Spirea in landscape design


Read the previous part: The decorative spirea shrub in your dream garden design

Let's start with cultivation technology

Japanese spirea

Spireas are undemanding plants, but they grow better in sunny places, they adore sod or leafy soil, peat and sand, it is on such soils that they develop much more luxuriantly than on poor ones.

As for the planting scheme, then there are possible options depending on the purpose of the plantings. For example, in a hedge, the distance in the rows is left equal to 0.4-0.5 meters, and between the rows - 0.3-0.4 meters. In group plantings, plants are planted at a distance of 0.5-0.7 meters from each other. The most optimal planting time is September; it is better to do this in cloudy or rainy weather, when the soil is rich in moisture.

Spireas are planted in planting pits, the size of which should exceed the size of the root system of the seedling by 25-30%. The depth of the fossa should not exceed 40-50 centimeters, and the root collar is placed at ground level. Drainage from broken bricks laid on the bottom of the hole and early spring feeding very well affect the development of the plant.

Caring for plants consists in watering them (very moderate), applying fertilizers during the dry season and after pruning, in loosening (young plantings are loosened when the soil is compacted from irrigation and when weeds are weeded).

There are some recommendations from experienced gardeners for pruning... For example, in harsh and unstable winters, the ends of the shoots of the Nippon meadowsweet and the sharp-toothed meadowsweet varieties freeze over. Therefore, to prevent freezing, the roots should be covered with dry leaves and peat with a layer of up to ten centimeters, and after flowering, it is recommended to remove the faded shoots by a third of the length.

Pest control

Spirea is damaged by pests, sometimes causing significant harm to the ornamental type of plant. The most dangerous among them are the following:

Blue meadow sawfly - plants are sprayed with chlorophos against it (0.5-0.2%).

Spirea and beet aphids he is very afraid of karbofos, sentio, rogor or our natural remedies (in case of weak damage), such as infusion of Dalmatian chamomile, tobacco or simple capsicum.

Spirea kidney gall midge - the fight against this pest consists in spraying with metophos, rogor or chlorophos.

Reproduction of spirea

Spirea Douglas

When it is propagated, they resort to two methods: seed propagation and propagation by green cuttings.

The most common breeding method is by sowing seeds. It is better to sow them in the spring. Leafy soil or well-ventilated high-moor peat is most suitable as a soil mixture. Sow in boxes, preferably on a pre-moistened surface, then mulch the crops with a thin layer of peat or earth.

Shoots appear in 8-10 days and are quite amicable. Sometimes they are exposed to fungal diseases, as a result of which the plants can die. To avoid this, immediately after the emergence of seedlings, crops are treated with potassium permanganate or foundationol at the rate of ten liters of solution per three square meters of beds. They start picking seedlings in the spring, it is then that they take root well, grow quickly and bloom for 2-3 years.

Most species of spirea reproduce by green cuttings. Spireas of the spring flowering period cut from the first half of June, and late flowering - from the second half of June or early July. For planting green cuttings, the most suitable is a substrate consisting of coarse-grained washed river sand and riding peat... A prerequisite for obtaining well-rooted cuttings is high air humidity (artificial fog or watering 5-6 times a day). Rooted cuttings can be dived into open ground in the fall or left in a greenhouse until spring.

The use of spirits in landscape design

Summer blooming spireas

As you know, the decorative value of spirits consists of various shapes and colors of foliage, size and shape of a bush, shape and color of inflorescences.

In addition, they bloom at different times, which allows you to create a beautiful garden decoration exclusively from shrubs of this genus, especially if you know and skillfully select species for these signs.

Thanks to this knowledge, it is possible to create a continuously blooming garden, in which beautifully flowering bushes will be fragrant from May to September, the spring snow-white color of which will be replaced by pink and crimson.

Also, due to the different shape and size of shrubs, they can be used in various types of plantings. For example, in single plantings, sharp-toothed spirea, Wangutta and Douglas are irreplaceable, which often have a very beautiful bush shape due to arcuate shoots.

