It is possible to get rid of various pests (aphids, Colorado potato beetle, bedbugs, whiteflies, etc.) and dangerous microorganisms in the garden without the use of chemicals. There is a more practical method - repellent flowers, which will not only decorate the garden and vegetable garden, but also protect from pests. This will save you from unnecessary expenses for the purchase of expensive insecticides, while significantly transforming the appearance of the suburban area.
The most common plant among gardeners is marigolds. These bright, small flowers do not require much maintenance, but they also have unique properties. Marigold leaves secrete phytoncides that can scare off various harmful insects and small worms. Having planted them on the site, you can not worry about the harvest of potatoes and tomatoes, since thanks to these flowers the vegetables will be protected from soil worms. If you plant marigolds next to strawberries, as well as onions and cabbage, they will scare away weevils, onion flies and cabbage whites from them.In the autumn, when marigolds stop blooming, you can prepare an infusion from them for spraying affected plants. For this, chopped stems and flowers are folded into a suitable container. When half is filled with marigolds, warm water is poured into the container. Flowers are infused for two days. Before using the solution, add a little liquid soap (40 ml) to it. From a spray bottle, the resulting mixture is used to treat plants from pests. You can also bury the stems and flowers in the soil to prevent the growth of fungi.
Lavender is a great way to improve the aesthetic appearance of the site and fill it with a pleasant aroma. In addition, lavender is also beneficial. The effect is achieved due to the high content of essential oils, flavonoids and strong aromatic substances. The light scent of lavender, pleasant for humans, is good at repelling flies and mosquitoes. Also, with the help of lavender, you can get rid of ants and aphids, which causes a lot of damage to the crop. It is enough to organize several flower beds with lavender to forget about these problems. Dry stems and flowers come in handy too. By spreading them out on the shelves in the closet, you can get rid of moths.
Many have heard of calendula as a decorative flower with medicinal properties (antiseptic, anti-inflammatory). But for gardeners, this plant also brings considerable benefits, scaring off pests. Calendula, growing near potatoes, protects them from the invasion of the Colorado potato beetle, and cabbage, peppers and tomatoes from ticks and soil worms. Aphids can ruin the strawberry crop, but if you plant calendula flowers next to it, the insect will switch to them. Also phytoncides secreted by calendula protect the area from asparagus cracker and hawk moth caterpillars.In addition to insects, calendula effectively fights various types of fungi. To do this, its stems and leaves are buried in the soil, used when laying beds when planting potatoes. While in the soil, the plant releases beneficial nutrients that improve the fertile layer.
Another useful decoration for the site is nasturtium. Bright orange flowers immediately fill the space with paints, while spreading a pleasant aroma and protecting the site from various pests. By planting nasturtium next to cabbage beds, you can easily protect the crop from whites. Also, the whitefly is not friendly with the plant, from which tomatoes often suffer. If peonies grow on the site, nasturtium will be the best neighbor for them, since the plant protects the flowers from fungal diseases. It also prevents the growth of fungi and is buried in the soil when potatoes are planted.
Catnip, or catnip, is a herb with small blue flowers. Many gardeners have already appreciated the benefits of this plant in the fight against pests on the site. Catnip leaves contain a large amount of essential oils, thanks to which the plant spreads a strong lemon scent, while it has antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. The catnip does not require special care, but loves light, so it should be planted in open, lighted areas. The plant repels well earthen fleas, aphids and the Colorado potato beetle. If you plant it near your home, you can forget about mosquitoes and save money on buying bloodsucker products.
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Among the whole variety of flowers and herbs, there are specimens that cannot be planted near the garden.
The so-called companion planting is the planting of certain types of plants in close proximity to each other. This is done in order to enhance the effects that each of them has.
Done right, companion plants improve fertility, suppress weeds, attract pollinators, ward off pests and diseases, and increase yields.
In addition, a vegetable garden surrounded by flowers always looks prettier.
