Dogwood is not often found in our area. But since this plant has unsurpassed useful properties, it is worth thinking about how to start growing it in a summer cottage.
Planting a dogwood and subsequent care for it is an absolutely not complicated procedure, which even for a novice gardener can do.... This shrub is unpretentious, and at the same time has delicious berries.
Kizil prefers the warm climate of the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, where it grows in mountain forests, on sunny edges, as well as in thickets of other shrubs. In addition, it grows in the territory of Ukraine, Crimea, Central and Southern Europe, as well as in Western Asia. On the territory of Russia, dogwood is successfully cultivated in various regions - Moscow region, Krasnodar Territory and other regions.
The beginning of flowering of the common dogwood falls on March, and the end - in April. Fruits ripen closer to the middle of autumn, depending on the region of growth. When the fruits are ripe, they begin to fall off the bush. The ripeness of the dogwood fruit can be determined by taste. The crop is harvested every year in September, and the roots - at the end of November..
For long-term storage of berries at home, they are cut off as they begin to ripen. The fruits are placed in small baskets where they ripen., and then stored at a temperature of 0 - +2 C.
Nice, sweet and sour tasting with a specific aroma, dogwood fruits are often consumed fresh, and experienced housewives are in a hurry to buy dogwood to make exquisite jams, jellies, jams, juices, compotes, marmalades, or simply fill the fruits with sugar and store. Also, berries can be preserved by freezing.
In its raw form, dogwood berries are stored in a refrigerator (in a plastic bag with holes) for no more than 12 days.
Dogwood can be propagated using a bone, i.e. germinate it. To do this, take ripe berries, free the bone from the pulp and place them in boxes with wet sawdust or moss for one year, regularly maintaining a moist environment. This method is used to stratify the seeds before planting them. The seed of this plant is not divided into cotyledons. In this regard, it should be placed in the ground no deeper than 3 cm. Unstratified seeds germinate only after 2 years, while not all... Sprouted seeds germinate in the year they are sown.
Taking care of the seeds is simple: watering, feeding, at the beginning of growth, shading from hot sunlight. During the first year, seedlings grow up to 3-4 cm, by the end of the second - up to 10-15 cm... Seed-grown dogwood berries are harvested 7-10 years after sowing.
The varietal properties of dogwood, like all fruit plants, retains during vegetative propagation. Dogwood can be propagated by grafting, green cuttings and replanting. The most efficient way - reproduction by budding, the survival rate of the eyes is 92-97%
The best period for planting shrubs on open ground in the southern regions is autumn. It is not difficult to determine the time for planting dogwood - as soon as poplar leaves begin to fall... It is recommended to plant this plant in the fall, since during spring planting it is necessary to plant it in a rather short time: between the time the soil warms up and the period when the buds of the bush begin to bloom.
In the autumn period, dogwood is planted no later than mid-October, 2-3 weeks before the onset of frost... Well-watered and well-watered shrubs manage to take root, tolerate winter well and begin to grow rapidly in early spring.
Autumn planting has several advantages:
Autumn planting also has certain disadvantages.:
Sometimes freshly picked cornel berries with pericarp are planted in August. Germination in this case is 70-80% after 1.5 years from the day of sowing..
During planting, certain rules must be followed.:
Below is a detailed description of the process of planting dogwood in the garden.
During the acquisition of seed, attention should be paid to the root: the more powerful it is, the faster the plant will develop. Weak, chapped, thin roots with obvious signs of soreness should be treated with concern. You need to purchase powerful seedlings with 2-3 root branches at least 30 cm in length... The bark on the trunk should be intact and the branches intact.
To fully ensure the viability of the plant you like, you need to slightly cut the bark. If the incision is green - means the choice is correct, if brown - you will have to continue searching for a suitable dogwood.
The seedling rhizome should be well moisturized. In the case of long-term transportation, it is wrapped in a damp material and placed in a plastic bag. If the roots have dried up during the transportation period, they should be placed in water for several days before planting.... If, after the purchase, it is not possible to immediately plant a seedling, it is added dropwise at an angle in a shaded place. It is important here that the soil covers all the roots, as well as half of the seed. A richly watered plant in this form can be stored for a month.
What is the most suitable place in the country for growing dogwood? Any site is suitable for an unpretentious dogwood. To harvest good yields, the soil must be fertilized, drained, moist and alkaline..
