We, lovers of spicy food, willingly buy jars of horseradish in the store. At the same time, we do not even realize that often these products are made from katran.
So, let's get acquainted: katran (Grambe L.) is a perennial plant of the Cabbage family (Cruciferous). Of the 33 species of katran, 20 grows in the CIS. Some of them are katran tatar, katran sea, katran east, katran rod-shaped - introduced into culture and used as fodder, vegetable, oil, starch and melliferous plants.
In the wild, katran was widespread in the Crimea, on the Kerch Peninsula, however, due to the barbaric collection of the population, it almost disappeared from the local flora. This valuable plant can be preserved by introducing it into culture more broadly.
Katran is common in Great Britain, Western Europe. In the CIS, it is cultivated in Ukraine, in the republics of the Caucasus. In Russia, Katran is little known; it is practically not on the seed market. It is locally cultivated in the Caucasus, in the Non-Black Earth Region.
They know him only in research institutions, in the departments of vegetable growing of some agricultural universities, and rare amateur vegetable growers exchange seeds with each other. Meanwhile, the four mentioned types of katran are serious competitors to horseradish.
So, katran is a shrub 80-150 cm high. Its stem is erect, branched. The leaves are large, whole, pinnately-divided or notched-lobed, with or without pubescence.
With the onset of stable frosts, the leaves die off, and the main, main root is reduced, due to which the head is drawn into the soil by 3-4 cm. This is what contributes to the good winter hardiness of the plants.
In the second year, plants begin to grow back immediately after the soil thaws. In the suburbs of St. Petersburg, by the end of the first decade of May, the katran forms a rosette of 6-10 powerful leaves. About half of the plants enter the hyperactive phase (the rest - in the third year) and bloom in the first decade of June.
In the Leningrad region, the flowering of katran lasts 45-65 days, it is a good honey plant. First, the lower inflorescences of the central loose brush bloom, and then the branches of subsequent orders.
Katran is a self-pollinating plant, but it can be cross-pollinated. Ties from 40 to 85% of the fruits. The fruit is a pale yellow pod, consisting of an upper part with one seed and a sterile lower part. In appearance, the fruit looks like a nut 2-10 mm in diameter. Fruit ripening is extended. Considering that the leaflets of the fruits do not separate (do not open), they sow with fruits. Seeds are brown, spherical, 1-2 mm in diameter. When ripe, they fall into deep dormancy and do not germinate even in the most favorable conditions.
Seeds germinate only after a long stay in the soil in the cold season, or after artificial stratification. Viability of seeds of katran class 1 - 65%, second - 45%. It is determined only after stratification: after soaking in water at room temperature for two hours, mixed with calcined wet sand (1: 3), placed in a refrigerator at a temperature of 5 ° C, either in a cold basement, or in the ground to a depth of about 20 cm by 90 -100 days. Then they are sown. Unstratified seeds are sown from August to November, shoots appear in the spring.
Before sowing, large seeds are selected, disinfected in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, treated with a growth stimulator of the "Zircon" type. In the conditions of the North-West of the Russian Federation, the katran is quite winter-hardy. Seeds germinate at 3-4 ° C. The optimum temperature for katran is 20-25 ° C. He is photophilous, does not tolerate shading. A separate area is allocated for it, although it looks good as a curtain on the lawn.
Katran does not tolerate the close standing of groundwater, low-lying, swampy areas. Optimal for it are soils that are close to neutral in acidity (pH 6.5-7.0).
Katran requires good soil moisture at the beginning of growth, especially during the period of peduncle formation, and then it develops a powerful root system. During the period of seed ripening, it is even good if there is little moisture.
The root crop of the katran is grayish-white, cylindrical, with little branching. It is formed by the proliferation of the central root. Therefore, the seedling method of its reproduction is not used (otherwise it branches heavily and marketable products do not work). With an annual culture, a cylindrical marketable root crop reaches 20 cm in length and 2-3 cm in diameter. Growth buds are formed on the scraps of the root, so katran can be propagated vegetatively. Given the power of the plant, highly fertile, deeply cultivated, loose "garden" soils are required.
In the first half of the growing season, the growth and development of katran is limited by nitrogen, in the second - by potassium. Phosphorus is required for the entire growing season.