Some of the more common companion plant pairs are:
For healing, the aster seeds are immersed in a 3-day infusion of marigold seeds (1 tablespoon per 100 g of water) for 30 minutes. Spraying flower crops with such an infusion protects them from a number of pests. Garlic is good against pests and diseases of gladioli. In spring, pickled gladioli bulbs are planted in the aisles of garlic. Against the fusarium wilting of asters, it is effective to grow them together with nasturtium and petunias.
It is useful to expose pots with pelargonium between peonies, gladioli and other flowers for the summer - essential oils and phytoncides of pelargonium scare away aphids. Growing lilies together with peonies and perennial phloxes will protect lilies from gray mold. Calendula grown among roses will protect them from many diseases, in particular from nematodes. Against aphids on cloves, they use: 1) an infusion of alder leaves - 1 kg of crushed dry leaves or 2 kg of fresh leaves are infused in 10 liters of water for 1 day, then boiled for half an hour, cooled, filtered and 30-40 g of dark laundry soap is added. 2) infusion of sophora - 1, 2 kg of crushed leaves are poured with 10 liters of hot water, infused for a day, filtered and diluted with water 162 with the addition of 40 g of soap.
Against the black leg of asters and levkoy, black rot of gladioli and other diseases, an infusion of marigolds is used. Fill 1/2 of an enamel bucket with crushed dry plants of marigolds and pour warm water to the top, leave for 2 days and filter. To the resulting infusion add 40 g of soap.
Against fusarium on gladioli, garlic infusion is used. Take 50 g of chopped garlic, pour 10 liters of water and, after thoroughly mixing, infuse for 24 hours, then filter and use.
To combat spider mites, thrips, scale insects and mealybugs, the following remedy is used: - 100 g of crushed Persian chamomile is poured into 1 liter of water, insisted for 12 hours, filtered. Against pests - 5 ml of infusion and 5 g of green or laundry soap are diluted in 1 liter of water, mixed and sprayed. All flowers are watered with warm water from a watering can one day after spraying.
Crop plants are affected by pests and weeds to varying degrees. They release chemicals not only into the soil (colins), but also into the air (volatile compounds). Thus, they inhibit or stimulate the growth of each other, attract or scare away any insects and pests. There are plants that suffer from the same infectious diseases, and if you plant them nearby, the risk of infection increases. And vice versa: by planting a certain plant next to it, you can reduce the likelihood of the appearance of the corresponding fungal, bacterial or viral diseases. Having identified all these influences of plants on each other and armed with knowledge, you can plan planting in the garden in such a way that the plants do not harm, but protect each other. Good and useful plant neighbors are called protective plants. By planting them, you can exclude the use of chemicals in your garden to fight plant diseases, harmful insects and weeds. This will help avoid contact with toxic substances and make the harvest abundant and environmentally friendly.
Most often planted as protective plants spicy and medicinal, as well as common flower plants. It is only important to know who is who is a good neighbor.
Onions and garlic are high in phytoncides, they protect other plants from infections and repel various insects. For example, if you plant a batun onion among the strawberries, then the berry will be protected from strawberry weevils, wireworms, strawberry mites and gray rot. Onions save roses from powdery mildew. These properties are especially pronounced in leeks and onions.
Garlic will scare away cabbage fly, weevils, ticks, wireworms, bear and apple moth from the beds. It is useful to plant it among roses, asters, gladioli and carnations. With such a neighborhood, flowers will not suffer from powdery mildew, fusarium, black spot and black leg.
Many harmful insects are deterred by parsley and celery, so they are often planted next to vegetables. For example, celery protects cabbage from earthen fleas, cabbage whites, and parsley repels ants.
Calendula is found in many household plots. This common medicinal and ornamental plant repels harmful insects from vegetables, berries and flowers. For example, it protects strawberries and roses from nematodes. In addition, calendula reduces the susceptibility of asters to Fusarium.
Nasturtium, tansy and marigolds have the same property. These floral popular plants scare away butterflies. Nasturtium also repels cabbage caterpillars, aphids, whiteflies and the Colorado potato beetle.
