The lamellas from which the timber (or log) is made, warp and deform from the temperature.
Glued profiled timber is not suitable for building a bathhouse
Solid timber can be profiled or ordinary edged. The main disadvantage of the second type is frequent warping as a result of air drying. Profiled timber is expensive, besides, not every one is suitable for the construction of a bath, for example, material with recesses at the top is not suitable due to the collection of condensate in them.
A timber without defects is suitable for construction
Therefore, most often it is a log that is used for the construction of a bath. Raw, or wild, is difficult to buy. Therefore, it is recommended to choose a rounded log: it is well dried, even. It should not have radial cracks, as condensation accumulates in them, and this leads to rotting. Likewise, it should not have cuts in the upper part. For cutting into the bowl, the log must have a so-called moon groove at the bottom.
Not every rounded log is suitable for the construction of a bath.
In advance, you need to choose a felling method. There are several options for decorating the ends of the logs and collecting them into a structure:
It is recommended to choose the method of cutting logs in advance
Since the length of the rounded log is 6 meters, it would be logical to take this into account when designing the bath, making its side exactly like this. The building should have a steam room, a washing room, a dressing room and an oven. The height of the bath is usually determined solely by the possibilities, but traditionally, from floor to ceiling, it should be 220 or 230 cm.
You need to make a drawing in advance
The sauna was the first of the foreign types of baths that came to Russia and immediately became very popular. Saunas appeared like mushrooms after rain, and people tried to go there weekly. The prosperity grew, saunas appeared in private houses and even in apartments. The Russian bath began to return, a hammam appeared. But the sauna is built often and is still very much loved. Because it is the simplest in design - but just as useful as the rest of the baths.
The construction of the steam room itself should be preceded by the drafting of its project. You can make it to order, draw it yourself, or look for a ready-made prototype. In order not to make design mistakes, it is recommended to decide how many people the sauna will be designed for. It should be remembered that one person will need about 2 square meters on average. Therefore, when calculating for six guests, on average, you will need 12 square meters of the total area.
Based on the calculation of the total area, it is determined what level of power of the heating equipment will be required in order to achieve the desired temperature in the steam room. It is also better when planning to provide for how the bath shelves will be placed. It should be about a meter from them to the oven. It is also a good idea to think over and calculate the optimal distance from shelf to shelf and to the bench when planning. It is equally important to determine the location of the pipes supplying water, vents and drains. When connecting all these systems, you must be extremely careful.
It is recommended to include lighting in this list, as well as taking into account the area for rooms with additional functions. An infrared lamp can be added additionally. Sketching of sketches and drawings should be carried out in accordance with the layout.
Regardless of the location of the sauna, you first need to lay the foundation - pour the foundation or the floor. If it is supposed to pour a concrete floor, then it must be remembered that such a layer must dry to the end before any other work can be carried out in the room. As a rule, complete drying occurs in four weeks. Further, roofing material is laid on the concrete surface in several layers. In this case, before pouring, it is possible to provide for the presence of ventilation pipes for further ventilation equipment.
Next, we install the bars. Recommended sizes are 15 by 15 or 20 by 20 centimeters. It is better to exclude the contact of the beams and the foundation, therefore, first the rail is laid on the concrete, then the beam. The empty space between the wooden elements must be filled with heat-insulating material, for example, you can use foam or jute seals. It is important to securely connect the bars to each other. Therefore, it is not recommended to use metal fasteners - they do not interact well with high temperature and humidity. But it is quite possible to use grooves and pins.
On top of the beams, it is necessary to fix strong boards and roofing material. After that, it is recommended not to touch anything for 0.5 year, to let the wood sit down. Next, you can make door and window openings and mount them. It should be noted that expensive high quality timber does not take time to shrink.
It is important not to forget about the antiseptic and fire-retardant treatment of wood, otherwise the breed will not be resistant to moisture. These are impregnating agents that can be used on the material or already on finished walls, floors, ceilings and shelves.
The finishing of the premises should be carried out with wood panels. - cedar or spruce lining. The choice of this particular material will be the most optimal. In this case, it is advisable to choose a material on which there will be no resin and knots. In this case, the ceiling and walls, even before the finishing of the steam room, must be insulated, isolated from steam with the help of mineral wool and another layer of insulation. Then you can already use the lining.
The floors must be finished with a special material, which must be chosen according to the ability to withstand high temperature and humidity, which is indispensable in a steam room. For example, ceramic tiles or similar materials are a good choice. Installation of tiles is carried out using a standard scheme. First, the base is leveled, then the tiles are fixed. For this, it is best to use a special binder.
It is advisable to make the sauna floor wooden or with wooden elements. Using wooden planks is a good option. In this case, logs are used as fasteners. It is more optimal to use boards with a thickness of five centimeters. To make the liquid go away faster, you can leave a small distance between the boards or spend time building a separate hatch, which will be closed by a perforated grating. You can also build outflows to the sewer.
When the floor in the sauna is ready, you can think about the main element of the steam room - the stove. It is worth noting that before installing the furnace, you need to start arranging the base. Foundations vary in type and size. You can choose the right one, taking into account the individual characteristics of the heating equipment. The best choice would be to purchase a small metal oven. It is best to use river boulders as a heater. This choice will primarily be due to the fact that the cobblestone is accessible to everyone, withstands rather high temperatures and does not begin to crack at the same time.