For a katran, a flat, horizontal section is selected. It is better if the soil is sandy loam or light loamy, air and water tight. Do not place katran after cabbage vegetables, otherwise it will be affected by the keel, damaged by the cabbage fly. The best will be the early vacated areas, where high doses of organic matter were introduced under its predecessor (potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, green crops). If fertilizers were not applied, then use humus, compost at the rate of at least 30-50 kg / 100 m2, as well as about 0.9-1.0 kg of nitrogen and phosphorus and 1.8 kg of potassium. Good results are obtained with complex fertilizers with microelements (OMU, Kemira-universal, Kemira-potato (beet), etc.) or a microelement additive. Doses - as for root crops. On acidic soils, lime is added under the predecessor.
Place the katran on dry areas on a flat surface with row spacing of 60-70 cm, or on ridges 140 cm wide in 2-3 rows with a distance between rows of 35-65 cm, between plants - 20-30 cm. It is better to sow more densely and thin out the crops in phase of 2-3 true leaves. Seeds are sown to a depth of 2-4 cm. It is advisable to mulch the sowing with peat, humus, etc., it is useful to add superphosphate or WMD to the rows.
For the first two months, plants develop very slowly. Therefore, with the emergence of seedlings (late April - early May), they immediately begin to loosen the soil, remove weed seedlings. Katran is fed in the phase of 2-3 and 4-5 true leaves with mullein solution or complex fertilizers with microelements.
It is better to clean the Tatar katran in the fall of the first year. With an annual culture, it is harvested as late as possible, because at this time, the root crop grows intensively and reaches a length of 30-35 cm. The foliage is removed, leaving the stalks of 1-2 cm, it is ensiled for domestic animals and poultry, or it is placed in compost. Root crops are dug, cut off thin roots, freed from the soil by hand, dried and put in boxes with sand for storage. Injured and sick root crops are used for processing. Part of the sowing is left before winter and eaten in April - May.
Root crops of the Tatar katran of the first and second years of life are approximately the same in biochemical composition, but in the second year, half of the plants in it pass to fruiting, and the yield decreases. And in the sea katran, in the second year, the content of vitamin C decreases, but its roots grow up to 35%.
If the sowing is left for the second year, then the care consists in loosening, watering in the first half of the summer, weeding, feeding.
Given the shortage of seeds in the retail network, gardeners will have to take care of them themselves. To do this, at the beginning of October, the most typical, large, undivided root crops with a length of 25 cm are selected, and they are laid for storage. They are planted in early spring according to the scheme 70x50-70. Or in September, after harvesting, the selected root crops are immediately planted in the soil obliquely, closing the growth point by 3-4 cm. It is advisable to mulch them with peat, sawdust, etc. Testes are harvested when 60-70% of the pods are brown (50-55 days after the end of flowering). With a 2-3-year-old culture, typical plants are selected for seeds with simultaneous harvesting of root crops or selectively.
When harvesting, make sure that the seeds do not crumble. The stalks of the testes are hung on a hanger under a canopy, with a cloth underneath them. The scattered and threshed seeds are sifted on sieves (or ground), removing the non-viable seeds of the Tatar katran with a diameter of up to 3 mm, and the sea katran - up to 5 mm.
In their gardens, villagers and gardeners grow local populations of the above species of katran. This plant is only being introduced into cultivation, therefore we only know the Crimean Katran variety of the Simferopol Vegetable-Potato Station breeding. It was bred by the method of group selection from the local population of the Tatar Katran in Crimea. This variety is propagated by seeds and root cuttings. With the second method, the yield is doubled. The root crop is grayish-white, cylindrical, with little branching, reaching a mass of 500-800 g.
Its roots are used raw and canned, in various sauces, salads and for pickling cucumbers. In spring, young, grown fleshy shoots and leaves are eaten, like asparagus or lettuce.
Beat the yolks, add sour cream to them, mix and combine with grated katran. Stirring continuously, heat the sauce over low heat. When the sauce thickens, remove from heat, add lemon juice, salt and sugar. Serve with boiled or fried meat or fish.
For 0.5 cups of grated katran - 1 cup sour cream, 2 egg yolks, 1 teaspoon of lemon juice, 1 teaspoon of granulated sugar, salt to taste.
Pour vinegar, sour cream over the bread crumbs and beat well. Then add the katran, salt and sugar.
For 0.5 cups of white soft bread crumbs - 1 tbsp. a spoonful of vinegar, 0.5 cups of katran, 1 glass of sour cream, 1 teaspoon of granulated sugar, salt to taste.
Combine mayonnaise and sour cream, add katran, vinegar, sugar, stir and put in the freezer for 6 hours, then serve.
Mix lingonberries with katran and use as a seasoning for poultry and veal.
At 3 tbsp. tablespoons of pickled lingonberries - 1 incomplete tbsp. spoon of katran.
Mix the grated apple with grated katran. Add vinegar, vegetable oil, salt and sugar. Drizzle with broth or cream.
For 1 apple - 0.5 cups of katran, a little vinegar and vegetable oil, 1 teaspoon of broth or cream, salt and sugar.
Sprinkle the grated katran with vinegar. Heat the oil, mix with flour, add meat broth and let it boil once. Add sour cream to the prepared katran, season with sugar, vinegar and salt. Then pour in the yolks and stir well. Never boil! Serve with boiled meat (beef) or fish.
For 100 g of katran - 50 g of butter, 40 g of flour, 250 ml of meat broth, 200 g of sour cream, 2 egg yolks, salt, sugar and vinegar to taste.
Pour hot water over the meat, salt and pepper, put bay leaves and other spices, cook over low heat until soft. Then add finely chopped greens, onions, diced potatoes and cook until tender. Cut the meat into strips, season with grated katran. Sprinkle the potato broth with fresh parsley and serve separately.
For 500 g of pork - 1 liter of water, 4 black peppercorns, a bunch of parsley, 1 bay litas, 1 onion, 500 g of potatoes, 0.5 cups of katran, salt to taste.
Boil young bleached leaves and stems in salted water, season with oil and sprinkle with breadcrumbs. Use as a side dish.
V. Alekseev, General Director of Poisk-Petersburg LLC, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
During my life, I have seen respect for this vegetable among the inhabitants of the Arctic and in Central Russia, among the Siberians, among the southerners. And abroad, this vegetable is highly valued for its taste and healing properties.
Its persistent, pungent odor indicates an abundance of phytoncides - volatile substances that have a bactericidal effect. And he has a sharp taste - from mustard oil. This allows it to be effectively used against viruses in influenza epidemics and against pathogenic bacteria in colds. It is useful to rinse your mouth and throat with an aqueous infusion of horseradish in case of inflammatory processes.
Horseradish as a seasoning stimulates the endocrine glands, tidies up the hormonal system, cleanses the liver of toxins. We have lunch - and at the same time we are treated.
Digestion is what you need! Bactericidal substances along the way cleanse the intestines and help renew its microflora. Horseradish is great for the patient during the period of recovery from the most serious illnesses, when he had to use antibiotics. They also use it for anemia.
And how many patients got on their feet thanks to compresses made from green leaves, horseradish gruel for joint diseases, rheumatism, neuralgia and even frostbite. These compresses increase the local blood supply and circulation.
To prepare a medical compress, take 3 tbsp. tablespoons of grated horseradish, 5 tbsp. tablespoons of flour. 1 tbsp. a spoonful of melted lard. Mix everything, put it on a cloth (on a napkin) and put it on a sore spot for 15-30 minutes. Horseradish works better than mustard plaster: it soothes the nerves, improves blood circulation and reduces pain. But such a gruel should not be applied directly to the skin: it irritates the skin so much that a rash may appear.
For headaches, "mustard plasters" of grated horseradish are used - they are placed between the shoulder blades and in the lower region of the back of the head. Their burning sensation is weakened by the addition of sour cream.
Horseradish leaves in the form of a plaster are the most affordable pain reliever for a summer resident for sciatica, as well as for bruises. They are left from several hours to a day, then changed. With flabby porous skin, masks are made from horseradish gruel and apples 1: 1. Grated horseradish with sour cream is an excellent mask against acne and freckles.
Like any medicine, horseradish is not allowed for everyone. The list of contraindications includes gastritis, peptic ulcers, liver and kidney diseases. And here's another serious warning to all horseradish lovers: large doses of this spicy snack can provoke kidney bleeding. By the way, for the same reason, you will have to beware of too hot mustard.
In the old days, horseradish took a solid place on the dining table. Fresh meat and fish were not then translated on all days, except for fasting. And these products required a spicy seasoning for appetite and healthy digestion. The peasants ate and did not think why horseradish goes so well with jellied meat, cold veal and jellied fish. You need to - dig up good shit in the garden, completely cut off the leaves, scrape a lanky, strong-spirited rhizome with a knife, rinse with well water. Lash on a grater how much pulp you need in a bowl - and on the table! Horseradish was found in almost all the gardens, and whoever did not have it, he did not consider it shameful to go to a neighbor and tear him out of the garden without asking. After all, you pickle cucumbers - in a tub you need to put a cherry leaf, a currant leaf, an oak leaf, dry dill umbrellas and, of course, a horseradish leaf - how can you do without it? And what a kvass! I myself remember from my village childhood: in the summer heat at haymaking, you grab cold kvass from a jug, seasoned with grated horseradish - and you were tired as if by hand!
It is necessary to grate the horseradish rhizome into a bowl and cover the pulp with granulated sugar. After a while, the juice will come out. When coughing, take it in a teaspoon. The taste is rather mild. what children need.
And for adults, grated horseradish with honey is more suitable. Rub horseradish, add an equal amount of honey, transfer to a jar and close. Store in the refrigerator.
We take half a teaspoon three times a day for flu or colds. This softens the cough, clears the bronchi from excess phlegm.An excellent addition to medications prescribed by your doctor.
Katran refers to vegetables that have recently settled in dachas and are unfamiliar to most gardeners. The culture is like horseradish and is not inferior to him in taste and nutritional properties. It is considered a substitute for horseradish.
The plant is a storehouse of vitamins and minerals. The spicy taste and aroma of the vegetable is determined by the essential oil included in its composition.
Katran is used in cooking, as well as folk medicine and garden decoration.
To get a good harvest, it is important to know the secrets of agricultural technology and adhere to the rules of growing and caring for the plant.
Radish, like radish, belongs to long-day plants, so full-fledged root crops can be obtained only when sown in spring or in the second half of summer. Chinese and Japanese radishes on a long day are in most cases arrowed. In early ripening varieties of radish, the transition to reproductive development under the influence of low temperatures occurs in 30-40 days. Therefore, when sown early in cool climates, these varieties often bloom without forming a marketable root crop.
Radish is a fairly cold-resistant plant. Its seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 1-2 ° C, and the seedlings tolerate frosts down to -4 ° C. The optimum temperature for development is from 15 to 20 ° C.
Radish prefers fertile, well-moistened, non-acidic soil with a deep arable layer (this is especially important for varieties with a long root crop). Heavy, cold soils are not good for it. On too light sandy soils, radishes form flabby roots with a burning taste.
Good precursors for radishes are legumes, tomatoes, onions, lettuce, peppers, cucumbers, courgettes, and pumpkins. It should not be grown after root vegetables and any plants of the Cabbage family.
The opinion that horseradish does not require any care is wrong. For careless cultivation, he takes revenge by "raids" on the nearest beds, and without regular watering and loosening, he coarsens and loses c.
2012-10-23 00:00:00 4538 views
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Some gardeners grow on their plots plant katran, which replaces them with horseradish. They believe that the katran plant is superior to horseradish in taste, and the yield of this plant is several times higher.
In its natural environment, katran is found on the Kerch Peninsula and in the foothills of the Crimea. On the territory of our country, there are more than a dozen different types of katran, but only four species are grown as a culture: oriental, rod-shaped, sea, steppe (Tatar).
Of these, only three species are considered productive: steppe, eastern, sea. Usually, amateur gardeners show interest and plant a steppe katran on their site, in particular, its Crimean variety.
Katran is a perennial plant, belongs to the cabbage family. Katran plants behave in a very peculiar way in the garden, they are characterized by a variegated life cycle. Plants of the same age in the same area can begin to bear fruit, while others are "stubborn" and do not bloom for a long time. It is these "stubborn" katrans that give the largest root crops.