The smell of cabbage leaves usually gathers such garden pests as cabbage scoops and earthen fleas. However, if you plant thyme or sage next to cabbage beds, then they drown out the smell of cabbage with their aroma and reduce the invasion of pests.
Many spicy plants that are popular in cooking and in Russian vegetable gardens have a similar effect. It is beneficial to plant basil next to the beans; it will scare away the bean weevil.
If you plant wormwood on the site, then earthen fleas, ants, whitefly, cabbage and carrot flies, as well as the apple moth will not appear nearby.
The widespread mint scares off the earthen flea, whitefly, aphids, ants, cabbage caterpillars from the beds.
In hot rainy summers, cultivated vegetable plants often suffer from aphids. Plants with a strong aroma will help protect them from this insect - onions, garlic, mustard, coriander, fennel, marigolds.
In almost every vegetable garden where potatoes, tomatoes and eggplants grow, the Colorado potato beetle appears. Usually, to combat it, you have to spray the plants with poison several times during the summer. This problem can be solved with coriander, catnip, marigolds, nasturtium and tansy. They should be planted next to crops that attract the Colorado potato beetle.
Marigolds are able to protect cultivated plants even from roundworms (nematodes).
Borago, or cucumber grass, is suitable for planting between cabbage rows, it will protect all types of cabbage from caterpillars and scare away snails and slugs.
If you plant dill next to the cabbage, then the white and cabbage moth will not go anywhere, but the cabbage aphid will significantly decrease in number. The aroma of dill attracts beneficial insects: riders, hoverflies. The larvae of the latter kill leafhoppers, scale insects, and gall midges in large numbers. The only downside to dill is that it attracts slugs. But if you remember this, then you can collect them in the appropriate place and destroy.
If you plant kohlrabi or radish between the rows of lettuce (head and leaf), then the latter will not suffer from an earthen flea.
When planting protective plants next to the beds, it is necessary to ensure that they do not grow much and do not drown out the main culture. Therefore, they are planted in single bushes or in small rows. Such mixed plantings are justified. Plants are less susceptible to diseases and pests. If you plant a garden with a small number of crops or crops belonging to the same family, then there is a great risk that the plants will suffer greatly and there will be no good harvest.
With mixed plantings, the plants in the garden are also more closely spaced, this reduces the area of free soil, and therefore the area in which pests leave egg clutches. As a result, the total number of harmful insects in such a garden is much less than in a garden with monocultures. Let's list a few protector cultures.
Legumes scare away wireworms (larvae of click beetles), when planting between bushes, an elderberry protects currants and gooseberries from moth caterpillars, perennial carnations will not allow the bear to breed in the garden, the hellebore is able to protect the beds from rodents and some pests.
It is useful to plant mustard next to peas, as it protects this plant from the pea moth and suppresses the development of weeds; it is recommended to plant coriander next to flower plants to reduce aphids, scare away mice and wood lice. If you trim the tops of the coriander regularly, it will release even more phytoncides. Ladybugs flock to the smell of sunflower, destroying aphids. Therefore, it is recommended to plant this crop around the perimeter of the garden. Chamomile is a strong protector for many plants. If you plant it next to a cabbage, then whitefly caterpillars, a scoop and aphids will not start on that. Chamomile saves apple trees from aphids and apple moth. Phloxes and many other flowers next to chamomile will not be affected by aphids and nematodes. It also scares away small rodents.
Tomatoes scare away wireworms with their smell. If you plant this culture next to a gooseberry, then moths and sawflies are unlikely to appear on it.
The flower plant blackroot is able to protect the garden from mice. It emits a sweetish odor that many rodents, even larger ones than mice, dislike.
Tansy protects cultivated plants from cabbage caterpillars and earthen fleas.
Peppermint, nasturtium, wormwood, thyme
The main feature of my site is its small size, only four hundred square meters. This is his charm, but this is his drawback, and my headache.
