Lush bloom - rich harvest!
If you carefully study the literature and periodicals, it will become clear that today there are three mutually exclusive views on the problem of falling ovaries and fruits in trees in the garden.
The first group of authors believes that such abscission is a completely natural process in the development of a fruit tree, which allows it to get rid of excessive stress, and one should not fight this phenomenon at all.
The second group of authors, on the contrary, considers it necessary to thin out flowers and young ovaries in advance either by hand or with the help of chemicals, and even without considering either the laboriousness of the first or the harmfulness of the second of these methods.
At the same time, very many summer residents and gardeners, to whom, I include myself, adhere in their practice to the third view, associated with the search for specific reasons for the dropping of ovaries and fruits, in order to have time to take reliable measures to weaken the influence of this factor on the crop.
As practice shows, the most common reasons for the loss of ovaries and fruits are:
• Poor pollination conditions during the formation of ovaries, when a significant part of the flowers remains unfertilized, which results in the cessation of the development of the pericarp and the formation of a separating layer of the peduncle.
Since the main fruit crops (apple, plum, cherry, etc.) are cross-pollinated, it is required not only to have several varieties of trees in the garden, but also the presence of pollinating insects (bees, bumblebees, butterflies, etc.) that feed on nectar is desirable, highlighted by flowers. Naturally, such insects need to be protected in every possible way, especially when spraying the garden with pesticides.
• Freezing of already fertilized ovaries due to late spring frosts.
In this case, you can use either spraying the crown on the buds and flowers with a solution of the drug "Ovyaz" according to the experience of the famous gardener G. Kizima, or furrowing the bark of the tree trunk, as well as the base of the skeletal branches according to the experience of the gardener A. Lobyrev, or treat the crowns with cold water before sunrise according to the experience of the gardener N. Groshev.
With the last technique, which is less known than the first two, the branches of the crown thaw for a long time, since the water released from the cells in the form of tiny ice crystals is formed under conditions of slow heating. With a slight freezing of the tree, as recommended by horticultural guides, you can reanimate the crown by pruning to tops growing from fruit buds.
• Improper nutrition of fruit trees with basic elements or acidic soil in the garden.
In this case, the leaf surface is not able to feed all the formed ovaries and fruits, and the lack of lime for plums and cherries is often fraught with the impossibility of forming a bone.
To prevent the shedding of ovaries and fruits under these conditions, in the first case, either a complex mineral fertilizer or a mixture of urea or nitrate with potassium sulfate and superphosphate in a dose of at least 20 g / m² should be immediately applied to the soil of the trunk circle by scattering or in the form of an aqueous solution , and in the second - abundantly water the ground under the trees with a solution of chalk (at a rate of about a spoon per bucket of water) or ash.
In the latter case, for prevention, it is very useful, no later than August, to spray the plum or cherry trees with a solution of either copper oxychloride (50 g per bucket of water) or Bordeaux liquid (100 g per bucket of water), which prevents trees from getting coccomycosis.
• Lack of moisture in the soil as a result of lack of rain, windy weather or high temperatures.
In this case, due to the limited supply of water to plants, the elements of mineral nutrition necessary for the development of ovaries or ripening of fruits (especially nitrogen) become inaccessible, affecting the trees in the same way as in the case described above with a lack of nutrients.
How to determine the lack of moisture? If, after compressing a lump of soil taken at the periphery of the crown, it crumbles, then there is clearly a lack of moisture in the soil, and the garden needs watering. It is best to water the soil in the evening along the circular grooves made on the periphery of the crown, soaking the soil to a depth of at least 40-50 cm.
Watering combined with fertilizing with fertilizers gives good results. It should be remembered: the more water the fertilizer is dissolved in, the better it is for the preservation of ovaries and fruits.
• Damage to fruit trees by various garden pests, especially moths.