To test the acidity of the soil, you need to drip 2 drops of table vinegar on a handful of earth. In an alkaline environment, small bubbles appear, indicating the required amount of lime.
Dogwood does not take root in swampy soils. In addition, clayey areas and poorly lit areas should be avoided. For the first 5 years of growing this shrub, partial shade is perfect.... Then the dogwood can be transplanted into a sufficiently lit area of the garden. To save space, it is advised to plant a shrub between old trees, which, with their shadow, will protect its root system from drying out. Dogwood gets along with each of the fruit plants, the only exception is the walnut.
To plant the dogwood correctly, you must follow the following steps:
Dogwood does not need special care. The main thing is to water it constantly for one year from the time of planting. Watering is carried out 2 times a week. To prevent water from spreading over the territory, it is worth making a furrow around the seedling.
In the first growing year, you need to monitor the condition of the leaves. If they begin to dry out and curl, this indicates that the plant does not have enough moisture. Also for the first 3 years, gardeners need to monitor the cleanliness of the soil near the dogwood... Weeds growing at a distance of 1 m from the plant should be disposed of.
To ensure improved air exchange of the layer in which the roots of the plant are located, it is necessary to periodically loosen the soil about 10 cm deep. To make it more convenient to deal with this process, it is necessary to loosen it the next day from the moment of watering.
For high yields, the shrub is fertilized several times throughout the year. It is believed that during the growing season, dogwood needs nitrogen-phosphorus supplements, and in the autumn time - potassium supplements.
Some gardeners alternately introduce humus and compost, or every year at the beginning of the summer period they pour water with chicken droppings under the plants in a ratio of 10: 1... Others make fertilizers from 0.03 kg of ammonium nitrate and one bucket of humus. At the end of August, 0.5 liters of wood ash is poured under an adult plant. And at the end of the harvest, it is advisable to add 0.1 kg of superphosphates. However, lime is recognized as the most important fertilizer. Thanks to her, potassium is present in the soil, which affects the future number of fruits.
When caring for dogwood, regular soil tillage is essential.... It is carried out annually at least 6-7 times, regardless of the age and fertility of the shrub. They start processing in the spring, and finish in the fall, after collecting all the fruits. The final stage of loosening the soil around the plant is its mulching.
If there is a need to transplant a plant from one site to another, the technique of reproduction by dividing the bush is applied.
For one year, this method can be used in early spring or late autumn. The plant is removed from the soil and freed from old branches. The root is cleaned of soil, and the shrub is cut into several parts... The roots are trimmed, the old shoots are removed. After that, the individual parts are planted in prepared holes.
The common dogwood is a long-liver. It can produce excellent harvests for 100 years.... Therefore, if you plant a dogwood, it will delight more than one generation with its tasty and healthy berries.
Perennial flax belongs to the flax genus and to the Flax family. A herbaceous plant with a vertical root and shoots reaching a height of up to 80 cm. The bushes are decorated with green leaves 5 cm long and 3 mm wide, having a pointed shape and small denticles at the edges.
The flowers of perennial flax 2-3 cm in diameter, which have a white, blue color and are located on straight peduncles, attract attention. They consist of 5 petals that fall every day and grow overnight, blooming only on sunny days before lunch.
Pleases with flowering from July to August. After that, fruits appear, which are boxes up to 7 mm long, in which small, flattened seeds with an oil coating are formed.
Blooming flax not only decorates the landscape, but is actively used in medicine, cosmetology, since its seeds have a therapeutic effect and have a rejuvenating and healing effect on the human body:
Also, the plant is widely used in cooking, it is added as an oil in baking and in the manufacture of various dishes.
Radish has a short growing season - on average, it takes 4 weeks from sowing to harvesting. Therefore, many gardeners, when stable heat comes, plant radishes in open ground every 7-10 days - and so on throughout the spring. As soon as the old batch of root crops is harvested, a new one is on the way!
Most varieties of radish can be sown continuously throughout the spring - from March-April to the end of May, and then in August.
On the longest and hottest days of summer (especially in June) there is a break. Why? The fact is that radish belongs to short-day crops. Ideally, to grow a root crop, it needs 10-12 hour daylight hours. If the day lengthens to 13-14 hours, and the air temperature rises to 25 degrees or more, most varieties of radish begin to bloom (shoot). In this case, the root crop is formed small and lean, since the plant spends all its strength on flowering and seed formation.