In such an area, it is difficult to observe the turnover of crops, the first measure of plant protection from diseases and pests. For several seasons, various microorganisms inevitably accumulate in the soil, and the larvae of parasitic insects remain.
I do not like to treat the soil and plants with chemicals, because (again, due to the small area) I try to choose early ripening early crops for planting. From some of the beds, I harvest several crops per season. And how to handle plants that are about to fall on the table?
Plus we have a small garden, berry fields, where children are constantly pulling something into their mouths from the branches. In general, chemistry is not for me, and I try to avoid using it except in extreme cases.
It is good that nature took care of its health itself: if you think about it, all plants, to varying degrees, have natural defense mechanisms against diseases and pests. Many herbs have phytoncidal properties.Accumulating in the leaves, releasing volatile biologically active substances into the air, they are able to inhibit growth and destroy many harmful bacteria and fungi. Other plants have either repellent (repelling insects) or insecticidal (exterminating insects) properties. The task is to learn how to harmoniously combine such plants with vegetable crops.
I really love flowers, so much so that they grow in my beds, among vegetables. At first, my husband laughed, they say, you have not enough space in the flower beds. I had to explain the purpose of flowers among cabbage and onions. He stopped laughing, and after a few years my neighbors began to follow my example. Here is a set of my garden flowers - unchanged from year to year: calendula, marigold, cornflower, nasturtium and feverfew.
I grow seedlings of these unpretentious flowers in a small portable greenhouse in spring and plant them right in the rows along with cabbage seedlings. I give preference every year to the variety Carmen, in my opinion, the brightest and most cheerful.
This beautiful bright flower is an excellent natural repellent. The smell of tagetes (this is the correct name for marigolds) is not tolerated by the cabbage butterfly (cabbage white) - the main enemy of cabbage on my site. According to observations, the practice of joint landings greatly reduced the number of caterpillars, but there were no slugs at all. Marigolds bloom until late autumn, I do not remove their tops, but bury them in the garden along with the siderates.
By the way, I use mustard as a siderat, while the cruciferous flea does not bother me like other gardeners. I also attribute this to marigolds and calendula.
These two bright friends traditionally "live" in the neighborhood with onions. I sow them with dry seeds at the time of planting onion sets directly into the garden. Calendula fights well against nematodes, small sucking parasitic worms. By damaging the bulbs, nematodes e open the gate to all pathogens. And calendula perfectly copes with two tasks at once: it scares off nematodes, and with its phytoncides suppresses the vital activity of harmful bacteria and fungi.
I sow cornflower in a company with calendula, for beauty, because they sprout and begin to bloom at the same time. These beautiful blue flowers have medicinal properties and I collect and harvest them. Look at this combination, isn't it wonderful?
My beds with onions are a decoration of the site. In addition, the onion itself copes well with another pest - the carrot fly. I always place a bed of carrots between the onion beds.
I sow a magnificent bright flower with dry seeds in different parts of the site. The spicy scent of flowers is a wonderful repellent, repels aphids and whiteflies.
Another name for this flower is Dalmatian chamomile. This is a heavy artillery, an insecticide plant. Even in the army of Alexander the Great, pyrethrum flowers were used to fight annoying insects. Pyrethrins are now used in many animal treatments for fleas and ticks. Perennial, decorative plant.
Very much in the fight for the health of the site, my pharmacy bed... Phytoncidal plants heal the soil and air, scare off pests, attract bees and ladybirds (the natural enemy of aphids).
Here are my green, safe ways to keep your site healthy.
To protect the garden from freeloaders, all means are good
Leonid Mishin, Candidate of Biological Sciences at the Institute of Vegetable Growing, and Svetlana Minyukovich, landscape designer of the Flora club, told the readers of KP how to deal with pests in the garden and garden.
Well, summer is in full swing, only now the gardener, it seems, will have no time to enjoy, since the first army of pests has already entered the warpath. Leonid Mishin, Candidate of Biological Sciences at the Institute of Vegetable Growing, and Svetlana Minyukovich, landscape designer of the Flora club, told the readers of KP how to deal with pests in the garden and garden.