At the same time, one should not be tempted by the use of newfangled drugs advertised everywhere for the treatment of the garden. It is better for this to use infusions and decoctions that have been well tested on the plots based on such plants as dandelion, nettle, wormwood, horsetail, burdock, as well as tomato tops, garlic, sorrel, etc. At the same time, it is possible not only to protect the garden from insect pests, but also to maintain the number of helper insects. I could be convinced of this more than once from my own experience, as well as from the experience of other summer residents and gardeners.
• Removable ripeness of fruits in the garden.
Practice shows that many summer residents often practice both picking fruits too early and too late, without taking into account their removable maturity. As you know, this maturity is determined by the ripening of the seeds, and the full ripening of the juicy and tasty pericarp, for the sake of which fruit trees are grown, occurs later, during the maturation process: 1-2 weeks after harvesting autumn varieties and 1-2 months after harvesting winter varieties ... Unripe fruits, as a rule, are poorly stored, wither, and lose their inherent taste.
The closer the removable ripeness of the fruit, the more they fall off. This is explained not only by any damage, but also by the fact that, for example, in an apple tree and a pear, a layer of the aforementioned separating cells forms between the stalk and the fruit twig.
From what has been said, it follows that one should neither advance nor delay the harvesting of fruits, but one should focus on the browning seeds and varietal color of the fruits. In our zone, all the fruits should be harvested in September, and it is better not all at once, but in stages: first from the lower branches and the periphery of the crown and only then from the middle and upper tiers.
I hope that knowledge of these simple truths will allow inexperienced summer residents and gardeners to take care of fruit plants more competently and reduce the number of falling ovaries and fruits in the garden. They will learn to more accurately identify the causes of this phenomenon and take more effective measures to increase the yield of fruit crops.
Anatoly Veselov, gardener
How to save cherries from ants has been known for a long time - it is necessary to create conditions under which they will be forced to change their place of residence.
The reason for the appearance of these insects is commonplace - cherries create a shadow on the site, which is convenient for organizing an anthill, besides, sweet fruits and accompanying plants create an excellent food base. But their vigorous activity generates a lot of negative consequences. These include the disturbance of the landscape, digging up paths, the spread of aphids, the destruction of the bark of immature cherry trees, the defeat of their root system.
Experienced gardeners do not use chemicals to kill ants. They deprive them of comfortable living conditions, including:
Simple prevention of the appearance of an anthill on the site is represented by periodic digging of the soil. In such conditions, ants will definitely not start.
Ringing. In June, under the lower brush on a fruitful shoot, remove the bark ring and cambium 3-5 mm wide to the wood. The grapes on this shoot will ripen at least 10 days earlier.
Collapsing the escape into a ring. Wrap a long fruiting shoot with an inclined or horizontal ring, then on this shoot both the berries and the vine itself will ripen earlier.
Chasing. To accelerate the ripening of vines and berries at the time of slowing growth, when the tops of the shoots - the crowns - are straightened, they are removed. This causes the growth of lateral shoots and the outflow of nutrients to them.
Twist the vine. When the berries are almost ripe, the vine is twisted over a bunch of grapes, this speeds up the ripening of the vine. The juice from such berries is more concentrated and sweet, and the wine is stronger and more harmonious.
In early August, remove the unblown tomato brushes, pinch the top of the plant and cut off any yellowing leaves. In advance, even in early August, it is advisable to carry out foliar feeding of flower brushes with a superphosphate extract. For this, 50 g of superphosphate is poured into 1 liter of hot water a day before processing. Before use, the solution is carefully drained from the sediment.
In tomatoes, ripening fruits slow down the development of other ovaries. Therefore, the first batch should be removed without waiting until they are fully ripe - then the main crop will be ready faster.
Of course, ripe tomatoes are healthier and tastier. But sometimes it is better to harvest unripe than to lose it altogether. Watch the air temperature: if at night it drops below +10 ° C, and the humidity is high (rain, fog in the morning), the fruits must be picked immediately. If the first signs of late blight appear on the leaves of tomatoes, the harvested tomatoes are not put into storage immediately, but are first dipped in hot water (+60 ° C) for 1-2 minutes and then dried well. It is better to pick unripe fruits with a stalk.
