It is also called dwarf pine, and more often - incorrectly - elfin cedar (sometimes elfin), or elfin pine, in Latin - Pinus pumila Rqz. It grows in the very northeast of our country, most often in very harsh mountain conditions.
The distribution area of undersized pine: the northern border runs from the mouth of the Lena to the middle reaches of the Anadyr, the western one - between the lower reaches of the Lena and the middle reaches of the Olenek River, then through the middle reaches of the Vilyui to the upper reaches of the Lena and Baikal. South - runs along the state border of the country, and the southernmost point of distribution is located on the Kuril Islands, south of 36 ° north latitude.
It is closely related to the rest of the nut-bearing pines (the so-called cedars), but outwardly it differs greatly from them in that it is a low-growing coniferous shrub with a branchy stem, often creeping along the ground. Photophilous. It is characterized by very slow growth, the usual height is 4–5 meters. By the age of 100, it can reach 10–12 meters with a trunk thickness of 20–25 centimeters.
Its wood is gnarled, knotty, has no business value, it is only suitable for firewood. In places of growth, it often forms impassable thickets.
The needles 40–70 mm long are collected in bunches of 5 needles. Cones 3.5–4.5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide are brown with non-expanding scales. Seeds (nuts) 6–9 mm long and 4–6 mm wide. They resemble cedar in shape, but much smaller and darker in color. But undersized pine has abundant harvests almost every year. The weight of 1000 seeds is, on average, 97 g (there are 10,000-15,000 in one kilogram). The kernel is 42–48% of the total weight of the nut, and the shell is 52–58%. The oil content in them (with the shell) is 23–26%, and in the peeled kernels - 52–63%, in addition, after pressing it, about 40% of the tasty and nutritious cake remains, from which “cedar” milk and cream are prepared.
The root system of the undersized pine is superficial. Trees tolerate any soil, unlike other related species, they can reproduce by layering.
Small pine is suitable for afforestation of sands and rocky places, as well as for snow retention. Its winter hardiness is the highest among all nut-bearing pines. It is very decorative and forms beautiful curtains. Propagated mainly by seeds. In culture, it is still very rare. There are copies of it in the arboretums of the Forestry Academy, in the Botanical Institute. V.L. Komarov, at the Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazev, at the Voronezh Forestry Institute ...
On the garden plot, the undersized pine is good from all points of view: it is a very decorative coniferous plant (this is now fashionable), it is a good nut tree, suitable for creating protective belts from northern winds, and, if necessary, for fixing soils, especially stony dumps and sands.
A seedling planted on the site forms a beautiful drop-shaped or round bush 3-4 m high.
The peculiarity of this culture is that its lower branches grow at the same rate as the central trunk. In winter, the bush is pressed to the ground, the trunks lie down, spread. The snow presses it down even more, and it becomes like a saucer.
In spring, it rises slightly again, but not completely. A small pine tree looks spectacular on alpine hills, in the middle of the lawn.
Little pine should eventually take one of the places of honor in landscape design. And when introduced to the European north of the country, to the Kola Peninsula, the Northern Urals, to Taimyr, it can not only decorate these harsh places, but also provide abundant food for people and animals.
It is problematic to get seedlings and cuttings in the European part of the country, but seeds are quite real. They are often brought by people who come from the regions of Eastern Siberia and the Far East. They are sometimes on sale, usually in the Dary Prirody stores or in the markets.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
A budget version of a country house and the adjacent territory can be done independently, without resorting to the help of specialists. To do this, you just need to arm yourself with some knowledge of landscape design, which experts are ready to share. Ordinary summer residents are also not averse to sharing their successes in arranging gardens, laying out flower beds, dividing the site into zones, arranging reservoirs, decorating paths and much more.
Having collected all the tips together, we will consider how best to equip a place for a country vacation for the whole family, called a summer cottage.
The main task during work is not to harm the health of the plant. It is important to consider for what purpose the tree was planted in this area, what shape the crown was originally. This will make the pine tree neat and give it an unusual shape. This procedure is quite time consuming and requires certain knowledge and skills. The first haircut can be done within a year after planting, if the plant has taken root and feels good in the garden.
There are several types of trimming:
At the preparatory stage it is necessary:
Among the evergreen trees of the Pine family, the Rumelian pine, also called the Macedonian pine, stands out.
