In a cool and short summer, vegetable growers and summer residents are happy to choose tomato varieties that are compactly located on the site, are quite easy to care for and give a bountiful harvest. Breeders from Siberia are working on the development of plants that mature early and are resistant to diseases.
"Pink Miracle F1" is an unpretentious variety of pink tomatoes with a high yield. It can be interesting for any summer resident - this variety ripens very quickly. It takes only 86 days from the beginning of the germination of the plant to the first fruits. Tomatoes are ideal to use in the kitchen straight off the branch, but they are not very suitable for canning. Tomatoes are juicy, watery - they are not stored for a long time. Another argument in favor of planting is simple plant care. It doesn't require any special tweaks. It is necessary to water, loosen the soil, weed and fertilize in a timely manner. And you can grow "Pink Miracle F1" both outdoors and in a greenhouse. On average, 2 kg of tomatoes are harvested from each bush. This variety of hybrid tomatoes is resistant to diseases, but can be affected by the Colorado potato beetle, therefore, it requires attention and timely removal of insects.
This variety is determinant - low and giving an early harvest. From the moment of planting to the first fruits, 86-100 days pass. Fruits are flattened, bright red, juicy and fleshy, weighing up to 750 grams. Most of all tomatoes are suitable for fresh consumption in salads. Not stored for a long time - harvested in the form of sauces or adjika. The variety is bred for a temperate climate, and in northern latitudes it is recommended for planting in a greenhouse. On average, each bush yields up to 3.5 kg of fruits. Does not require excessive maintenance, but loves good watering and feeding. Very large fruits can break branches - the bush must be tied up. Plant height can reach 1.5 m. "Pride of Siberia" can be susceptible to the invasion of whiteflies and wireworms, so you need to periodically inspect the plants and spray with pest preparations.
This variety was bred by breeders for cultivation in central Russia. From the time of planting to ripening of the fruit, it takes about 110 days, so we can say that this is a mid-early variety. Suitable for outdoor cultivation. But in cold summer conditions, only planting in a greenhouse is recommended. Tomatoes are heart-shaped, and weigh up to 300 grams. Velvet Season has a thick rind and firm flesh, so it keeps well. The taste is very sweet. The height of the bush reaches 60-70 cm. The variety is resistant to diseases, and although the fruits are not very large, the harvest is usually plentiful and will satisfy even an experienced vegetable grower - up to 4.5 kg of tomatoes can be obtained from one bush.
The variety is bred for cultivation in the open field or greenhouse. The first tomatoes can be removed from the branch after 110 days from the moment of planting - "Tsar's gift" mid-early. The fruits have a distinctive feature - a bright pink color with a pearl tint. The mass of a tomato can be up to 500 grams. The bush reaches a height of 1 m. The skin of the fruit is dense and practically does not crack, so tomatoes can be stored and transported for sale. Care does not require special conditions. It is necessary to water and loosen the soil in a timely manner, as well as top dressing. This variety practically does not get sick, but requires periodic inspection for the appearance of slugs and root parasites.
A well-known mid-early variety that is loved by vegetable growers and gardeners for its fleshy sweet heart-shaped fruits. They weigh up to 300 grams. Within 115 days after planting, it will be possible to get the first tomatoes. It is better to eat the fruits right away, as there is a risk of damaging the peel during transportation or storage. On average, up to 3.5 kg of tomatoes can be obtained from a bush. When growing a variety in a greenhouse, it is worth considering that it grows strongly and requires garters and supports. Also "Danko" does not tolerate excess moisture - its skin cracks. The variety is susceptible to diseases transmitted from nightshades, so these plants should be planted at a considerable distance from each other. It is also worth regularly inspecting the bushes, as whiteflies and spider mites often appear on them, and they will have to be removed for a long time.
"Gulliver" refers to early maturing varieties - it allows you to collect the first fruits as early as 95 days after planting in a greenhouse or open ground. Bright orange-red cylindrical tomatoes grow small - about 200g. And in general, up to 7 kg of fruits can be harvested from the bush. The height of the plant can reach 70 cm. The fruits have a rather thick skin - they are suitable for transportation to the place of storage or sale. The variety does not require special care, but it is necessary to thin out the lower leaves and tie the branches, which can break under the weight of the fruit. In the greenhouse, the plant is affected by thrips or aphids, therefore it is necessary to inspect, weed, ventilate and remove insects.