However, if you really want to have fresh radishes on your table all summer, you can do the following:
The second option - planting non-shooting radish varieties - is the most reliable and will not require unnecessary gestures on your part. Look for information on the tendency to shoot on seed bags.If the variety is not prone to flowering, this will be indicated by the manufacturer.
Duro Krasnodar radish can be grown throughout the season, it is resistant to shooting (flowering) and flabbiness
After planting miscanthus in open ground, it is necessary to properly care for the plant, thereby accelerating its growth rate.
The flower needs regular and abundant watering with a hose, especially in hot dry summers. In the first two years, immature plants get rid of weeds, loosen the soil and sprinkle with mulch 3 cm thick.
Important! It is not required to loosen and weed the soil in an adult plant.
In the first year after planting, the plant does not need feeding. After this time, miscanthus needs regular fertilization for good growth.
During an active growing season in May, fertilizing is applied in moderation. A large amount of fertilizer causes the soil to become oversaturated with nitrogen. This element contributes to the rapid growth of the cereal, which negatively affects the wintering of the plant in the form of lodging of the stems. In June, the fan will benefit from feeding in the form of sodium and potassium salts of humic acids, in August — potassium-phosphorus.
This culture does not like transplanting, but it is necessary in case of dying off of the central part of the bush. To do this, you need to dig up the plant, separate the damaged stems from the healthy ones and plant them back. Periodic division and planting of the flower will help prevent dying.
To give the plant a well-groomed look, at the beginning of spring it is carefully trimmed with pruning shears.
Note! At other times of the year, this manipulation is dangerous for miscanthus, since moisture accumulates in the cut hollow stumps, contributing to the decay of the plant roots.
Cypress trees stand out significantly against the background of other conifers. They have a conical crown with drooping or outstretched needles. The most common of these is the Elwoodi Lawson cypress, which is prized for its frost resistance and is suitable for growing in regions of the middle lane. Its compact form makes it possible to grow the plant at home, but for this it is necessary to comply with certain rules for its maintenance.
The mountain slopes of North America are considered to be the homeland of the cypress, but you can also find it in the eastern strip of Asia. It is an evergreen tree and reaches a height of about 3.5 meters. The annual growth of Elwoodi Lawson's cypress is within 5 cm, in some cases up to 10 cm, therefore, in order to grow an adult tree, you need to be patient. A ten-year-old tree does not exceed 1.5 m in height. The shape looks like a wide cone with tightly closed vertical shoots, the diameter of an adult tree at the base is 1–1.2 m. The needles have a rhombic acicular shape with a blunt end and have a strong coniferous aroma. The scales of adult foliage acquire a characteristic bluish tint.
There are several varieties that have certain differences:
Young trees of Elwoodi Lawson cypress have needle-like leaves, which is considered a characteristic difference from other conifers. The tree is monocotyledonous dioecious. During the period of spring flowering, male flowers of a purple hue and female flowers of green color are clearly expressed, which appear at the ends of the shoots. As a result, cones form on them, in each of which no more than 2 seeds ripen.
To keep the cypress Elwoody Lawson in the room, certain conditions must be adhered to. The main condition is moderate air temperature, which should be 20-25 degrees in summer and 10-15 degrees in winter. A gradual decrease in temperature to +8 during a short daylight hours is allowed. It is best to take the tree out to the balcony or loggia for the summer, but subject to diffused sunlight.
To keep a cypress at home, it is necessary to provide it with increased air humidity. To do this, it is sprayed at least 1 time in 3 days with settled water, which is a prerequisite for full growth.
On especially hot days, you can increase the humidity by placing a pot with a plant in a container, where you put expanded clay on the bottom and pour water. The larger the diameter of the container, the more moisture will evaporate.
Elwoodi Lawson's cypress is considered a light-loving plant, but withstands light partial shade at a young age. With a lack of light, the shoots stretch out, and the needles take on an irregular shape.
Direct sunlight should be avoided, which cause burns to the foliage, therefore the best place for the summer period is the northern window, but if shading is provided, then the cypress can also be grown on the eastern window sills.
It is necessary to water the cypress carefully, so as not to allow the earthen coma to dry out, but also to exclude its overflow. In the summer, watering is recommended plentiful and regular, which alternates with spraying the foliage, in winter it is controlled in accordance with the air temperature, the lower, the less often watering.