This tree is shaped like a narrow pyramid of medium height. As a rule, it grows in mountainous areas in the south and southeast of Europe in countries such as Serbia, Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro and Bulgaria.
Rumelian pine is a very beautiful tree, therefore in many countries it is specially cultivated for planting in park areas.
Despite the fact that the tree is frost-resistant, in severe frosts, its root system, as well as the top, can still freeze.
A mature tree can reach 15-20 meters in height with a width of about 5 meters. Usually the crown is dense green with a blue or gray tint.
When growing Rumelian pine, it should be borne in mind that the tree is very fond of light, however, it can successfully develop in a semi-shaded place. A tree can grow approximately 30 centimeters high and 15 centimeters wide in a year. Pine grows best in fertile soil with good drainage.
A special advantage of the Rumelian beauty is its needles. The length of each needle can be from 8 to 12 centimeters. The needles are distinguished by a beautiful green color, hardness and sharpness.
Like any evergreen tree, the Rumelian pine bears fruit with light brown cylindrical cones. Often, cones grow in 3-4 pieces, but there are also single specimens.
With proper cultivation and care, this tree will delight with its beauty and splendor of needles for many years.
Let's look at the main options for making gazebos located in the territories of a country house.
An open gazebo is the easiest to assemble. The simplicity of the design allows you to meet in the shortest possible time and create a full-fledged recreation area. An open gazebo is assembled for giving from support posts and a hinged roof, after which it is decorated with decorative elements and partitions between the posts. Inside the gazebo, you can place a comfortable table, benches or chairs with pillows and blankets, and next to organize an area with a barbecue and grill.
An open gazebo against the backdrop of a beautiful landscape
Beautiful open gazebo attached to the house
In an open gazebo in warm weather, it is very pleasant to enjoy the singing of birds and the gentle sun; this is the best option for holding family meetings.
However, in cool weather there is a risk of freezing in the open air, so in winter this design loses all its relevance.
A simple open-type gazebo made of wooden beams
The gazebo near the house is a great place to relax
By supplementing the gazebo with soft ones, you can make the rest in it more pleasant.
Modern gazebo with multifunctional seating area
If you want to create a fabulous atmosphere in the gazebo, install a real jacuzzi in it
A closed gazebo is a house, closed on all sides by walls. In such a gazebo, bad weather and insect raids are not scary. You can sit in it until late at night and not interfere with those who went to bed.
However, an enclosed space will not allow you to fully enjoy nature, and in order to get some fresh air, you will have to periodically go outside.
Luxurious closed gazebo in a modern style
Glass for the gazebo is most often tinted, this will avoid bright sunlight, thereby creating additional comfort
Particular attention should be paid to the design of the roof, which should not only shelter people from rain, snow and sunlight, but also be outwardly aesthetically attractive.
By attaching an open terrace to the gazebo, you will receive an additional area where you can place a small recreation area
Gazebo with barbecue area - solves the problems of cooking on an open fire. Such a gazebo is equipped with a special barbecue and a high-quality chimney.
In it, you can equip a full kitchen area with a stove, cupboards, a table for cooking and a separate dining area.
For a gazebo with a place for cooking, you need a high-quality chimney
The oven for cooking can be organized both inside the gazebo and near it
If you have a gazebo at the dacha, then equipping it with a functional and comfortable kitchen would be an excellent solution.
A living gazebo is a lightweight construction, the main part of which is climbing plants that create dense green walls (hedges). In such a gazebo, a complete feeling of unity with nature is preserved, it is pleasant to enjoy the smell of plants and invite friends. With proper care, such gazebos can please the eye for more than one season.
Also, such a gazebo can be decorated with grape seedlings, the fruits of which will hang in beautiful bunches, while creating a natural shadow.
Living gazebos are best erected in places remote from home, as they attract certain insects to themselves
Rockery is a dry stream.
When it is created on an uneven area, the best result is achieved. In this case, the role of water is played by coarse gravel, sand, pebbles or paving with granite pellets. A dry stream can be part of an East Asian rocky garden structure. The Japanese style is more characterized by the natural laying of pebbles, the decoration of the banks with old boulders and decorative deciduous plants: hosts, irises, daylilies, etc. If the dry stream rockery is part of the naturgarden style garden, then the dry channel is formed by cereals, daylilies, creeping cotoneaster , barberries and ground cover stonecrops, thyme, etc. It is not necessary to fasten the bed of a dry stream using concrete.