As for group plantings, here you can use almost all types of spirits, you just need to plant several specimens of the same species or variety nearby.

Often dwarf spirea species are used for edging planting around trees or taller bushes. Especially successfully combined are various red-leaved or golden-leaved varieties of spirits, framing the usual green-leaved groups of trees and shrubs.

Spire types suitable for borders are also suitable for creation of rockeries, as well as for disembarking on an alpine slide. Dwarf spirea is also used as a ground cover plant. Due to the abundant formation of root suckers, it forms picturesque clumps.

In addition to the high decorative value, all spireas are good honey plants, therefore, hives can be kept in areas where different types of spireas are collected. Also, all types of spirea can be used for cutting into bouquets or for arranging bouquets of other flowers.

Spirea has a high phytoncidal activity, which significantly increases its sanitary and hygienic role in improving the environment.

Nikolay Khromov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Researcher, Department of Berry Crops, GNU VNIIS im. I.V. Michurin,
member of the R&D Academy


The benefits and harms of cherry laurel

Laurel has been used in folk medicine for centuries. She has many positive qualities.

  • Helps with inflammatory processes in the respiratory system, cough.
  • Phytoncides in the composition of the plant have an antimicrobial effect, therefore the culture is used for internal bleeding.
  • Treats diseases of the cardiovascular system.
  • In diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, it can reduce the sensitivity of pain receptors of the mucous membrane, weaken peristalsis.
  • The beneficial properties of cherry laurel are also used to treat diseases of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • It is effective for disorders of the nervous system, spasms.
  • It is a powerful anthelmintic.

In folk medicine, for the treatment of ailments, prevention, freshly picked leaves and berries of the plant are used. Most often, medicinal, laurel-cherry water is made of them. They create lotions from it, rub the skin, take it orally or by inhalation. Essential oils are rarely used in precise concentrations. If the essential oil is used incorrectly, an overdose is possible!

Despite the beneficial properties of the plant, one must not forget that it belongs to poisonous crops. The plant contains a lot of hydrocyanic acid, which is useful only in low concentration. If you use it in excess of the norm, severe poisoning occurs, and in some cases death. The main signs of poisoning are shortness of breath, a hoarse voice, shortness of breath. It is contraindicated to use this plant in any form for pregnant women, lactating women and children.


Reproduction of quince

There are many ways to breed quince, and, most interestingly, they are all effective, to one degree or another.

  • Reproduction of quince seeds. Unlike most cultivated plants, the seed method of propagation of quince is the fastest, most reliable and efficient. Plant the seeds of quince in the prepared soil in the fall, during the winter the planting material will undergo natural stratification, and in the spring the first shoots will sprout on the garden bed.
  • Propagation of quince cuttings. A method of propagation of quince used to preserve varietal traits. Collect the quince cuttings in early June, root them in a mixture of sand and peat, and plant them in the garden in the fall.

  • Reproduction of quince by layering. Tilt the lower young shoot to the ground and fix it. Keep the ground moist in the summer and support hilling. Separate the daughter cuttings the following spring and plant them in a separate location.
  • Reproduction of quince by division. Due to the rapid and effective growth of the root system, the division method is used by gardeners, despite the decrease in yield in the first year after division.

Planting quince in the garden is a good investment in the decorativeness of the site. Shrub care is minimal, and the benefits are obvious.


Spirea ashy

Spiraea ashen grainsheim is a spectacular perennial shrub plant, a real find for landscape designers and lovers of decorative gardening. An adult, mature plant reaches, on average, 1.5 meters in height, and the crown diameter can be up to two or more meters, which makes the shrub look squat and wide. Its branches, long, flexible, gracefully drooping in the shape of an arc, diverge from the center of the bush and outwardly resemble a fountain. Leaves are numerous, but not large, up to 4 cm, rounded-lanceolate with pointed ends. The color of the foliage is heterogeneous: the top of the leaf plates are grayish-green, the bottom is lighter, and in the fall they are golden-yellow, bright and elegant.