The katran plant, unlike horseradish, is not aggressive on the site and does not clog the site. The root vegetable katrana is a powerful smooth root, reaching a weight of one kg, while the weight of horseradish root is not more than 200 grams. Katran reproduces with the help of seeds. Its chemical composition is richer than horseradish, it is juicier and tastier.
The harvested harvest of katran roots can be stored for a long time in the basement. The culinary possibilities of katran are in no way inferior to horseradish. Excellent table spices are obtained from it, it is used to prepare various sauces, salads, and is added when salting cucumbers and tomatoes. Added katran enhances the flavor of many appetizers and cold dishes.
The katran plant is also used in folk medicine. It, like horseradish, is used to increase appetite and improve digestion, as well as to heal purulent wounds. With its help, traditional medicine helps to get rid of freckles. This plant, like horseradish, is contraindicated for people suffering from diseases of the liver, kidneys, colitis, gastritis, as well as stomach and duodenal ulcers.
Katran plant, cultivation.
This plant is quite unpretentious, it does not require a lot of heat, it tolerates cold and heat well, but prefers an area without shading for growing. Such properties make it possible to plant this plant in open ground practically throughout the entire territory, except for the northern regions.
For cultivation, a soil that is light in texture is best suited - sandy loam or loamy. Katran does not like acidic soils and nearby groundwater. Acidic soil causes fungal diseases in the plant, causing growths and swellings on the roots of the plant.
It is possible to plant a katran on the affected area no earlier than after 4 years. The best precursors for katran are cucumbers, potatoes, and tomatoes. To reduce the acidity of the soil, freshly slaked lime should be added under the autumn digging: per 1 sq. m about 200 grams.
Also, at the same time, you need to fertilize the soil and apply per 1 sq. m 5 kg of humus, 50 g of potassium salt, 30 g of double superphosphate. Katrana seeds are very different in size. Before planting, they should be warmed up in water at a temperature of 40-50 degrees to prevent the development of downy mildew.
Katran seeds have a strong shell and germinate only after prolonged freezing. To do this, they are planted in October-November at a depth of 3 cm and at a distance of 70 cm between rows. If the seeds are planted in the spring, then stratification must be carried out.
To do this, 3 months before sowing, the seeds are soaked for 2 hours in water at room temperature. Then the seeds are mixed in a ratio of 1: 3 with wet pre-calcined river sand and kept at a temperature close to zero until sowing. Seedlings of autumn sowing appear in April. When 2-3 leaves appear, the planting is thinned out, leaving 30 cm between the plants.
In the first year of life, in autumn, the length of the katran root reaches 20 cm, and the diameter is 2-3 cm. Such roots have a mass of 200-300 grams and can already be used for food. To get a better result, the katran does not need to be dug out, but should be left in the ground. The next spring, after the soil thaws, the katran immediately begins to grow.
In the second or third year, with sufficient watering and loosening, some of the plants begin to bloom. In the second half of summer, pods with seeds appear. The tops of the plants are pinched to accelerate the ripening of the pods. The pods are harvested in the morning, when most of them turn brown, about 70 percent. The pods are ripened, and the threshed seeds are dried at a temperature of 40-45 degrees.
The roots of the katran, which did not bloom, are dug up in late autumn. The weight of such roots reaches 1 kg, and the length is up to 30 cm. Some of the roots of the katran are left in the ground until next spring.
Plant katran, when it is rubbed on a grater, like horseradish, irritates the mucous surface of the nasopharynx, therefore, when working with it in the kitchen, it is better to use protective equipment.
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Katran, or rather the seaside katran (Crambe maritime), is a perennial herb of the cabbage family (like horseradish), 50-70 cm high, with a thick (up to 7-10 cm) cylindrical root with white pulp. Forms raised rosettes of leaves. Flowers are white, small (up to 1 cm in diameter), but numerous. The fruit is a pod.
Katran, as the specific name implies, is a plant of the Atlantic, Baltic and Black seas, and is rarely found in the Caucasus.
The very name of the genus in translation from the Turkic means "resinous torch", this is due to the fact that it burns well. This property is due to the significant content of essential oils in it. In addition to them, katran is rich in sugar, vitamins of groups B, C and PP, minerals.
Seaside katran. © Derek Ramsey