Rockery is a retaining wall.
This most common type of rocky garden is suitable if the site is located on a slope, in mountainous terrain. Often, such rockery not only serves as a decorative element of the garden, but also performs a protective function of holding back a large mass of soil from sliding to the lower area. Therefore, it is better to entrust its device to specialists who will take into account the steepness of the slope, the geological features of the site, which will allow you to correctly plan the drainage system and calculate the foundation.
As you can see in the photo, for the device of such a rockery, the stone can be anything:
The type of addition of retaining walls is dry masonry or mortar masonry.
In the cracks between the masonry or in specially created depressions (pockets), kentranthus, cymbalaria, bells, rock beetroot, grains, evergreen Iberis, rejuvenated are planted. Creeping woody ones look very impressive: horizontal cotoneaster, various junipers. They are planted as the stones are laid. On the edge of the terrace, supported by a wall, plants with lodging stems are planted: milkweed, deltoid Aubrieta, laskolki, wormwood, stonecrop, artichokes, hybrid knifofia.
Rockery is a terraced slope.
Rockery - terraced slope is a system of retaining walls of different heights, shapes and lengths. Ideal for steep slopes. The choice of plants and compositions in such a garden is quite varied. One of the possible options is a combination of dwarf trees planted on terraces and cascades descending from the walls of creeping species, the other is a collection of a rocky garden.
Terracing the plot and the device of retaining walls can be used to highlight the functional areas of the garden.
Rockery - rocks, cliff.
This rockery can be either part of a complex landscaped garden or a self-contained composition. Rocks should be created only if there is a steep slope and very large boulders worked by time, and also if you are sure that you are missing such a rocky garden. The most suitable are volcanic rocks, blocks of travertine and dolomite. Nowadays, in addition, artificial stones made of plastic are used.
The construction of rocks requires taste and professional skill. The principle of laying stone with such a construction is similar to the addition of a wall with dry masonry, but the work is more expensive. Planting sites (crevices) are created during the construction process. Wood forms are planted as the stones are laid. The assortment of plants is specific - these are mountain pines and junipers, rocky and alpine species of herbaceous plants: ampel bells, dwarf ferns, stonecrops, wormwood, etc. Plants should not dominate the composition and divert attention from stones - such rockery in the country is rather an effective design technique than a garden.
Rockery is a mountain slope.
It is a complex type of rocky garden on a large, steep or steep slope. When arranging this type of landscape rockery, large stones are buried in groups and singly over the entire area. Dominant groups of pines and junipers are placed near them. A concomitant function is performed by the planting of creeping and cushion-shaped arboreal forms: junipers, drakes, eric. A wide variety of species are used as filling plants: ground cover shavings, rezuhi, jascolka, stonecrop, thyme, as well as antirrinum, Virginia tradescantia, bellflower, saxifrage, daylilies, vervains, eremurus, lobularia, etc.
Rockery is a mountain valley.
This type is a landscape rocky garden in the form of a high-mountain valley. Such a rockery is arranged on an area with gentle hills, a long slope or out of the blue. A system of paths is laid between groups of stones and hills, dividing the garden into zones.Compositional groups of different heights are created in areas bounded by paths. Woody plants are planted near the stones. Dwarf pines, columnar forms of junipers, thuja look especially impressive. Near stones and woods, spots of spring ephemeroids are provided: forest forest, chionodox, crocuses. During the entire growing season, clumps of ground cover plants are spectacular: creeping phlox, thyme, chickweed, stonecrops, carnations, etc.
The general background of such rockeries can be moss-covered soil, fine gravel or crushed bark.
Rockery is a forest ravine.
A type of landscape rocky garden, possible only if there is a natural lowering of the soil. The slopes are fixed with dug-in stones or by terracing. On the edge of the ravine, you can arrange a rocky hill. The choice of plants is dictated by the shaded location of the site. More often in such a rockery in the garden, they freely place low bush and open forms of conifers, shade-tolerant species of ferns, kupen, hosts, thick-leaved bergenia. A spectacular addition to such a garden can be a waterfall - a spring gushing at the bottom of a ravine.
