Blooming apple orchards is one of the best decorations of our spring. In addition, it is during flowering that the foundation for the future apple harvest is laid.
Apple trees bloom abundantly and regularly only in places well-lit by the sun. In a deep shade, flowering may never occur, or there will be the first single flowers closer to the 20 years of the tree's life.
Apple trees bloom profusely only in places well-lit by the sun.
Apple trees are quite durable and in favorable conditions can bloom and bear fruit for up to 100 years or more.
The apple tree blooms simultaneously with the blooming of the leaves or a little after it. It usually takes about two weeks from the beginning of bud opening to flowering in hot weather and up to three to four weeks in cool weather..
The start time of flowering is very dependent on local conditions:
The average flowering time of an apple tree is about 10 days.... In hot sunny weather, flowering begins earlier and lasts only 5-6 days. In cool, cloudy weather, flowering is delayed and may take 2-3 weeks.
Small-fruited apple trees (ranetki, Chinese), genetically related to the Siberian berry apple (Siberian), usually bloom several days earlier than European large-fruited varieties.
The Siberian apple tree and its descendants (ranetka, Chinese) are easily recognizable by their characteristic long pedicels
In our Middle Volga, the flowering order is as follows:
Most cultivated apple varieties have pink buds and white-pink flowers (paler on the inside of the petals and brighter on the outside). There are also varieties with pure white flowers. Numerous ranetki, Chinese and Siberian beetles are identified by their characteristic long pedicels, their petals are usually white. The classic apple flower has 5 petals, decorative varieties with double flowers are rare in our countries, although they are quite common in China.
In recent years, decorative apple varieties with bright pink or almost red flowers, which originate from the Central Asian apple tree of Nedzvetsky, have become very fashionable. Often they have red not only flowers, but also young leaves. Some modern varieties of this type are quite winter-hardy and can grow normally in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg and regions similar in climate.
Ornamental apple trees with bright pink flowers are often planted to decorate city parks.
All decorative apple trees (with red flowers, double, weeping, and so on) have edible fruits, but their apples are most often small, sour and tart, like wild ones, and are only suitable for processing and canning.
Ornamental apple trees are usually small, sour and tart.
Some old apple varieties bloom and bear fruit after a year:
Most modern varieties bloom and bear fruit annually.
Many old varieties (for example, Antonovka, Streyfling, Anisy) have a weakly expressed periodicity: flowering occurs annually, but the number of flowers is larger or smaller, depending on the year. You can even out the fruiting of such varieties with the help of good care:
In small trees with periodic fruiting, it is sometimes also advised to cut off some of the flowers and excess ovaries in order to reduce the load and ensure the laying of flower buds for the next year.
Only a few old varieties bear fruit strictly after a year, and nothing can be done about it. For the northern and central regions, this is typical primarily for Grushovka; in the southern zone of gardening, Kandil-Sinap behaves in a similar way.
Grushovka Moskovskaya is an old Russian apple variety with sharply periodic fruiting that cannot be corrected
In my garden, there are two huge old Grushovka (conventionally called yellow and red, their fruits are slightly different in color and taste) with a clearly expressed periodic fruiting. Once upon a time, during my childhood, they bore fruit in turn (year one, year two), and it was very convenient. Then, after several unsuccessful years in a row (either frost, or weevil, or something else), the schedule went wrong, and both Grushovka began to bloom and bear fruit at the same time. Nothing could be done about it. So we live: one year there is nowhere to step from the summer apples - the second year not an apple until September, when the autumn varieties begin to ripen.
During flowering, apple orchards are very vulnerable. If the weather is cloudy, cold and rainy, as well as with strong winds, domestic bees almost do not fly out of their hives, and many flowers remain unpolished. In bad weather, only bumblebees and wild bees fly, therefore it is so important to protect these wild pollinating insects, and for this, first of all, maintain a healthy ecological situation on the site and not abuse pesticides.
Bumblebees are the most valuable wild pollinating insects that regularly visit flowers even in bad weather
Frosts are very dangerous during flowering, damaging buds, flowers and young ovaries. The only truly reliable protection against frost can be considered only the shelter of dwarf trees with protective agrofibre while the air temperature drops.
Reprinted from book to book recommendations for protecting gardens from frost with the help of smoke heaps personally seem to me very dubious. At least in our Middle Volga, absolutely all classic frosts (short-term sharp drops in air temperature at night and early morning hours) occur exclusively in clear calm weather, when any smoke rises in a narrow column vertically upwards. And no smoke will save you from prolonged cold snaps with strong gusty winds caused by Arctic cyclones.
Apple orchards suffer greatly from the weevil flower beetle, which, in the years of its mass appearance, is capable of destroying almost all the buds on apple trees.