The cypress needs a constantly moistened substrate, since it cannot stand it drying out, which ultimately leads to the death of the plant.
Use soft water, which can be obtained from melted snow, freezing in a freezer or from an aquarium.
During the active growing season from March to September, the plant is regularly fed, which contributes to its full growth and development. To do this, use any fertilizer for conifers or bonsai every 10 days.
Elwoodi Lawson's cypress does not require frequent transplants. Such a procedure should be carried out only when the plant itself indicates its necessity. Signs of this are growth retardation and deformation of the needles. Transplant feature:
You should not choose too large a pot for a cypress, since a small root system will not be able to master the entire earthen lump at once, which will eventually lead to stagnation of moisture in it and cause the development of root rot.
Elwoodi Lawson's cypress is suitable for creating hedges in the country and in the garden, as well as component parts for the landscape. It belongs to the 7A frost resistance zone, where the temperature range in winter is from -15 to -17.7 degrees. In more severe winters, it needs additional insulation with spruce branches and peat.
During the first wintering, young seedlings are wrapped in a spunbond fabric cover. Regular thaws in the cold season with subsequent frosts negatively affect the bark of the tree, so deep cracks appear on it, which spoil the appearance of the trunk.
Planting outdoors is best done in spring or late autumn. Elwoodi Lawson's cypress prefers a sunny location, but is also suitable for partial shade. Preparation of the pit for planting is carried out in advance. Peat, sod and leafy soil, rotted manure, complex mineral fertilizers are added to it. Broken brick or pebbles are poured at the bottom, which will provide drainage of the earth. After abundant watering of the planting pit, a cypress is planted, excluding the deepening of the root collar.
Do not plant cypress in places where moisture stagnates.
During the period of active growth, it is recommended to apply fertilizer for conifers every 10 days, this is especially important in the first 3-4 years after planting in a permanent place. Mature trees do not need frequent feeding, since a developed root system is able to provide the plant itself with a sufficient amount of nutrients.
On especially hot days of the year, the plant needs abundant watering of at least 10 liters of water under 1 tree and regular spraying once every 5 days. If cracks appear on the trunk, it is necessary to lubricate them with garden pitch, and wrap the exfoliated pieces tightly.
It is recommended to prune every spring to form the correct cypress shape with the removal of dried shoots. This procedure is necessary to stimulate the growth of the lateral pagons.
Sometimes, when growing cypress, you can encounter some diseases and pests, so you should be ready to take drastic measures to eliminate them:
|Description of the problem||What measures to take|
|Root rot||It is expressed in drooping leaves of the plant. To combat it, it is necessary to transplant the cypress to a new place, while removing the rotten roots and treating with the fungicide Previkur or the biological product Fitosporin|
|Brown shute||It occurs as a result of high humidity and thickening of the plantings. Expressed in a gray bloom on dead needles. Especially noticeable after the snow melts. For treatment, they are treated with fungicides, such as Fundazol or Bordeaux mixture|
|Shrinking branches and bark||A characteristic sign of the disease is that the needles and young shoots dry for no apparent reason. The development of pathogens occurs when they enter the cracks in the trunk. For treatment, treatment is carried out with similar fungicides, it is recommended to cover cracks and wounds in the bark with garden varnish in a timely manner|
|Spider mite||Signs of its appearance are growth retardation and deformation of the needles. In the future, you can see the cobweb at the top of the cypress tree. It is recommended to use acaricides to combat it, such as Actellik, Fitoverm or Talstar.|
|Shield||Small brown growths appear on the shoots, which can be easily removed with a fingernail. In the future, the characteristic stickiness of the needles appears with a large accumulation of the pest. To fight, it is necessary to water the plant with Aktar solution and additionally spray the needles with Aktellik|
To avoid the appearance of fungal diseases and pests, it is recommended to carry out preventive treatment once every 2 months during the warm period of the year.
Evudi Lawson's cypress can be propagated:
Rooting takes place in spring or summer. Cuttings are cut from the shoots by 10-15 cm, clearing the bottom of the needles. Before planting in the ground, the sections are powdered with a root former Kornevin or Heteroauxin, after which they are planted. The required temperature is at least 22-25 degrees. A small greenhouse is made above the cuttings, which will provide protection from negative external conditions and help create optimal air humidity inside.
