Grapes in the greenhouse - planting and care features


The short Russian summer does not indulge in an abundance of sunny days, so the idea of ​​planting grapes in a greenhouse seems quite logical and correct. Growing in greenhouses significantly increases the chances of getting a good harvest of grapes, but only if agricultural technology is followed.

Where is the best place to plant grapes outdoors or in a greenhouse?

In some regions of Russia, due to the peculiarities of the climate, it is simply useless to arrange vineyards in the open air, the berries do not have time to ripen until the end of the season. In such conditions, gardeners have no choice but to move heat-loving plants to the greenhouse. However, in the south, the greenhouse method is also used: local growers successfully grow super-early varieties and sell berries profitably at the very beginning of the season, making a solid profit. In heated greenhouses, the first crop can be harvested already in May-June!

Vineyard photo

The choice in favor of a greenhouse is worth making for the following reasons:

  • grapes ripen much earlier than outdoors;
  • you can plant various table varieties that are demanding on climatic conditions;
  • plants are protected from frost in late spring, from severe frosts in winters with little snow, from hail in summer;
  • the greenhouse allows you to avoid the fight against wasps and other pests, which means you do not have to use chemicals;
  • it is more convenient to work with plants in such conditions, especially in winter and early spring;
  • ripening berries do not crack due to precipitation;
  • yield increases;
  • grapes in taste and size are no worse than those grown in the fresh air.

Video about the features of caring for grapes in a greenhouse

On top of that, you can plant tulips, strawberries, radishes or greens in the greenhouse using the free space between the vines.

Where to start growing grapes in a greenhouse?

For planting indoors, it is better to take early and very early grape varieties. According to the experience of gardeners, good results are shown by: Timur, Queen of Vineyards, Early Gourmet, Prometheus, Super-early Elegant, Arcadia, Victoria, Laura, Krasa Nikopol, Alladin, Moldova, Krasa Severa, Presentabil, Gift to Zaporozhye, Kesha-1.

Do not grow varieties with dense brushes in a greenhouse, since fungal diseases can damage them due to poor ventilation. Try to choose grapes with a loose brush (for example, Codryanka).

Prepared seedlings should be planted in rows, retreating from the walls of the greenhouse at least half a meter. There should be at least a meter between the rows, otherwise impassable thickets will turn out. In a small greenhouse, you can plant grapes in the northern corner and distribute their shoots horizontally along the wall so that the fruiting vines are directed upwards.

Landing is carried out at the end of February in the usual way, without any special features. The main thing to remember is that grapes need loose soil (you can mix loam with peat and sand, adding mineral fertilizer) and good drainage.

In the photo grape seedlings

After placing grape seedlings, stretch the supporting wires along the walls of the greenhouse at intervals of 20-30 cm. The topmost wire should be located no closer than 35 cm from the glass, otherwise the plants will suffer from sunburn.

Features of caring for grapes growing in a greenhouse

In greenhouse conditions, the grapes will feel good only if the temperature is right. It should be increased gradually, starting from +10 degrees at the time of planting and up to +24 degrees by the budding period (+16 degrees will be enough for grapes at night). When the berries begin to set and ripen, temperatures up to +30 are allowed during the day. They control the temperature in the greenhouse using a slightly open window or arrange forced ventilation. And to protect from the hot summer sun, you can use a greenhouse shade net, which is sold in specialized stores.

Watering greenhouse grapes deserves special attention.:

  • immediately after planting the seedlings, the soil is thoroughly moistened;
  • after a week, repeat abundant watering and mulch the earth with compost or mowed grass;
  • throughout the summer, the vines are watered no more than once a week in hot weather, soaking the ground well with water;
  • when the berries begin to ripen, watering should be carried out less often, avoiding waterlogging, otherwise the grapes will crack.
To prevent the berries from bursting due to waterlogged air, you should not water the plants in the evening, and at night it is useful to open the window on the leeward side.

In the photo watering the grapes

Along with watering, it is convenient to apply fertilizers. First, greenhouse grapes are fed with potassium every two weeks, with the appearance of flowers, fertilizing becomes weekly and fizzles out by the time the color of the berries begins to change. Nitrogen or a complete mineral fertilizer can come in handy if the vine is not growing well.