At the time of flowering, which occurs in May and June, the ashy spirea transforms, completely covered with small white flowers, reminiscent of airy foam or fluffy snow. The spectacle is simply enchanting! Flowers are double, gathered in thyroid, densely planted, inflorescences. For four weeks, it is impossible to take your eyes off the blooming spirea, and bees, attracted by a pleasant aroma, rush to it.

Spirea gray will not cause much trouble when growing. For planting a seedling, a plot of land open to the sun with loose and nutritious soil is best suited. On leaner soils, the plant develops more slowly, and in the shade, the flowering will not be so spectacular and plentiful. Calmly enduring a short drought, the spirea painfully reacts to waterlogging of the soil, so it is better to place it on a hill or provide the plant with good soil drainage.

It is necessary to water the shrub rarely, no more than twice a month, provided there is a long absence of rainfall. Exceptions are young and weakened plants that require more frequent but less abundant watering. Top dressing is carried out in the spring, before flowering. It is best to use organic fertilizers for this. Loosening of the soil is recommended throughout the season, but this must be done carefully, to a shallow depth. However, if the soil is sufficiently breathable, this procedure can be neglected. But shrub pruning should be done at least once every two years, in March-April. The bush is thinned and rejuvenated by removing old and frost-damaged shoots.

Spiraea ashen grefshame, unfortunately, is sometimes attacked by aphids, spider mites, leaf rollers and other pests. A variety of chemicals will help to cope with the misfortune, and the plant, after processing, quickly restores its health and excellent appearance.

Description

General description of Spirea
Spireas are deciduous shrubs that rarely exceed 2 m in height. The natural shape of the bush is very different, there are: pyramidal, weeping, hemispherical, erect, creeping, cascading, etc. The species differ in the shape and color of graceful leaves, many change their green outfit in the fall to orange, yellow or purple-red. A large number of the most diverse species allows, with skillful selection, to achieve their continuous flowering from spring to late autumn. Spireas are prized for their abundant and long-lasting flowering. Their flowers are small, but numerous, collected in inflorescences of various shapes: corymbose, paniculate, spike-shaped or pyramidal. Some have single flowers. The color of the flowers is also varied - from pure white to crimson. The decorativeness of the spirits is due not only to the different arrangement of inflorescences on the shoots, but also to the timing of flowering.So, there are species, the inflorescences of which completely cover the entire shoot (sharp-serrated spirea), in others, the inflorescences are located only on the upper part of the shoots (spiraea middle spirea Bumald), in the third - at the ends of the shoots (spirea Japanese spiraea).

There are quite a few spirits - about 90 species, there are also various varieties that differ in the color of the petals, the shape of the inflorescences, the color and shape of the leaves, the flowering period, etc.

By flowering time, they are divided into two groups - spring bloom and summer flowering.In the former, flowering usually occurs on the shoots of the last year, and the flowers are white in the representatives of the second group - flowers are pink, red, crimson, and flowering occurs on the shoots of the current year. This division is reflected in the agricultural technology of caring for spireas, species blooming in spring are cut off immediately after flowering, and those blooming in the second half of summer - only in spring. Plants of the first group bloom together, but for a short time, in the second group, the flowering is more extended.

All spireas are undemanding to the soil, light-requiring, frost-resistant, many types of smoke and gas resistant, tolerate city conditions well. Easily multiply by dividing the bush, cuttings, layering, shoots and seeds. They grow quickly, bloom in the third year.

Spireas are famous for their beauty and unpretentiousness. Growing them is not difficult.

Using spirea
Spireas are decorative and differ in the shape and color of the foliage, the size and shape of the bush, the shape and color of the inflorescences. In addition, they bloom at different times, so a beautiful garden decoration can only be created from shrubs of this genus, knowing and skillfully selecting species for these signs. With this knowledge, you can create a garden of continuous flowering, in which from May to September beautifully flowering bushes will be fragrant, the spring white color of which will be replaced by pink and raspberry. Flowering begins with serrated, gray and medium spiraea in May and ends with tomentose spirea, which blooms until September.

Due to the different shapes and sizes of shrubs, they can be used in various types of plantings. So, in single plantings, sharp-toothed spirea, Vangutta, medium, gray, white, Douglas are irreplaceable. These are tall spireas, often with a very beautiful bush shape due to arched shoots.

Almost all types of spirits can be used in groups. In such cases, several specimens of the same species or variety are planted side by side.

Many not very tall spireas are used for forest planting around trees or taller bushes. Various red-leaved or golden varieties of spirits, framing ordinary green-leaved groups of trees and shrubs, look especially beautiful.

For low borders, such species as birch-leaved spirea, low, Bumalda, Japanese, white-flowered, dwarf are suitable. The same types can be used to create rockeries, planted on a slide. Dwarf spirea is also used as a ground cover plant. Due to the abundant formation of root suckers, it forms picturesque clumps.

Spireas in hedges
In hedges of greater height than curbs, taller species can be used: white spirea, Douglas, willow, Billiard.

All spireas are good honey plants. Therefore, in areas where different types of spirea are collected, hives can be kept.

All types of spirea can be used for cutting into bouquets or arranging bouquets of other flowers.

Spirea has a high phytoncidal activity, which increases its sanitary and hygienic role in improving the environment.

Spiraea gray or ashy Grefsheim (Spiraea x cinerea Grefsheim) - spring-flowering, flowering deciduous shrub with numerous drooping arched branches. The height and diameter of the shrub is 1.5 - 2 meters. The crown is spreading, broadly round. It blooms annually very profusely, in May-June. Flowers up to 1 cm in diameter, snow-white, double, collected in umbellate inflorescences, densely covering the entire bush, flowering duration is about 30 days. Leaves 2-4 cm long, arranged alternately, lanceolate, pointed at both ends. In spring and summer, gray-green on top, lighter on the underside, golden-yellow in autumn. Unpretentious. Spirea gray Grefsheim is an excellent honey plant, flowering from the second year.
It grows rapidly, with an annual increase in height and width of 10-15 cm. It is well-trimmed. Photophilous, but tolerates partial shade. Sensitive to drought and high air temperatures. Very hardy, but in severe winters, young shoots sometimes freeze. Not demanding on the soil, but grows better on moist, well-drained soils. Old shoots must be cut off after flowering or in the fall.

Planting spirea
Spireas love sunny areas, they are photophilous. They prefer sod or leafy soil with the addition of peat and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. In rich soils, plants grow more lush. The optimal soil pH for spirea is 6 - 7.

The best month for planting spirea is September. Cloudy or even rainy weather is suitable for planting shrubs. A hole is dug for the seedling, the width of which should exceed the size of the earthen coma by about 25 - 30%. Planting depth is 40 - 50 cm. The root collar should be at ground level. Drainage from sand and broken brick is placed at the bottom of the pit, rubble can be used (layer thickness 10 - 20 cm). Drainage is especially necessary if groundwater is close to the ground.

If shrubs are planted in a row, then the distance between them in a row should be 0.4 - 0.5 m, and the row spacing, if they are planted in groups, - 0.5 - 0.7 m, less often about a meter.

Spirea care
In early spring, the planted bushes are fed with fertilizer "Kemira-universal" at the rate of about 100 - 120 grams per 1 sq. meter.

Watering spireas need moderate. In dry seasons, as well as after pruning, they are watered twice a month, 1 bucket of water is poured under each plant. If the plants are young, in dry times they need more abundant and frequent watering.

As a care in young plantings, the soil is loosened if it becomes compacted from irrigation, as well as when weeding. After planting, mulching is also carried out with a layer of peat of 7 cm.
All spireas tolerate a haircut well. But the method of pruning them depends on the type of shoots on which the inflorescences are formed, on what year they are. Depending on the place of formation of flower buds, spireas are divided into two groups.

To the group early flowering spirea (bloom in May - early June) include spirea sharp-toothed, Wangutta, Nippon, oak-leaved and medium. Flower buds are formed along the entire length of last year's shoots, therefore, these spireas cannot be cut off every year, since flower buds will be removed, which means that the plant will not bloom in the year of pruning.

To reduce the size of the bush, to improve tillering, the plants are only slightly shortened by the shoots. This group of species usually forms numerous tillering shoots. And pruning comes down to the fact that the old 7 - 14-year-old shoots are removed, and the tips of the shoots that are frozen are also cut off.

Shrubs are heavily pruned if rejuvenation is required. In this case, the entire bush is cut off, leaving only a stump. This gives an impetus to the active and strong development of the shoot from the dormant buds located near the root collar. Then a shrub is formed from the new growth, leaving about 5 - 6 of the strongest shoots, and the rest are removed already in their first growing season.

Once every 1 - 2 years, spirea shrubs thin out, removing weak and old shoots. To form a bush, pruning is usually done in early spring (March-April), and sanitary pruning can be done in summer.

Second group late blooming species (bloom in July - August) includes spireas Boomald, Billiard, Douglas, Japanese, birch-leaved, willow, white and white-flowered.In these species, inflorescences usually grow at the ends of the shoots that have grown in the current year. Therefore, they must be pruned every year in early spring, during the period when the plants begin to awaken. Shoots are pruned to well-developed buds. Small shoots are completely removed. The stronger the pruning, the more powerful the shoots are then formed.

It is also necessary to remove aging shoots, otherwise, starting from the fourth year of growth, their tops tilt to the ground and dry out. The entire stem usually lives for 6 - 7 years, but due to the formation of root shoots, this plant is durable. After the 4th year, the top can be pruned annually at a height of about 30 cm from the ground. Periodically, the bushes are cut, leaving only the stump. In the summer, the inflorescences are removed from the bush as they bloom so that they are not depleted during the formation of seeds.

Summer blooming spireas are less durable than spring flowers. If even after pruning the shrubs develop weak growth and flowering worsens, then it is better to replace them with younger ones. Replacement for this group of spirits should be done after 15 - 20 years.

After pruning the shrubs in early spring, the soil is fertilized, and somewhere in mid-June the plants themselves are fed. Fertilizers for this are prepared as follows: 1 bucket of fresh slurry is mixed with 5 - 6 buckets of water. Then 5-10 g of superphosphate is added to a bucket of this solution. Trunk circles, to avoid the appearance of weeds, are mulched with small shavings or semi-rotten foliage, a layer of mulch is 6 - 8 cm.

They also make sure that the plants are not exposed to pests.

Diseases and pests
Unfortunately, pests also love spirea. True, a small amount. Yes, and under the condition of an immediate fight, the plant is practically not damaged.

For example, the most dangerous is considered spider mite. The main signs are cobwebs, premature yellowing and falling of leaves, holes in the inflorescences and leaves, as well as the general painful appearance of the shrub.

You need to fight the tick immediately after detecting the signs. And the means can be used in a variety of ways. For example, phosphamide (0.2) or malofos (0.3%) is effective. As a rule, spireas are sprayed according to the method of application of a particular agent.

In summer spirea can overcome aphid. The main harm is the biting off of inflorescences by aphids and the suction of juice from them.

Fighting aphids involves the use of a product such as pyrimor (0.1). It is also recommended to combine chemical and natural remedies. In addition to aphids, pyrimor do not like rose leafworm and miner.
These pests can be identified by caterpillars and characteristically gnawed leaves.

These pests can be identified by caterpillars and characteristically gnawed leaves. It is also worth fearing haplitsa, beet aphid, sawfly.


Growing conditions and use

Spiraea Kalifolia is undemanding to the ground. But on fertile, slightly acidic or neutral, it feels better. Does not tolerate liquid stagnation near the roots.

Based on this, it must be planted in places where groundwater does not come too close. If there is no other place, they provide high-quality drainage. Does not like lime soil spirea.

It is better not to plant it on them, due to the fact that in that place it will not be strong and will soon dry out.

