Slaked lime, or fluff, so needed in horticulture, is a calcium hydroxide. This valuable in its properties and at the same time inexpensive product is an excellent alkaline agent that gardeners use in many areas of their activity.
Every spring, and often autumn, a knowledgeable gardener processes his garden trees with whitewash. This serves as a reliable protection of the garden from many adverse effects of the natural environment. The protein perfectly protects the bark from the bright rays of the scorching sun, from sudden temperature changes and from insect pests that live in the soil under the tree. Of course, ready-made whitewash can be purchased in the store, but it is much better and cheaper to make it yourself using ordinary slaked lime.
It is advisable to extinguish the lime a couple of hours before whitewashing. For this purpose, in a bucket or other container, it is necessary to combine it with water in a 1 to 1 ratio to get a fluff.
When reacted with water, the boiling point can reach 140-150 ° C. Use protection to avoid getting burned. After about 50 minutes, the slaked lime will be ready. Then, to obtain a ready-made solution in 4.5-5 liters of water, we dilute 1.25 kg of slaked lime, 150 g of copper sulfate diluted in warm water and add 2-3 tbsp. l. glue. Stir the contents gently with a wooden stick and the whitewash lime is ready.
With the active use of land in a garden plot, the acidity of the soil can significantly increase, which is bad for most plantings. If the soil is very acidic, then the plants begin to poorly absorb nutrients, and the effect of any fertilizers used is significantly reduced. In order to take any measures to eliminate the increased acidity of the soil, you need to make sure that it is really acidic on your site. Without the help of special instruments and specialists, you can determine the acidity of the soil using ordinary litmus paper, which is placed in a container with a sample of your soil. Before that, wrap a little soil with a thick cloth and place in a container with water in a 1: 1 ratio. Litmus paper does not need to be kept for a long time in the container in which the soil is located. To get the result, you just need to dip it for one or two seconds. The paper should change color, by which you can easily determine the acidity. Usually in a set with litmus paper there is always a scale of acidity. It is quite easy to determine the acidity of the soil by external signs:
The easiest and cheapest option to lower the acidity on the site is slaked lime. For this purpose, with strong soil acidity per 1 sq. m it is necessary to add a pound of lime, with an average acidity level - 0.3 kg, and with a weak - 0.2 kg. This simple method will allow you to neutralize acidity in the shortest possible time.
Slaked lime has long been used on the farm as an excellent disinfectant. It is indispensable for disinfecting tools, greenhouses, chicken coops and more. Thanks to it, it is possible to avoid the multiplication of parasites and their spread. To process the desired object, lime milk is prepared from slaked lime. It can be made 10% or 20%. To prepare a 10% suspension, take about 1 kg of quicklime, quench it in 1 liter of water and add another 9 liters of water for dilution. For the manufacture of a more concentrated 20% suspension, 1 kg of lime is quenched in 0.5 liters of water and diluted in 4-5 liters of water. The finished solution is used to whitewash ceilings, walls, greenhouses, partitions, feeders and others. After that, the objects and surfaces to be disinfected are left for about 24 hours without any additional treatment.
Slaked lime is indispensable when performing a variety of repair and construction work. It is often added to a cement solution, and it is also used to disinfect surfaces before applying paint.
It serves as an excellent tool for whitewashing walls both inside and outside the room. Lime perfectly absorbs excess moisture, which is so harmful in construction work.
Thanks to lime, a thin protective layer forms on the working surface of the walls, which prevents the plaster from shedding. In combination with cement, it forms a viscous mixture that does not crack after drying.
Weeds are a real attack for any gardener. Many people use various chemical agents to control weeds, but it should be noted that slaked lime copes with this task just as well. At the same time, its application does not require huge costs. Everything is very simple. In the spring, after you have planted seedlings or sowed seeds, sprinkle a thin layer of lime between the rows of plantings. Be very careful not to get on the stems and leaves of cultivated plants; after applying this method, all weeds should be killed. Loosen the soil underneath to remove any remaining roots. As a result of this method, weeds will not bother you for a long time.
Compost is an effective and useful organic fertilizer that is appreciated by every experienced summer resident. The main composition of compost is plant residues, which, during their decomposition, release a large amount of acid, which prevents natural decomposition. For quick and effective neutralization of acids formed during this process, slaked lime is used at the rate of approximately 2-3% of the total weight of the compost composition. Another great advantage of using lime in composting is its excellent ability to neutralize unpleasant odors.