More often it is one of the elements of a complex rocky garden created between the hillsides. The walls are laid out using the dry masonry method. It is desirable that their height is not the same, which contributes to better light penetration, but at a certain location and different degrees of illumination of the slopes. This allows you to use a wide range of plants for planting. The most spectacular in the gorge are dwarf rocky species that tolerate light shading: miniature ferns, rare ramondas, haberlei and levisia.
Rockery - talus.
Rockery-talus consists of small stones, among which there are sometimes large ones used for its construction, various natural dumps are used. Stonecrops, rejuvenates, onions, armeria, resinous plants, as well as various spicy-aromatic plants: thyme, lavender, lavender, catnip, marjoram, sage are freely placed in it.
Rockery on a flat surface.
It is difficult to arrange a massive high rockery on a flat surface, so it is better to choose a type of flat or slightly elevated garden such as a mountain valley or build a small slide. But in the presence of large beautiful stones, this idea does not seem completely impossible. In the design of such rockeries, coniferous, deciduous woody and even herbaceous annuals are appropriate.
By environmental factors (groundwater level, degree of illumination)
Rockery - water cascade, mountain stream.
This type includes elements of landscape (landscape) rockeries or self-sufficient rocky gardens, the structure of which necessarily includes water running between stones. Incorrectly chosen proportions and location can make the composition of rockery inharmonious. A cascade of reservoirs with a stream and a waterfall looks spectacular only on the slope of a large rockery or when using the relief features. It is very important that the structure is not bulky and does not look artificial. To create a cascade, it is necessary to pick up stones of natural shapes, if they are treated with time and water. The walls of the pools should be coated with clay, the bottom should be covered with pebbles to hide all traces of their artificial origin. Plants of a wet coastal zone naturally look along the banks: Siberian and Japanese irises, cereals, primroses, marigolds, ferns. Carpet species descending to the water, real mosses, look spectacular.
Rockery is a swamp, a quagmire.
This is a spectacular landscaped rocky garden created on a waterlogged plot. The composition of a hilly garden surrounding a half-overgrown pond or "bog window" is interesting. In swampy areas, for this it is enough to dig out the soil to a shallow depth; in drier areas, an artificial reservoir is needed. On the edge of such rockery, soil is poured, which is shaped into low hills. The coast is formed deeply (by three quarters of their height) with dug boulders of various sizes, but not small ones. Place them singly or in small groups. To approach the rockery and inspect it, it is good to lay wooden bridges or a path from wood cuts. Will look harmoniously when approaching the swamp and on it tree snags.
For rockery-bogs, marsh plants are chosen: calla, three-leafed watch, cereals, marsh marigold, cattail, calamus, common plantain, marshmallow, etc. Along the edge of the marsh, more drought-resistant moisture-loving plants are planted - between stones on hilly banks. In a composition located in the shade, forest plants are good: dwarf varieties of ordinary spruce, heather (including rhododendrons), ferns. Near a sunny swamp or a pond, plants of the coastal wet zone look spectacular with stones: irises, brunners, buzulniks, valerian, marigolds, some primroses, hosts, daylilies, violets, watercress, thick-leaved badan, Siberian hogweed, rhubarb, meadowsweet, elm-leaved angelica, bloodworm, kupena multiflorous, cinquefoil, mint, meadow core, etc. In the coastal dry zone, seaside katran, seaside bluehead, thick-leaved berry, blood-red geykhera, etc. feel good.
A great decorative effect can be achieved by combining plants with contrasting leaf shapes: long, linear, xiphoid (iris, daylily) and round, oval, arrow-shaped (badan, chastuha).
Rockery is a rocky ridge.
This is an old type of collectible rockery. Its main purpose is to create optimal conditions for the life of alpine plants. There are no compositional and artistic solutions in the rocky ridge. For different degrees of illumination of the slopes, the ridges are located in different positions relative to the cardinal points. The ridges are given a wide-trapezoidal or pyramidal shape with slopes of 40 - 45 °. The center (core) is a drainage base of granite or dolomite crushed stone. The sides are covered with soil, secured with reliably laid stones. The edges are fixed with a high border. The advantage of such beautiful rockeries is ease of care and the ability to use drainage bases and lands of different composition on each of the ridges, which allows you to maintain a wide variety of miniature plants.