An experienced gardener in the area in front of the house usually has beautiful and bright flowers that delight the eye of others every summer. Perennials have a special place in the flower garden.
Perennial flowers make life much easier for gardeners, because they do not need constant planting. They tolerate frosty winters well and grow back every spring.
What are the types of perennial flowers? Is it difficult to care for them? You will find answers to these and other questions in this article.
Ornamental perennial plants
There are a huge number of perennial flowers, but there are those that gardeners love the most. These flowers are found in almost every flower garden. Here is a small catalog with the most popular names for perennials:
Varieties of perennials for summer cottages that will bloom all season: https://6sotok-dom.com/landshaftnyj-dizajn/tsvety/mnogoletniki/cvetushhie-vse-leto.html
Dividing a bush is the easiest way to propagate a perennial
Perennial flowers are usually divided into the following types:
How to choose flowers for a perennial flower bed: https: // 6sotok-dom. com / landshaftnyj-dizajn / tsvety / mnogoletniki / kak-sdelat-krasivuyu-klumbu.html
Herbaceous rhizome perennials
This group of perennial flowers (astilba, hosta, phlox paniculata, etc.) consists of a huge number of varieties. There are no special planting requirements, the main thing is that the soil is not frozen. Almost all varieties tolerate winter well.
These beautiful flowers grow both in the sun and in the shade. They do not require special care; they reproduce by cuttings or by dividing rhizomes. Plants grow very quickly, consider this detail when planting. Fertilizing flowers once a year is enough.
Seeds can be used to propagate delphinium, primrose, hellebore, aconite. Before planting these flowers, the seeds should be soaked in water so that they sprout faster. Before the shoots appear, they must be regularly watered and fed with fertilizers.
If you plan to plant seeds in the spring, you need to soak them in potassium permanganate, dry and put them in a dark place. Autumn crops are carried out after the onset of cold weather. Perennials of this species do not need replanting, they reproduce on their own.
Tubers of such perennials (gladiolus, corydalis and others) are planted in the first months of spring or late autumn. These flowers need good lighting and abundant watering, and by the end of summer, you need to add top dressing.
Tubers of some flowers need to be dug out before frost, but you can only do with covering. Tuberous perennials bloom for a long time, and thanks to their rich color scheme, they allow you to create amazing flower combinations.
Such perennials (tulips, daffodils, hyacinths, etc.) bloom at the very beginning of spring, and wither by the end of summer. This type of perennials reproduces by bulbs and their babies.
Bulbous plants love well-lit places, and in general they are unpretentious to care for. Best time to plant: late summer and early fall. Bulbous plants do not need replanting and shelter for the winter.
Draw your attention to: you can fertilize bulbous perennials only once a year - in the spring. With proper and timely feeding, flowers will grow even in a small garden.
It should be borne in mind that these plants (crocus, crocus, liatris and others) are moisture-loving, so they need to be watered abundantly and regularly.
They are usually planted in the fall, but corm perennials bloom all season. After the end of flowering, these plants cannot be cut off. Wait until the leaves turn yellow.
Perennial flower arrangements
Many gardeners in Belarus, Siberia and other regions prefer perennials, although annual plants are distinguished by the fact that they bloom all summer. However, perennial plants have many advantages, thanks to which they are firmly established in every garden.
Let's take a look at their pros:
There are very few disadvantages of these plants.:
What is a continuous flowering flower garden and how to grow it from perennials: https://6sotok-dom.com/landshaftnyj-dizajn/tsvety/mnogoletniki/kak-sozdat-tsvetnik-nepreryvnogo-tsveteniya.html
Loosening is one of the important concerns of the gardener
Perennial flowers, despite their unpretentiousness, still require some care. Many of them, at the end of flowering, can fade and fall.
Some perennial species require more frequent watering. If the plant is infected with a fungus, the diseased leaves should be removed manually. The second method is treatment with preparations based on copper.