You need to pollinate the grapes manually, simply by hitting the stems or shaking them, although in some varieties you have to collect the pollen in the palm of your hand, gently tapping the flowers, and then transfer it to the pistils.

In order for the berries to receive more light and develop well, it is imperative to pinch the greenhouse grapes several times per season and remove unnecessary shoots, leaving the strongest, with the best inflorescences. Tie the selected stems to a wire and make sure that they grow in the right direction. Cut the lateral shoots of the second-order grapes to the first leaf, the sterile stems to the fifth leaf. By the end of the season, it is recommended to leave a couple of shoots near the top of the main stem so that excess juice goes into them. This will further help keep the grapes from cracking.

Video about growing grapes in a greenhouse

Do not forget to also thin out the bunches when the grapes are no larger than a pea (they pour quickly). Use scissors with long blades, removing the inner berries first, and then the smallest ones. A distance of about 7-8 mm should remain between the berries, and it is desirable to leave more grapes at the top of the bunch. As the bunches ripen, it is necessary to periodically cut off the cracked or diseased berries.

In autumn, cut off the fruiting branches to one bud, the main stem by two-thirds. For the winter, it is enough to bend the vine and cover it with straw, or dry sawdust, old blankets, padding polyester or other permeable covering materials. If the roof of the greenhouse is removed, then the grapes winters well under the snow.

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Is it possible to grow tomatoes for open ground in a greenhouse

Tomato varieties differ not only in the taste and size of the fruit, but also in the method of planting the bush. Tomatoes are grown in open or closed ground, like many vegetables. Depending on where the bushes will be planted, the required variety is selected.

However, for various reasons, the bush may be planted in unsuitable conditions. Then, in order for it to bear fruit, you need to properly care for it.

In the article we will tell you what are the differences between street and greenhouse varieties, as well as whether it is possible to plant street tomatoes in greenhouses.


Features of the method

The main feature of this growing method is its simplicity. In fact, there are practically no significant differences from planting in the ground, except that the seedlings must be planted in a container, that is, in a bucket.

This method of planting is available to absolutely everyone, does not require any specific knowledge or preparation, so even if you are a beginner in this field, knowledge of this agricultural technique will not be difficult. The main thing is to deal with some of the nuances, and then everything will go like clockwork, and the tomatoes in buckets will certainly thank you with a good harvest.

How it works

The success of this method is quite simply explained: in a limited space, that is, in a bucket, the soil and water warm up much faster, which contributes to a faster ripening of the crop in the future.

Such plantings are much easier to care for, due to the fact that they are mobile, in the first place, and also water and fertilizers go directly to the rhizome of the plant, and do not dissipate in the soil.

Tomatoes in buckets not only ripen early, but also differ in larger sizes, high quality and keeping quality, due to the fact that they do not burst, but remain elastic for a long time.

Important! The process of replacing soil in containers is not as laborious as in the beds throughout the greenhouse. All that needs to be done once a season is to replace the soil in the containers.

Are there any restrictions

Tomato varieties that have a too powerful root system are not suitable for planting in buckets. You should also give preference to those tomatoes that do not have too leafy shoots. When using this method, it must be borne in mind that watering must be carried out more often than when planting in beds.


Business registration

When starting the industrial cultivation of vegetables in a greenhouse all year round, a business must be registered, since corporate clients prefer to cooperate with legal SPDs. In addition, the presence of an official status somewhat simplifies the procedure for obtaining various quality certificates and other accompanying documents. A novice entrepreneur in the process of creating a greenhouse business can use one of the following forms of ownership:

  • Personal subsidiary farm. Formally, there is no limit to the number of greenhouses for this option, but the total area of ​​the site should not exceed 2.5 hectares. In addition, the owner of a private household does not have the right to use the labor of hired workers, which turns growing vegetables at home into a family business. No official registration is provided for by the legislation, except for the need to obtain from the administration a certificate that the farmer owns the corresponding land allotment
  • Peasant farm. For peasant farms, there are no restrictions on the area of ​​the site, the number of hired workers and the annual turnover of the enterprise. An enterprise is a collective form of ownership of citizens united by family ties - spouses, their parents and children, brothers and sisters. The head of the farm, determined at the general meeting, must receive the TIN of the entrepreneur and register with the tax authorities, and in the process of work, regularly transfer contributions to the relevant funds
  • Individual entrepreneurship. By analogy with peasant farms, there are no restrictions for individual entrepreneurs, which makes it ideal for a large greenhouse enterprise with a large number of hired workers. If there are several owners, it is more expedient to choose an LLC and form a charter capital of 10,000 rubles.

In the process of registering a peasant farm, individual entrepreneur or LLC, an entrepreneur must choose a taxation system for the Unified agricultural tax with payment of 6% of the profit, and also indicate in the application the corresponding OKVED code for growing protected ground vegetables (01.13.12).


Care for strawberries in the greenhouse

Strawberries in a greenhouse in winter require special care and close, almost every minute attention. After all, it is worth once overcooling or undernourishing the plants, and the entire plantation can lose the crop or die, and all the work and investments will be in vain.

How to prepare a greenhouse for planting strawberries

After the construction and technical equipment of the greenhouse is completed, it's time to start preparing the soil. If growing berries is a business for you, and you want to know exactly how many strawberry bushes to plant in the greenhouse so that it is profitable to grow it, then you should not save on the soil. Use coconut fiber, rock wool, or a ready-made substrate.

If you grow berries exclusively for your own needs, then you can prepare the soil yourself. To do this, spill the garden soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, add into it a bucket of rotted manure and low-lying peat, half a bucket of coarse-grained river sand, 70 g of superphosphate, 2 glasses of ash and 20 g of carbamide per 1 sq. Mix the resulting soil thoroughly, remove all stones, plant debris, larvae and insect eggs.

Conditions for growing strawberries in a year-round greenhouse

How soon the first flowers and ovaries will appear on the strawberries depends on the growing conditions of the bushes. Typically, each variety requires specific planting and growing conditions. But there are also general rules for all that guarantee a good harvest.

  1. During planting of seedlings, the temperature in the greenhouse should be 10-12 ° C, during the growth of greenery, it is raised to 20 ° C, and before flowering up to 24 ° C.
  2. The optimum humidity in the greenhouse is about 85% during planting, and not higher than 70% when strawberries are blooming.
  3. When watering, water should not get on the flowers and leaves, so drip irrigation of strawberries is necessary.
  4. In addition to windows for ventilation, which can be opened in summer and at positive temperatures, a forced ventilation system should be thought out for the winter.
  5. Strawberries need at least 8 hours of daylight. Under such conditions, it will bloom two weeks after planting, and the berries will tie in a month and a half. If you double the daylight hours, then the first flowers will appear in 10 days, and the berries - in 35-37 days. It is necessary to light up strawberries continuously only on cloudy days, the rest of the time you can do it in the early morning (before the sun appears) and after its sunset.
  6. Strawberries need to be fed every 14 days. To do this, you can take ready-made nutrient solutions or prepare a mixture of 40 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium salt per bucket of water.

Treatment of strawberries from diseases and pests

In warm and humid greenhouse conditions, not only strawberries develop well, but also pests and diseases affected by such unexpected conditions for winter. They will attack the winter greenhouse with triple force, so it is better not to forget about prevention, so as not to lose such expensive berries.

All diseases typical for strawberries on the street are also found in its greenhouse relatives, and the treatment is no different.

To avoid these kinds of problems, follow a few simple rules:

  • plant only healthy seedlings
  • do not overdo it with nitrogen fertilizers and do not skip potassium-phosphorus fertilizers
  • promptly remove diseased, dried or broken leaves and stems
  • donate diseased bushes if it was not possible to save them when the first signs of the disease appear
  • before the ovaries appear, treat the bushes with Fitosporin, Alirin or Glyocladin in order to prevent diseases.

Now that you know how difficult it is to grow strawberries in a greenhouse all year round, you will understand why these berries are so expensive in winter and they are rarely found on the shelves.


Conclusion

Knowing how to properly grow cucumbers in a greenhouse, following all the recommendations at each stage of growth, you can not only collect an excellent harvest, but also enjoy the process.

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