In the first decade of August, the tops of young shoots are pinched off the pumpkin and all female flowers are removed. Do not chase the number of fruits - depending on the variety, there should be 1-5 of them per plant. The number of leaves is also reduced, leaving them at the rate of 5–7 per fruit.
If there is a support nearby, you can hang melon fruits from it by placing them in a net. If the melon is grown on carcasses, pinch off the growing point. When the fruits reach their final size, the leaves covering them with the sun are removed.
Ripening of vigorous varieties of eggplant is accelerated by carefully cutting the stem lengthwise and pushing the incision apart with a wooden stick. This reduces the supply of nutrients and water to the plant, so that it is forced to stop the growth of leaves and direct the flow of nutrients to the fruit.
Can be removed when its leaves turn yellow and die. To speed up ripening, you need to leave the onion without watering for a week or two (this method, of course, works only in dry weather).
To prevent the cabbage from cracking, bend each head several times in one direction or the other until the small roots break off.
Changes in the content of pectin substances in plants indicate that the products of pectin hydrolysis are used in the general metabolism. During the ripening of the pericarp of the fruit, there are significant changes in the activity of various enzymes and the accumulation of pigments. So, in tomatoes, lycopene appears, in apricots - carotene. During the ripening period, most of the fruits acquire a characteristic aroma, which is due to the presence of esters, the synthesis of which takes place with the use of a large amount of oxygen, the ripening fruits accumulate vitamin C, the biosynthesis of which is also possible with sufficient oxygen access.
The action of ethylene is to increase the permeability of the cytoplasm, which facilitates the access of oxygen into the cell and enhances oxidative processes that contribute to the disappearance of tannins and organic acids. Under the influence of ethylene, the activity of enzymes is activated, which accelerates the hydrolysis of starch, pectin substances and the softening of fruits. Research by Yu. V. Rakitin showed that ethylene is formed as a result of anaerobic processes in the tissues of ripening fruits and is released outside. It can be used to artificially ripen green fruits. For this purpose, unripe and green fruits of citrus fruits or tomatoes are placed in a closed vessel along with ripe apples. Ethylene excreted by apples accelerates the ripening of these fruits.
When observing the passage of phenophases, it is necessary to compare the organs of the same name, located in similar conditions. The duration of the period of progressive growth of shoots to some extent depends on the stock. On vigorous rootstocks. in grafted young trees, growth usually ends somewhat later than in dwarf trees. In old age, this difference is smoothed out. The incompatibility of the scion and rootstock will also shorten the growth period.
Fruit ripening occurs almost simultaneously on: different rootstocks, but there may be a difference of several days. In dwarf apple trees, the fruits ripen somewhat earlier than in vigorous ones.
The keeping quality of the fruits of trees grafted on different rootstocks is related to the degree of ripening at the time of picking, as well as to the size. Larger and more ripe fruits, as studies by E.P. Franchuk show, are stored less than smaller and harvested fruits at the optimum degree of ripeness. This, obviously, is the main reason for the lower keeping quality of fruits from dwarf trees, observed in the experiments of I. A. Fraiman, V. I. Budagovsky. and etc.
Acceleration of fruit ripening under the influence of a dwarf rootstock can be practically useful and not useful. For example, in the conditions of Michurinsk, grafting of the North Sinap, a variety with very late fruit ripening, on dwarf rootstocks increases the quality of the fruit as a result of better ripening. At the same time: for Antonovka, this leads to a decrease in value, since the variety from the late autumn group passes into the autumn group and its fruits overripe too early.
The end of the growing season in the presence of full compatibility between the scion and the rootstock of the variety on different rootstocks proceeds simultaneously. The dependence of the duration of the growing season of the scion on the duration of the growing season of the rootstock is not revealed. This is confirmed by long-term observations at different points of research work on rootstocks. For example, under the conditions of Michurinsk, the antipka does not have time to finish the growing season, and the cherry grafted on it ends the growing season at the same time as the cherry grafted on the seedlings.