Making a Finnish sauna at home in the country is unlikely to be very different from the above., with the exception of taking into account the characteristics of the soil, purpose and frequency of visits. In general, the principles remain the same. You can also equip it step by step directly in the country house, for example, in the bathroom or on the basement floor or in a free-standing room. Be sure to insulate the walls and organize a high-quality drainage system in the second case.
After the location has been chosen, the markings are made, the foundation arrangement begins. The best option is a strip foundation. To do this, you need to dig a trench, put together a formwork from the boards, sprinkle the bottom of the trench with sand (a sand cushion helps to evenly distribute the load). Reinforcement can be done using masonry mesh. The depth of the bookmark will depend on the climatic conditions.
In this situation, a strip foundation was made for a bath with a size of 2.4x4.7 m. The height of the foundation is 30 cm, width is 15 cm. The concrete solution can be prepared independently, you can order a ready-made one.
Since it is planned to build a brick bath, you need to wait for the foundation to stand. The start time for laying depends on the type of foundation and the characteristics of the concrete solution.
To protect against the appearance of fungus, mold, before starting masonry work, you can treat the foundation with Hydroshield waterproofing.
Currently, the choice of materials for building a bath is quite diverse, so anyone can choose an option to their liking. Usually the bath is built of wood, aerated concrete or brick.
The wooden bathhouse is a classic; it was from this material that our ancestors built the bathhouse. The wood is natural and environmentally friendly, it has low thermal conductivity and an attractive appearance. A wooden bathhouse does not need additional finishing.
Most people build a bathhouse from this material because of the special atmosphere that only wood can create: a pleasant aroma, a cozy atmosphere, unity with nature - it is pleasant and comfortable in such a bath.
Wood buildings are also divided into several types, depending on the material from which they are built.
A log bath is the most popular option, which has many advantages. The bar has low thermal conductivity, it has a neat and attractive appearance. The timber bath has minimal shrinkage (less than 10 cm), it is quite easy to build, and its low weight eliminates the need to make a complex foundation.
A log bath is also in demand, but its construction is much more difficult, so this option is only suitable if you are confident in your abilities. It is important that the material is of high quality, straight, without bends.
Any signs of decay, even the slightest, blue spots - this is a reason to immediately refuse to buy the material.
A bath made of rounded logs outwardly surpasses a construction from a bar, but if you look from the point of view of practicality, then a bar is considered a more attractive option: a higher level of thermal insulation, no need to caulk the cracks, construction is cheaper.
If you want to build a solid and reliable wooden bath, but are afraid of deformation that may appear during the drying process, then pay attention to the bath from the gun carriage. It has all the advantages inherent in any wooden buildings: environmental friendliness, aesthetics, savings on interior and exterior decoration. The disadvantage is that it is more difficult to build than a bath from a bar. The reason lies precisely in the lock connection, which provides increased structural strength.
A simple and budget option is a frame bath. The construction of such a bath is within the power of even those who do not have sufficient experience in construction. The construction of a bath will be cheap, since there is no shrinkage, the interior decoration can be done immediately. But the frame structure has a low level of vapor barrier, so special work must be carried out to protect the walls from moisture.
Aerated concrete is a durable and fire-resistant material. It has low thermal conductivity and good moisture resistance. The disadvantage of aerated concrete bath is its appearance; it needs additional finishing, which entails additional financial costs. But if we compare in cost, aerated concrete is cheaper than wood, therefore, in terms of price, these buildings will be almost equal.
The foam block and the gas block are materials similar in structure, but the main advantage of the foam block is less hygroscopicity, which makes the construction of a foam block bath simpler, and the construction itself more reliable.
In addition, the cost of a foam block is 20% or less than that of a gas block, but it is inferior in strength. Often, builders combine two materials and erect load-bearing walls from aerated concrete blocks, and partitions from a foam block.
If we compare a bath made of expanded clay concrete blocks and cinder blocks, then the first one wins in terms of strength and durability. But expanded clay concrete will cost much more than a cinder block.
Expanded clay concrete is inferior to foam concrete in terms of frost resistance, but its water absorption is slightly lower - 14%, while for a foam block this figure reaches 18%.
The main advantage of cinder blocks is the price, it is lower than for other types of blocks. This is due to the fact that this material is made from waste, just keep in mind that they are not always environmentally friendly.
A cinder block bath is more economical, but it has lower heat and sound insulation. Moreover, if we compare the materials in terms of strength, then the cinder block is closer in this indicator to the brick.
The disadvantage of the cinder block is an unpresentable appearance, so you need to do an external finish. But this cannot be called a serious disadvantage, since those who choose one of the types of blocks for the construction of a bathhouse then cover them with siding, block-house and other materials.
Gas silicate blocks are a durable material for building a bath, which does not crack and retains heat well.
The price for gas silicate blocks is higher than for foam concrete. At the same time, a bath made of gas silicate blocks is more durable, and the construction process takes less time.
Gas silicate blocks are superior to aerated concrete blocks in all respects, except for one - moisture capacity.
Brick structures are reliable and strong, it is also important that buildings made of this material do not ignite. Brick is great for building a bath house. But the process of building a brick bath itself is much more complicated than from other materials, and also takes more time. Therefore, if you have no experience in using this material, it is better to choose materials that are easier to install - timber, gas blocks.
Of course, you can build a bathhouse from scrap materials, for example, clay pen, dead wood, adobe, etc. Such buildings will be as cheap and compact as possible. But most people prefer to build a bath from more traditional materials.