Biological products will help to combat pests in the garden
When choosing a drug, you always have to decide: either give preference to a drug that will protect the plant for 15 days, but you yourself will not eat them for two weeks, or use a drug that decomposes very quickly, but the protection will also be short-lived.
Of course, there are options when it is completely possible to cope with insects without chemistry. For example, from the cruciferous flea on cabbage of early spring planting, dusting the leaves and soil around with ash helps a lot. But now various scoops, whites, aphids, bugs, ticks, thrips will go on the attack - try to defeat them! And the cabbage fly, which will eat up the stem and can leave without a crop? But you really don't want to use chemicals ...
- It so happens that only chemical preparations can cope with the invasion of insects. For example, "Fufanon". In the open field, it has 30 days of waiting, in the greenhouse - only 5 days. "Tsimbush" - in the open ground 20 - 25 days of waiting, in greenhouses - 3 days of waiting, - said Leonid Aleksandrovich.
- Why is there such a gap in the waiting time?
- The fact is that in greenhouses the humidity and temperature are higher and the drug decomposes there faster.
But you can also defeat insects with biological agents. The biological preparation Fitoverm is approved in Belarus. He has a short waiting time, only 2 - 3 days - and you can safely eat vegetables. It may not kill the pest 100%, but it is safe. It is used against the early stage of the Colorado potato beetle, against mites on flowers and partially against thrips and melon and peach aphids.
The only drawback is that a lot of the drug is needed to process plants: 10 ml per 1 liter. And to process a large number of plants, you have to spend money. But the effectiveness of other biological products that are now being produced depends very much on weather conditions: the wrong humidity, the wrong temperature - and they work poorly. Only a specialist can use them.
The invasion of aphids threatens not only the garden, but also fruit and berry bushes. Such a simple method will help to cope with insects: a half-liter jar of dry orange or tangerine peels is poured with water, we insist for three days. Then pour the skins together with water into a saucepan, boil and cool, squeeze and add water to make half a liter again. It is good to add liquid soap to this solution and spray the plants.
- Another good way to deal with aphids and caterpillars, especially on cabbage, is flea shampoo for animals. To do this, dilute a tablespoon of shampoo in a bucket of water. This shampoo contains tripermethrin, which is used in preparations for caterpillars "Sharpei", "Senpai" and "Sherpa". The difference is that shampoo is much safer than chemical insect repellents. Moreover, the solution quickly decomposes and does not harm health. To save fruit trees from aphids, you need to put a bucket of ash under each tree for digging (it is better in the spring, and now just add it), - Svetlana Ivanovna said. - Fruit and berry bushes can be saved in the same way. True, less ash is required - half a bucket for each bush, without digging.
For onion and carrot flies, dusting onions and carrots with ash is a good remedy. It is especially good to carry out dusting after rain - then the ash sticks better to the bushes. Potash fertilizers (red) will also help from an onion fly - you need to dissolve the fertilizer matchbox in a bucket of water and pour a glass of solution on each onion.
But in a flower garden from aphids, you can safely use chemical means of protection, for example, the drug "BI-58".
Experts have noticed that the tick is most often started by those summer residents who keep a lot of flowers. It turns out flowers, especially bulbous, accumulate and preserve the tick all winter. And then, in the spring, summer residents take it to the garden. In the fight against ticks, the drug "Omite" is effective, which destroys ticks not only on vegetables, but also on flower crops.
Today, a garden and a vegetable garden are not just land.
State Autonomous Professional Educational Institution R.Kh. "Agrarian technical school
Topic: "Garden and vegetable garden"
Today, a garden and a vegetable garden is not just a land where food is grown to the table, it is a refuge from the hustle and bustle and stress, a place where our soul returns to beauty.
Do-it-yourself beautiful garden and vegetable garden
Use any corner of your garden as a flower garden.
Separate your garden and vegetable garden visually.
Each has its own place.