Growth stimulants are used to treat seeds and plants in order to increase yields, as well as to obtain seedless fruits to accelerate the ripening of fruits to inhibit the development of seeds, tubers, buds and flowers, for example, to prevent the harmful effects of spring frosts on them or to lengthen the flowering period of ornamental plants to delay the germination of potatoes and other fruits during their long-term storage to activate root formation during vegetative propagation by cuttings to prevent premature pre-harvest falling of fruits for the fruit, pre-harvest removal of leaves and drying of plants, etc.
The main advantages of the Yellow scallop tomato are:
Among the disadvantages of tomatoes, yellow scallops highlight the high growth of the plant, which complicates further care and increases the risk of damage to the bush in adverse weather conditions.
The problem of crop safety is relevant both in private households and among large producers, and in retail chains.
Exactly because of this reason advantage when choosing varieties is given to modern immune varieties that ensure high efficiency of their production.
Getting to know the Gold Rush variety will help you prioritize your garden setting.
3-5 ovaries are formed in the axil of each leaf, in addition, when 5-6 true leaves appear, the active formation of stepsons begins. If you do not regulate the load of fruiting, there will be more ovaries than the roots of the plant can feed even with sufficient feeding.
It is recommended to pinch the cucumbers until they reach a height of 1 m, until a sufficient root system has developed. Also, to prevent yellowing, it is recommended to remove the first ovaries before flowering. In the axils of the lower leaves, you need to leave 1-2 greens.
Foliage curling is a common disease when growing sweet cherries in the middle lane and in the south of Russia.
The main reason is represented by diseases that provoke a change in the structure of cherry leaves: the rasp virus of cherry leaves. They are deformed, the intervals of the veins "swell", the shape becomes sharp. To date, no drugs have been developed.
Scab is a common disease in cherries and sweet cherries. It is determined by the appearance on the leaves of brownish olive specks with a diameter of 0.1-0.3 mm. The leaves roll up into a tube, the ends dry out and crumble. The mushroom Fusicladium cerasi provokes malaise, which in the winter period persists in dried fruits and fallen leaves. Prevention is presented:
What the scab looks like on a cherry is shown in the photo.
Coccomycosis. It affects the foliage, affects the taste of the fruit, in the absence of treatment leads to a fatal damage to the tree. At the beginning of the season, red pimples, characteristic small red-brown dots, appear on the leaves of the cherry, but by summer they form pinkish convex areas, where the cultivation of fungal spores takes place. The process ends with the yellowness of the leaves, their folding and falling off. The causative agent is the spores of the Blumeriella Jaapii fungus. Favorable conditions are represented by oversaturation of environmental moisture. For the treatment of cherries, Bordeaux liquid, iron and copper sulfate are used. Processing is carried out:
The symptoms of cocomycosis cherry disease are clearly distinguishable in the photo.
Clasterosporium or perforated spot. Determined by holes in cherry leaves. They are formed from brown dots, growing into spots with a red faucet border, the middle of which crumbles. Gum-flowing cracks are formed on the bark. Treatment is represented by timely pruning of cherries with mandatory burning of waste and subsequent spraying with 3% Bordeaux mixture. The lesions of the bark of the tree are cleaned and treated with 1% copper sulfate before covering with garden varnish.
A considerable concern among amateur gardeners is the question of why the leaves of cherries turn yellow and what to do about it. The reason lies in the disease of the tree with chlorosis. As the disease progresses, cherry leaves turn yellow due to nutritional deficiencies. Such conditions provoke spring freezing, stem rot. In the absence or improper treatment, the leaves turn brown, and the trunks and branches die off. Cherry chlorosis is shown in the photo, and their treatment is as follows:
Prevents the appearance of pests on cherries using the following compositions: