By: Bonnie L. Grant, Certified Urban Agriculturist
Sod layering is also known as lasagna gardening. No, lasagna is not just a culinary specialty, though building a lasagna compost garden is the same process as creating lasagna. When you use good, healthy ingredients for lasagna, the finished product is fabulous. The same is true for lasagna composting. You can use the same basic method to start a rich compost pile or to naturally decompose sod, prepare a seed bed, or build a berm.
The simplest way to take advantage of the debris in your landscape is to compost it. Basic compost rules require nitrogen and carbon as the basis of the organic materials. When aerobic bacteria and generous amounts of worms get to work on these materials, they turn it into a nutrient rich source of soil for the garden. Therefore, the easiest use of lasagna composting is in the compost pile.
Lasagna composting is easy. Simply layer the two types of material on top of each other in an area that will receive sun to warm the pile. Spread some soil in between each layer to hold moisture and add the basic bacteria and organisms that will get to work turning the material into usable compost. Keep the pile moderately moist and turn it frequently to mix in the beneficial organisms and hasten the breakdown of the material.
Sod layering, like lasagna composting, is an easy way to break down grass and turn the area into a planting bed. Composting with sod layers will provide a nutrient rich soil space, but it does take some time.
Plan how to layer sod at least five months prior to when you want to plant the area. Have on hand sources of both carbon and nitrogen (browns and greens) to spur the decomposition process. Leaves and straw or hay will work for compost and grass clippings or kitchen scraps can provide the nitrogen.
Learning how to layer sod in the lasagna compost pile is simple. Turn the sod over and then spread a layer of wet newspaper over that. Put in fine nitrogen organic matter, such as leaves topped with soil or compost. Coat the surface of the area with more soil, then add carbon rich material.
The newspaper will prevent the grass from growing back up through the soil. You can also use saturated cardboard, but make sure you remove any tape and do not use the waxed kind, as it will take too long to break down. The layers of material will help break down the sod and turn it into usable soil. Each layer needs to be about an inch (2.5 cm.) or so thick with a total height of 18 inches (46 cm.) or more.
Composting with sod layers is not hard and you can layer in any order as long as the first layer is newspaper or cardboard and the last layer is carbon. If you want the process to go faster, weight a sheet of black plastic over the pile to keep the heat in. Check it frequently to make sure the pile is lightly moist. In five to six months, turn the soil and till it for planting.
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Forget your broad fork, turn off that tiller, and stop all that weeding! Layered garden beds, are a great option for simplifying gardening and solves some common gardening problems.
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Did you know that if slugs are a problem in your garden, manure will handle that?
If you're lasagna bed isn't the height that you need, continue to layer, repeating layers 1-3 till it's the height you need.
If you decide to have more than one lasagna bed then I'd suggest making a nice path between them. First line your path with newspaper or cardboard, then get some bark chips. I like the free ones that landscape companies deliver, they're big and coarse and work well. Shovel the bark chips into the paths, do it pretty deep, I'd say 4-5 inches will keep your path dry and free of mud.
วิธีที่ง่ายที่สุดในการใช้ประโยชน์จากเศษซากในภูมิประเทศของคุณคือการทำปุ๋ยหมัก กฎของปุ๋ยหมักขั้นพื้นฐานนั้นต้องการไนโตรเจนและคาร์บอนเป็นพื้นฐานของสารอินทรีย์ เมื่อแบคทีเรียแอโรบิกและเวิร์มจำนวนมากเข้ามาทำงานกับวัสดุเหล่านี้พวกมันจะกลายเป็นแหล่งอาหารที่อุดมไปด้วยดินสำหรับสวน ดังนั้นการใช้ปุ๋ยหมักลาซานญ่าที่ง่ายที่สุดอยู่ในกองปุ๋ยหมัก
การทำปุ๋ยหมัก Lasagna เป็นเรื่องง่าย เพียงแค่ชั้นวัสดุสองประเภทที่ด้านบนของกันและกันในพื้นที่ที่จะได้รับแสงแดดเพื่อให้ความอบอุ่นกับกอง กระจายดินบางส่วนระหว่างแต่ละชั้นเพื่อเก็บความชื้นและเพิ่มแบคทีเรียและสิ่งมีชีวิตพื้นฐานที่จะทำให้การทำงานของวัสดุเปลี่ยนเป็นปุ๋ยหมักที่ใช้งานได้ รักษาความชุ่มชื้นให้อยู่ในระดับปานกลางและหมุนบ่อย ๆ เพื่อผสมในสิ่งมีชีวิตที่เป็นประโยชน์และเร่งการสลายของวัสดุ
Lasagna gardening, also called sheet composting or sheet mulching, mimics mother nature. This easy gardening method is similar to the permaculture or hugelkultur which replicates how nature layers materials in the woods.
With layered garden beds, we can speed up the process of composting while building fertile soil in layers. With this approach, plants choose the best layer medium to thrive in, while being nourished from all of them.
“Working with nature, not against it, we can interact with the world in ways beneficial to ourselves and the life around us.”
Jekka Mcvicar, English organic gardening expert, author, b.2/21/1951
Michigan Master Gardeners in Iosco County developed a lasagna-style heritage garden that is not only sustainable, but beautiful.
Iosco County Master Gardeners at their heritage/lasagna garden project. L-R: Gloria Kershaw, Cathy Menning, Liz Jacob, Jean Thomas, Louise Shoksnyder and Sue Kindt. Photo by Sarah Rautio, MSU Extension.
Michigan is home to many Michigan State University Extension Master Gardeners who volunteer their time to develop and assist with horticulture projects, educate the public about science-based horticulture and keep themselves up-to-date on new horticultural findings.
Master Gardeners in Iosco County created an innovative project that combined a heritage garden with a lasagna garden. They constructed it at the Iosco County Fairgrounds, which receives hundreds of visitors every year.
This lasagna/heritage combination is incredibly beneficial because it incorporates multiple ways of creating a healthy and sustainable garden, achieving many of the MSU Extension Smart Gardening principles such as creating and maintaining healthy soils, conserving water and preserving nearby water quality. Furthermore, heritage gardens often consist of native plants, for which there are many smart reasons to choose native plants.
Lasagna gardening, sometimes called sheet composting, is gaining popularity in the United States. It is a nontraditional way of creating a garden that uses a raised and layered base rather than a traditional “in-the-ground” garden. As the name suggests, it consists of several layers of different types of materials, as described below.
Lasagna gardens can be particularly effective in areas with poor soil quality because they are built above the soil surface. For example, in the sandy soils of northern Michigan, lasagna garden layers help hold nutrients in the soil much longer than if compost or fertilizers are applied directly to the soil surface. This can eliminate the need for several annual applications of compost or other soil amendments, thereby conserving their use. In addition, fertilizers and nutrients do not leach through the sandy soil where they could contaminate ground and surface water.
As such, the lasagna garden has a self-sustainable nutrient input that also protects the surrounding environment. Since the layers of a lasagna garden are built on top of existing soil, both the process of creating and maintaining the garden are simplified because sod does not have to be removed, the raised area tends to have less weed encroachment, nutrients last the entire season, and spring and fall cleanups are minimized.
Place overlapping pieces of newspaper or cardboard directly on top of the ground (i.e., the surface below it does not need to be prepared). This layer can help reduce the rate of water and nutrient drainage (most common in sandy soils). However, it still needs to “breathe” and allow earthworms to reach the surface soil, so avoid thick and coated cardboard and never use plastic.
In areas that lack sand and contain more clay, this layer may not even be necessary. Some believe this layer also blocks weed growth, but if layers two and three are deep enough, then weed growth should generally not be a problem.
Next, you need a good combination of “brown” and “green” materials you would normally put into a compost bin. Brown materials include fall leaves, small pieces of wood and coffee grounds, and green materials include lawn clippings, plant cuttings and vegetable scraps. These materials should be fresh and not composted because this layer will be buried and will compost itself over time.
Try to put two to three times more brown material than green material to obtain the best ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the composted soil product. This layer should be around 1-2 feet deep (it will shrink over time). Some prefer to alternate layers of brown and green materials, hence the lasagna name, however if brown and green materials are distributed evenly, then individual layers are not necessary.
This layer consists of a thick layer of good soil that is ready to be planted and is deep enough to support the roots of the plants (at least 3 inches). Good soil is not just the native top soil in your yard, but a mix of materials that produces good soil structure and adequate plant nutrients.
You can make your own mix with one-third topsoil, one-third composted material and one-third peat, coconut coir, vermiculite or perlite. You can also purchase bags of garden soil, but check the ingredients to see if they are similar to the above proportions.
Once the lasagna garden is constructed, you can plant it. If you wish, you can also cover the lasagna with a layer of plastic and let it cook for a while. After one or two seasons, when layers one and two break down, the above lasagna layers will need to be replaced.
Since it requires a rebuild, these gardens are best suited for annual plants such as vegetables. If you use perennials, have a plan for rebuilding nutrients after one or two seasons. The Master Gardeners in Iosco County chose to plant their lasagna garden with Zone 4 “heritage” plants.
Heritage gardens are gardens that mimic a historical time period, and since those time periods often precede plant introductions, plants are often native. The Iosco County Master Gardeners selected plants that were likely growing in their region between the 1850s and 1950s, which is the same time period in which an adjacent cabin on the Iosco County Fairgrounds was also being used.
For more information on how to plant a heritage vegetable garden, see the MSU Extension bulletin “Vegetable Heritage Gardening.” Also, consider visiting the MSU Heritage Garden at the MSU Tollgate Farm and Education Center in Novi, Michigan.
Master Gardeners in Iosco County are part of a large group of Master Gardeners across the state who are always looking for new Master Gardeners. A Master Gardener training is currently planned for northeast Lower Michigan Aug. 17 to Nov. 16, 2017. It will take place at the Ogemaw County MSU Extension office in West Branch, Michigan, on Thursdays from 5:30-9:30 p.m. For more information or to register, visit Master Gardener Training Course - West Branch (Ogemaw County).
The Michigan Extension Master Gardener Program is open to anyone with interest in learning more about gardening and a passion for volunteering and sharing gardening knowledge within the communities. In order to gain certification, you must complete a 14-week educational course followed by 40 volunteer hours of gardening education service in a community setting.
If you would like to learn more about the Michigan Master Gardener program, visit the Michigan Master Gardener Program website.
This article was published by Michigan State University Extension. For more information, visit https://extension.msu.edu. To have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https://extension.msu.edu/newsletters. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464).
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