Spirea Kalinolistnaya grows well in lighted places - in that place it blooms more luxuriant and broth.

In the shade, spirea leaves lose their decorative effect. Penumbra tolerates perfectly. Spirea is resistant to a decrease in temperature, but there is information that it can freeze under very cold winters. Under such conditions, the bush is cut off, over the summer it grows back and looks beautiful. A young bush is more likely to fear the cold.

Gardeners say that an adult tolerates temperatures up to 40 degrees below zero.

Kalinolistnaya spirea is not afraid of a strong cold wind, gas pollution and smoke in a huge city. Based on this, it is possible to plant it in city squares and parks. Suitable for landscaping wastelands due to its resistance and unpretentiousness to pests and diseases.

  • Kalinolistnaya spirea is used to create hedges, planted in groups, in solitary or mixed plantings. In most cases, hedges have strict geometric shapes.
  • Looks great around conifers: spruce, pine, fir.
  • To create a catchy group in a park or garden, it is necessary to take into account the color of the leaves of various varieties of viburnum spirea. By pruning the bushes into different shapes (a cone, a ball, a pyramid, or a combination of these shapes), it is possible to create unique compositions.

Kalinolistnaya spirea actually does not get sick at all, is not damaged by pests. This makes it even more desirable for landscape designers.

Spirea is considered a good honey plant. It is possible to install hives with bees near its plantings.The wood lends itself well to processing, polishing, but due to its small diameter, it has no industrial value.

It is only suitable for making small crafts.


Ornamental flowering shrubs

Flowering ornamental shrubs for the garden, distinguished by their beauty during the flowering period and an amazing aroma. We have chosen the most unpretentious of them and suitable for growing in central Russia and in the Moscow region.

Photo - a flower garden of beautiful shrubs

Lilac (lat.Siringa)

Perhaps the most common plant in gardens and vegetable gardens, it is widely used in urban landscaping. Frost resistance of the bush up to 4 meters. In modern cynology there are compact varieties, ideal for growing in small garden plots and decorating the local area: India, Agnes Smith, Elinor.

Lilac double variety Monique Lemoine

For planting, it is better to choose an open, sunny place. The composition of the soil, lilacs are not demanding, but they do not like swampy ones. Care consists in removing the shoots and cutting off the faded inflorescences. Blooms in May-June.

Spirea (Latin Spirea)

A popular shrub with many varietal variations. Some of the spireas can be made into a bed, various undersized varieties with large ones. Photos of a blooming spirea garden show how you can decorate a fairly large area with plants of the same species.

Photo of a blooming garden from Japanese spirea

The shrub is undemanding, frost-resistant, practically not susceptible to diseases. It grows in full sun and partial shade. Care products for regular formative pruning.

Chubushnik, or garden jasmine (Latin Philadelphus)

Shrub up to 3 meters high, with small carved leaves on thin branches. In addition to green, there are also golden and variegated varieties of chubushnik. The flowering time depends on the variety, from early June to late summer. The flowers have a strong pleasant aroma, for which the shrub received its second name "jasmine garden". The main condition for abundant flowering is a complete planting of the sun.

Chubushnik varieties airy disant

The care of the chubushnik is not difficult, sanitary felling and light feeding: it is enough to feed the plants with slurry 1-2 times (1:10), and after flowering, pour the ash with water (1 glass of ash per 10 liters of water).


Description of Spirea Crisp

Spirea Japanese Crispa (pictured below) is a small shrub with a dense, cap-like crown. It is a decorative form of Japanese spirea - a perennial deciduous shrub of the Rosaceae family growing in China, Korea and Japan.

The main characteristics and description of the Japanese Crispus spirea are presented in the table.

Erect, sinewy, freely branching

Young leaves are reddish, later dark green, in autumn the color changes to scarlet or orange with a bronze tint. The leaf plate is corrugated, deeply cut, ovoid

They appear on shoots for 2 years of life. Collected in lush simple umbrellas up to 5.5 cm in diameter, delicate mauve color

Ornamental gardening, landscaping



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