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To obtain a good harvest in a vegetable garden or garden, it is not enough just to sow seeds and plant seedlings or seedlings. Both the plantings and the soil under them need to be properly cared for. Experienced gardeners and gardeners use various chemicals along with other means to fertilize the soil or to control pests. One of the most popular is fluff lime. In the garden and vegetable garden, there are many factors that determine the need to use this tool.
What is fluff lime? How can it be useful to ensure the normal growth of garden and horticultural crops? What are the features of its application? Let's try to figure it out in the article.
But still, whatever one may say, but you need to fight weeds constantly. And there are only three ways to get rid of them.
Constant weeding. If you constantly live in the country, then the manual method is the best possible option for you.
“The constant oppression of herbs sometimes seems like a struggle between Hercules and the Lernaean hydra - you pulled out one head, and two grow back in its place,” says Mikhail Vorobyov. - But it is still more effective and - most importantly - much safer than using chemicals. I even managed to get rid of the field bindweed by persistent weeding. Every three days, he pulled out new shoots, thereby methodically weakening the root system and depriving the energy that the leaves received from the sun. Many weeds have a reserve of vitality in the roots (wheatgrass, sow thistle). But this power is not infinite, and patience and work will grind everything.
We use chemicals wisely. There are many toxic chemicals that are effective in weed control - Roundup, Tornado, Killer, Glyphosate, Hurricane, etc. But this is not a panacea. Yes, they kill weeds, but they are also capable of killing even berry bushes. Not to mention tender seedlings. More or less harmless these weed control products are only for trees. Therefore, you should not use chemicals where you have something growing. But if you got a neglected land, completely overgrown with weeds, then chemical means will do.
“It is also good to use chemistry where it is difficult to weed by hand,” says Mikhail Vorobyov. - For example, at the fence, on the border with a neighboring plot (as a rule, many have a netting through which weeds, including stinging nettles, willingly sprout), along the facade of a house or outbuildings. But this must be done very carefully.
It is better to carry out a "chemical attack" on a sunny, windless day, and ideally in the morning. Read the instructions for the drug carefully. As a rule, it says that you can go to the treated area only after 4 days, when the chemical becomes safe for people and animals. In general, all "killer" chemicals decompose in the soil within a month. Therefore, be very careful next to berry bushes.
We mulch the ground. This method is the most ideal for weekend summer residents. Fortunately, now in any garden center you can buy a very beautiful mulch - from bark, often tinted, wood chips or small pebbles. First, it's beautiful. And secondly, having covered pre-weeded flower beds or beds with strawberry bushes with mulch, you will rid yourself of weeds for the whole summer.
“You can fill the beds with freshly cut grass,” explains Mikhail Vorobyov. - It will be free. Just remember, if you are mowing with a lawnmower, the layer of freshly cut grass must be thin so that it dries properly. Otherwise, the grass rots intensively and releases ammonia. This is for plants - like nitrogen fertilizer or fresh manure, which accelerates growth. If in spring and early summer such feeding is only beneficial, then in the second half of summer it is completely useless. However, an excessive amount of nitrogen compounds is harmful at any time - the roots can get a chemical burn. With grass cut with a regular scythe, such problems do not arise.
Dig up the area and select the rhizomes. You can weed out wheatgrass, thistle, dandelion or dandelions as much as you like, but they will still grow. You can get rid of them only by digging up the area and carefully selecting all the rhizomes. Only here you need to dig not with a shovel, but with a pitchfork. With a shovel, you will surely cut the underground shoots into pieces, and then a new weed will grow out of each. The pitchfork allows you to select whole rhizomes. The method is laborious, difficult, but very reliable and effective.
Treat with herbicides. Yes, this is chemistry, but in other cases it is impossible to cope with weeds in another way. Herbicides are continuous action, destroying all plants without destruction ("Hurricane Forte", "Arsenal", "Tornado", "Roundup"). And selective, acting on certain types of weeds - monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous.
Herbicides can help control such harmful weeds as wheatgrass, cow parsnip, whiteweed or hops. It is best to use them while the beds are empty.
Cover the beds. Cover the area with a dense opaque material - black foil, agrofiber, cardboard. Agrofibre can be used in the beds - it is enough to make holes in it at the right distance and plant cultivated plants there. And so that the film does not spoil the look of the garden, it can be mulched with hay, straw or sawdust.
Black film, of course, costs money, but it lasts for several years and greatly simplifies work.
Sow green manure. After the crop has been harvested, the weeds in the empty beds begin to develop even faster - they have no competitors. Therefore, do not leave the ground empty. Sow green manure in this place - rapeseed, mustard, rye, fascelium, white clover.
First, many green manures destroy weeds. For example, mustard and rapeseed secrete a large amount of specific substances into the soil - glycosides, which inhibit the growth of harmful plants.
Secondly, they destroy pests and pathogens. The same rapeseed and mustard secrete essential oils that strongly inhibit the development of black leg, root rot, rhizoctonia and scab.
Thirdly, all green manure is an excellent fertilizer. Scatter the seeds around the area and rake into the soil. Water. And leave it to grow.
After 3 weeks, cut the green mass of these plants, chop, scatter over the area and dig up. But shallow - 3 - 4 cm. After the siderata are buried, the area must be watered abundantly.
Drizzle with vodka. This method came to us from America, where it was first tested in the 30s of the last century. Its essence is a provocation. A month before the start of the sowing soil, it is treated with a 6% solution of ethyl alcohol or diluted vodka (150 g per bucket of water). Alcohol stimulates the germination of weeds, they sprout more amicably and faster, after which they are carefully weeded out.
Mow often. This method can be used on the lawn, where, in addition to cultivated grains, weeds also germinate. If you constantly mow the lawn, preventing the overgrowth of the grass, the weeds will gradually disappear - their rhizomes become thinner and harmful plants die.
And as often as possible, mow the borders and adjacent territories - do not allow the seeds to ripen from the weeds. They will then scatter throughout your site.
Don't add fresh organic matter. Sometimes it is not easy for a city summer resident to get manure, but if he succeeds, then fertilizer is instantly applied to the site. And manure is usually sold fresh. And it contains a lot of weed seeds! Cows and horses are known to eat grass.
In order not to clog the garden, put the manure in a heap and let it rest for 3 years. Well, at least two. When organic matter is stacked in a thick layer, it gets very hot, and weed seeds die at high temperatures.
Hydrated lime - fluff is a white powder, most often of a fine fraction. The volume of lime diluted with water almost doubles. The density of the ready-to-use material is 400 kg / m?, The moisture content per TU is not more than 5%. The fluff is made quickly, it is only necessary to observe the proportions and withstand the right time.
The production diagram looks like this:
The production of slaked lime can take place both in the factory and directly at the construction site. This takes place in special containers - hydrators. Quicklime should take up 1/3 of the volume, and the same amount of water will be added. The rest of the space is necessary for a full-fledged process, since in the first minutes, when the reaction begins, lime will increase in volume.
Centralized quenching under the prepared conditions of the plant allows not only obtaining a higher-quality final product, but also keeping it for a rather long time. Moreover, over time, the properties of slaked lime will only get better, and the volume of the finished mixture is larger.
In the conditions of the plant it is possible to track the preparation process of each individual batch. Therefore, if the quenching occurs slowly, water must be added in portions. It is important to ensure that the lime does not overheat during slaking and that the water does not boil during the process.
The yield of the finished product, if it is of high quality, should be twice as large as the original dry quicklime. The finished hydrated lime will have 4 classifications.
The video shows the technology and equipment for slaking lime in production:
Naturally, like any building material, as well as a mixture, lime can be of several types. The classification of quicklime depends on the content of calcium and magnesium oxides.So, the first grade, classified by GOST 9179-77, must have a CaO + MgO compound in an amount of at least 90%. And in the second grade, 80% is already allocated to this compound.
The lower the grade, the less not only calcium and magnesium oxides in lime, but also the less water is used to slake it. In the very last, fourth grade, water can be added at the level of 60% of the dry lime volume.
The specific gravity of slaked lime (fluff) is 450-550 m3. Dry lime costs an average of 3,000 rubles per ton. But the fluff is already 3 times more expensive - 8,000-10,000 rubles per ton. According to its properties, any lime must comply with the established standards of GOST.
In the fall, after harvesting in the greenhouse, you need not only to clean up, but also to treat the surfaces from pests and diseases. For this, you can use a lime mortar:
After whitewashing, wooden structures will not only be disinfected, but also protected from decay.
Lime is used in the fall and for disinfecting the soil in the greenhouse:
Such a procedure will destroy infections and pest faces living in the ground.
The benefits of lime for the garden and garden are obvious, because with its help they deacidify the soil, whitewash trees, disinfect the soil and buildings.
Lime is suitable for processing garden tools only freshly slaked. It is "neutralized" with water in a 1: 1 ratio and left to dry. Lime milk is prepared from the resulting fluff (10-20% suspension). The procedure for preparing a 10% suspension is as follows:
The greenhouse is treated both internally and externally to protect against disease and shade
Slaked lime solution for construction
Slaked lime is used in construction and repair work. Most often it is used to whitewash the walls inside and outside the premises. The whitewash composition is prepared about a day before the start of work. To obtain an ideal white composition, it is diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio. Immediately before application, the solution is well stirred and applied to the surface with a wide paint brush or spray gun in 2-3 layers, with each new layer being placed across the previous one.
Also, fluff is added to some building mixtures. For example, in combination with cement, it forms a viscous mixture that does not crack after drying.
Slaked lime also has refractory properties. On wooden coatings and elements of a wooden house, it is often applied in 1-3 layers in order to avoid rotting and improve the fire-fighting characteristics of structures.
Try to be outdoors or in a well-ventilated area when handling lime.
Lime is considered a rather caustic material, when working with which you need to observe safety measures:
Thus, the use of lime in the country is limited only by your imagination. It is a unique substance that serves for plant protection, soil nutrition and construction work. Any self-respecting summer resident is simply obliged to use it.
Views: 8092 Posted: 25-01-2015, 22:29 Comments: 0 Posted by natanikola
Numerous household waste, as well as plant residues, tops, cut grass, wilted flowers - all this can be beneficial for the garden and vegetable garden. The main thing is to be able to properly form a compost heap and take into account some of the nuances.
It should be noted right away that waste containing some chemical compounds is not suitable for compost, plant residues and tops should not be affected by diseases, it is better to take only annual weeds. Can be used for composting foliage, grass cuttings.
A shady place in the garden, not far from the path, is suitable for the compost heap. The length of the compost heap should not exceed 2 meters, the width - about 70 cm, in height it can be folded up to 1.2 m. With large dimensions, microbiological processes proceed more slowly and the compost preparation time increases.
At the place selected for the compost heap, the top layer of soil is removed with a bayonet, the prepared area is filled by 10 cm with sand, if the soil is clayey, and clay, if the soil is sandy, peat can be used. Waste is very thoroughly moistened when it is placed in compost. Lay a layer of moistened waste up to 30 cm thick, sprinkle them on top with lime and a 10 cm layer of soil. Crushed slaked lime is added at 2 kg per 1 cubic meter. compostable volume.
When applying each layer, carefully sprinkle the edges and top with a layer of soil to prevent the compost from drying out. The compost heap is then watered regularly. If possible, a mullein is added to the water for irrigation. The compostable material must pass water well; if it stagnates, fermentation may occur. For aeration and early maturation of the compost, the compost heap is mixed in such a way that the upper layers are at the top, and the lower ones are at the bottom. After digging, the pile is covered with a layer of earth and left until the compost is fully ripe.
There is another option for preparing compost, when, according to the above method, peat and feces are laid in layers, in the absence of peat, manure, pond mud and household waste are used.
In the compost heap, you need to add up to 3% phosphorus and up to 1% potash fertilizers. When composting in the warm season, you can use it after 3 months, and in the cold - after six months. The more manure there is in the compost, the sooner it will be ready. After the expiration of the specified period, you can fill the beds with compost for greenhouses and for spring planting, however, in order not to hesitate to use the compost in the garden and vegetable garden, it is better to leave it to perekrem in a heap for another 1 year.
The arrangement of several compost piles on the site will allow you to constantly have ripe and well-rotted compost on hand.
As you know, cellars are whitewashed with slaked lime. But many summer residents buy quicklime for these purposes, since it is better stored. At any time, you can mix 1 part of quicklime with 3 parts of water, after mechanically crushing especially large lumps.
The chemical reaction will take about 8 hours. After that, the composition must be filtered through a sieve and applied to the treated surfaces. To enhance the effect, 50 g of copper sulfate can be added to 5 liters of already slaked lime.
These are just a few of the options for using quicklime in the country. Write about your proven methods in the comments.
© Ilya Vladimirovich | 2018-03-11