All further care of the cuttings is reduced to regular watering and removal of condensation from the walls of the greenhouse. After 2-3 months, the cuttings will have roots, after which they begin to adapt to the external environment by removing the shelter for 15 minutes, with each subsequent day the time interval is increased by half an hour. For better adaptation, it is recommended to spray with Epin's solution at least 2 times.
The seed propagation method is more laborious and time consuming. Before planting seeds, it is necessary to stratify them in the refrigerator. To do this, seeds are planted in a container with a moistened substrate to a depth of 0.5 cm. The container is covered with foil or glass and placed in the vegetable section of the refrigerator for 10 days. After the time has elapsed, the container is taken out and placed on a warm light windowsill. Seedlings appear within 2 months. Then the matured and grown seedlings are planted in separate pots. In open ground, it can be planted in the spring of the next year.
Reproduction by layering is the simplest method, but with its help a limited number of cypress trees can be obtained. At the beginning of summer, the lower branches of the tree are bent to the ground and fixed with staples. The fracture is sprinkled with Kornevin, and then with earth. With successful rooting, young seedlings can be detached from the mother plant the next spring and transplanted to a permanent location.
Elwoodi Lawson's cypress deserves attention and is able to decorate any personal plot. Its growth and development depend on the observance of all the necessary requirements for care.
The Helone plant can be purchased in specialized stores in pots, which can then be transferred outdoors from mid-spring to late summer. Planting and grooming outdoors is not a difficult process, but it requires some skills.
In the first year after transfer to a permanent place of growth, regular watering is required, loosening the soil as needed and removing weeds. When planting in clay soil and sufficient lighting, fertilizing is applied at will, but their presence in the soil increases the decorative effect of the flower, making its buds bright and colorful.
This flower is grown in almost any climatic zone, with the exception of the north. Leaves and stems are removed for the winter, and the root system tolerates wintering well and the temperature drops below zero. Shelter is necessary only for young shoots in the first and second years after planting.
The flower is absolutely not picky about the level of lighting. Grows well in partial shade, which can be thrown by hedges, larger trees, shrubs, walls of houses. But even in the bright sun, it grows intensively, delighting flower growers with good flowering and decorativeness.
If it is possible to choose a site for planting, plant it on the beds and flower beds directed to the south, southeast. In this case, the culture will receive enough light during the day.
Too much sunlight leads to intense evaporation of moisture, which is detrimental to the plant. If Helone grows in bright sun, take care of increasing the frequency of watering and additional moistening of the soil.
One of the main agrotechnical requirements is the selection of soil that will satisfy the needs of the plant. The soil should be clayey, almost constantly wet, since in the wild, plants live on the banks of reservoirs and ponds. With regular and frequent watering, it can intensively grow in bright sun.
Optimal soil composition:
When planting, you can add 80-100 g of complex fertilizer in granules to this mixture. Also take care of drainage. The layer should be small, since the plant is not afraid of waterlogging. Use broken bricks, pebbles and other materials to organize drainage.
About 100 varieties of this flower are known, but only a few of them are grown in our region. It is these species and varieties that will be described in more detail below.
Helipterum pink - a plant of this species can grow up to 1.5 meters in height. The stems of the flower are thin, but very strong and strong. The leaves are small, dark green with a grayish bloom, rough. The flowers are large enough, bright pink in color, the petals are arranged in several rows, ideally symmetrically around the bright yellow center.The best varieties of the species: Red Boni, Album, Round dance, Goliath.
Humbold's Helipterum - the plant can reach a height of 40 cm. The flowers are small, about 3 cm in diameter, but they gather in small shields. The leaves are elongated and dark green with a bluish bloom. The flowers range in color from bright yellow to bright orange. Most often, the variety Baby San is used for planting, its flowers in diameter can reach up to 6 cm and are considered the largest of this species.
Helipterum Mengles - Plants of this species are very short, they grow in height up to a maximum of 30 cm, but they are very bushy and lush. The flowers are small, no more than 3 cm in diameter, the color of the petals ranges from bright pink to burgundy, the middle is bright yellow and large.
There are many more types of geliterum, this allows gardeners to choose the one that suits them the most. Thanks to this variety, you can make an original and extraordinary landscape design of the garden, which will delight you with its extraordinary beauty and unique composition.
In order to grow healthy, powerful and strong plants, it is necessary to follow the rules for the care and cultivation of Helipterum in the open field. And then the plant will delight with its abundant and long enough flowering, no pests and diseases will be scary.