Therefore, from the moment the buds open until the beginning of flowering, the gardener should regularly inspect the trees in his garden in order to timely detect the pest and take action. In a small garden, you can simply shake off the beetles in the early cool morning, when they are inactive, on a tarp laid under the trees and destroy. Large gardens are sprayed with pyrethroid insecticides no later than 5 days before bud opening. Immediately after the trees have flowered, repeated spraying with pyrethroid preparations is carried out to protect the crop from the moth and fruit sawfly.
Any chemical treatments directly during flowering are strictly prohibited: pesticides kill not only pests, but also beneficial insects, including bees and bumblebees.
The flowering period is a very important and crucial stage in the life of an apple orchard, requiring attention from the gardener. The trees will surely thank the caring owner with a bountiful harvest of delicious apples.
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The apple tree belongs to the pink family. Trees can reach a height of 15 m. They have a well-developed system of roots, which are laid at a depth of one and a half meters.
Branches can be divided into 2 main types: fruiting and growth branches.
In which month to cut apple trees in autumn, it is not difficult to determine, and in this regard, they are guided by the characteristics of the variety.
When buying seedlings, their characteristics are always taken into account. Depending on the time of fruiting, varieties are distinguished:
They differ in such characteristics as the shape and height of the trees, the color and size of the fruits and their taste.
The apple tree is considered a simple and affordable crop that any gardener can grow in his personal plot. To do this, it is enough to buy a two-year-old seedling and plant it on your own territory. Such a tree is unpretentious and requires minimal maintenance. The main groups that are distinguished among apple trees are the following:
The apple tree grows well in southern latitudes, but even if you place it in the middle lane, you can hope for a good harvest. This will be achieved through proper maintenance, timely filing and regular watering.
Why do you need to cut the branches of the apple tree? This allows you to get fruits of good taste. Also, thanks to this, the trees themselves grow large and have the correct shape, since there is no lack of minerals.
Among other things, regular pruning procedures ensure the formation of the tree's crown.
The longest shoots are located at the bottom. As you move to the top, they should be shortened. But not only for visual appeal is the formation of the crown. This is very convenient for later harvesting. In addition, the tree gets better ventilation capacity.
Older crops are pruned for rejuvenation when the branches stop bearing fruit. To increase yields, old branches are removed or shortened. In their place, new shoots appear. To understand when to prune apple trees in the fall, you should determine the goals that are pursued by this procedure. It is from her that they are repelled when choosing the timing of the procedure and the pruning scheme.
Speaking about whether it is possible to prune apple trees in the fall and when, more often you have to stop at the time when the sap flow stops. It's spring or fall. This is because the trimmed parts will take longer to recover.
For all other purposes, both spring and autumn are suitable. In the first case, branches frozen in winter can be eliminated. Also in the spring months, the formation of the crown is carried out. The timing of pruning apple trees in the fall falls in September. During this period, there is an active preparation for wintering.
Pruning branches in the fall is carried out according to certain rules. Here are the basic tips:
In winter, crops are dormant. Even small injuries are not able to heal on their own. Several pruning methods are practiced, in accordance with the age of the apple tree.
Low pruning for young crops. The branches that have grown from March to September are selected and a quarter of the total volume is removed. For crops aged 5 to 7 years, medium pruning is recommended. They analyze how many branches were purchased for the entire season and devote one third. Old trees are heavily pruned. They need crown thinning. Half of all children who have grown in a year are removed.
In spring, pruning is carried out before the juices begin to move. It is also necessary to do this at a time when buds and new shoots have not yet appeared. This period falls on the last decade of March and early April. When pruning, it is recommended to remove broken knots that are directed inward of the crown, non-fruiting, weak shoots, branches that touch and do not allow the rest of the shoot to develop normally.
In summer, branches are rarely pruned. This usually carries a preventive purpose. Correction of the crown is also good. When all the branches are covered with leaves, you can see exactly which shoots are growing incorrectly and shading the crown.
In order for the tree to be pruned correctly, you must have the appropriate tools and garden pitch. It is also important to have an idea of how to do the job correctly. As for the tools, you will need a pruner, a hacksaw and a garden knife.
The dimensions of the retainer are selected in accordance with the thickness of the branches. The tools are sharpened in advance so that the cuts are perfect. Uneven surfaces will take longer to heal.
Garden var is necessary in order to accelerate the tightening of damaged areas. It is sold ready-made. You can also make it yourself. It contains vegetable oil and drying oil, grease, beeswax and even lard. It can include alcohol and resin.
For self-production, you can use various recipes. Let's say you can take a pound of rosin and turpentine, 250 g of flax oil. The resulting composition will be semi-solid. It is applied warm to the tapes. They are used to treat damaged areas and sections. As for the paint, it is better to give preference to ocher on drying oil. It must be diluted with linseed oil in the amount of 500 g. White must not be used.
The option of cold liquid vara is also suitable. For this, 10 g of melted lamb fat, wood resin, 250 g of rosin are heated. As soon as the mixture heats up, slowly add half a liter of medical alcohol to it.
The main thing to pay attention to in this case is the ring structure. And if an angle is marked with respect to the parent branch by more than 30 degrees, an influx can be noted at the base. It has a ring shape in which connective cells are actively multiplying.
They provide fast tissue healing. If you prune above this level, the wound will not heal. Moreover, the surface will be open to the entry of parasites and infections. As soon as the pruning is carried out, the cut site is treated with garden varnish.
There are cutting techniques for the external or internal kidney.... In the first case, they resort to a procedure to expand the crown. The branches are pruned, leaving the upper bud, which is directed outward from the trunk. The inner bud is pruned to strengthen the central region of the crown. A part of the branch is left with a bud, which is directed towards the trunk.
According to the pruning scheme, it is necessary to remove branches located inside the crown or containing branches growing at an angle.It is necessary to remove all parts of the branches that are intertwined with each other or in contact. The main stage will be the selection of dry and old processes of the apple tree, which must be removed without fail. They can be identified by how dry their structure has dried or how the bark has cracked.
After that, the top of the apple tree is divided in order to remove damaged branches and twigs. The choice of a specific pruning scheme depends on the age of the apple tree. At the age of five, the culture is fully formed, and therefore fruits appear on it. First of all, this is true for older children who are strong enough to bear fruit. They must be treated with special care. Remove damaged and dry branches.
It is not recommended to cut off the lower part of young apple trees. Take a pruner and adjust only the top to allow the crown to develop properly. The cut site is processed a day after the end of the process. Full processing is required only for old copies. If the seedling was cut directly after planting, for the next 5 years this process may not be repeated.
As an exception, branches that have grown a lot, are damaged, or have begun to dry out are used. After the manipulation, the location of the branches is treated with garden pitch. It seals the cuts, prevents sap from flowing out and allows the tree to adapt quickly. Large areas with cuts are wrapped with polyethylene and secured with electrical tape. As soon as the tree slowly adapts to the new conditions, these materials are removed, leaving only the garden pitch on the cut.
In such apple trees, the main shoot should not be touched. Only the so-called competitive shoots need to be removed. They have an apical kidney. In the future, they are allowed to be used as a clothespin. In order to rejuvenate the old tree and increase its yield, you can cut crops in the trunk area at a level of 80 cm. It is important to rejuvenate in the autumn months, before frost occurs. Due to this, new young shoots will grow.
Beginners often make mistakes. They usually cut off branches from a tree that have not exceeded at the age of 3 years. New shoots do not produce crops and continue to grow vertically. Due to this, the bush becomes too thick. Accordingly, the apples grow very small and have a color that does not correspond to the variety.
The second most common error would be when a large number of branches are left. This refers to those shoots that do not bear fruit, but are located in the very center of the crown. If you do not change old shoots every four years for young ones, the quality of the crop will noticeably decrease. For the trees themselves, this will also have an adverse effect, since they will not be able to sufficiently resist the attacks of pests.
As an exception to the rule, varieties such as Cortland and Paulared can be designated. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that their fruits are formed on last year's processes. That is why pruning is carried out for them in the first decade of June. This manipulation consists in the removal of new increments. Upon completion of the work, two shoots begin to grow. By mid-July, flower buds are laid on them.
It is necessary to build on a specific variety and its characteristics, when planning to carry out the autumn pruning of apple trees. The dates for some hybrids may be slightly shifted. Delicious and Golden varieties require a special approach to pruning. You can increase the amount of harvest by getting rid of annual shoots. Due to this, the apples will grow and increase in size.
The harvest will be observed on the older branches. By applying comprehensive measures that ensure consistent results, the gardener will be able to get juicy and sweet fruits.
In order to plant a cyclamen in the garden, you need a frost-resistant variety. There are two main species that endure low temperatures: Cyclamen purple and Cyclamen Neapolitan (ivy). In places where winter is not particularly rampant, you can plant Cyclamen kosky.
Cyclamen purple, he is Dryakva, he is Cyclamen blushing, he is European. Characteristics:
Cyclamen Neapolitan (ivy). Characteristics:
Cyclamen ivy freezes in winter, but it is capable of recovery. He copes with this task on his own, by self-seeding. For this reason, new flowers may differ in color.
Cyclamen kosky. Characteristics:
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