It is necessary to process the stems very carefully, because tubers can also be infected from them.
Advice for gardeners: if the plant has faded after flowering, do not regret, cut its stem to the very root, and then fertilize it. In just a couple of weeks, the plant will bloom again. So, you can cut off the already blossoming buds of roses, this will cause re-flowering.
Remember to combine the plants correctly with each other. You should not make the flower beds chaotic and too bright. Beautiful, lush flowers are the best reward for any gardener!
For an overview of perennial flowers for a summer residence, see the following video:
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The most numerous and popular among early spring flowers are, of course, all kinds of bulbous plants. They are planted, as a rule, in the fall, and now in those regions where spring comes early, people are already admiring the first flowers. The article Bulb wonders: bright ideas for spring flower beds will give you inspiration and spring mood, and we will talk a little more about the very first bulbous ones blooming in our gardens.
It was called a snowdrop for a reason - this cold-resistant plant blooms as soon as the snow melts in the garden. The first snowdrops appear at the beginning of March - of course, depending on the climatic conditions of your area. Snowdrops live up to their name
it is best to settle in conditions close to the places of its natural habitat - along shrubs, under trees, which in early spring do not yet give a thick shade. If you want snowdrops to bloom in a flower bed, please note that a plant is - ephemeroid
: at the end of a rather short vegetative period, its aboveground part dies off. The snowdrop reproduces by seeds (thanks to the ants dragging the seed pods, it can settle in your garden on its own) and daughter bulbs. Galanthus is planted in the fall in the spring after flowering, you can divide the overgrown nests. Well, if you want to know more about this messenger of spring and admire its photographs, see publications
The earliest among crocuses are botanical species: crocus tommasini
, golden-flowered crocus
, crocus ankyra
, crocus impera
and a number of others - in suitable climatic conditions, they can bloom as early as February. A little later the baton is picked up by large-flowered Dutch hybrids
, which impress not only with the size of the flowers, but also with their bright expressive colors. Botanical crocuses bloom earlier, but hybrid ones are larger. Photo by the author
These amazing flowers are appropriate almost everywhere: they are planted in flower beds, and in small groups on the lawn, and under bushes and trees, they are also suitable for container planting. You can find out more about growing crocuses, their classification and use in the garden from the article Heralds of Spring - Crocuses. Spring-blooming crocuses are planted in the fall, it is better to use them for planting baskets, because crocus bulbs are extremely popular with rodents. Both a sunny area and a corner in the diffused shade of deciduous shrubs and trees are suitable for these flowers. There is no need to dig up the bulbs every year - they do this only when they want to share an overgrown nest. Photos of various crocuses and stories about these spring flowers can also be found in the publications:
An exceptionally unpretentious, surprisingly fast growing and extremely attractive plant worthy of settling in any flower garden. There are quite a few species and varieties of muscari, and they can vary in terms of flowering, but the very first ones bloom in April. In the article "Mouse hyacinth" - muscari, I talked in detail about these flowers, their varieties and my impressions.Muscari are bright and unpretentious flowers. Photo
It is quite simple to grow muscari: it is enough to plant them in the chosen place in the garden at the beginning of autumn. Please note: each onion produces a lot of "babies" every year, so a thick curtain will soon form at the landing site. Moreover, it is almost impossible to completely dig up the bulbs: small "children" will certainly get lost and sprout again next spring, therefore, if you are not sure that the chosen place is final, plant muscari in suitable baskets (you can make homemade ones - from large plastic bottles with holes made in them for drainage). Muscari look best in group plantings and go well with other spring-flowering plants. And if you pick up species of different flowering dates, then they will delight you from early spring to the end of June. You can read about Muscari and see their photos here:
The flowers of these crumbs resemble irises, but from the genus Iris
they were separated into an independent - Iridodyctium.
This is a bulbous plant, not tall (up to 10 cm), but extremely graceful and attractive. Iridodictium is a tiny but graceful flower. Photo
Iridodictiums are big sun lovers, consider this nuance when choosing a place for planting. Do not forget that, like most bulbs, this plant - ephemeroid
: shortly after the flowers wither, the leaves will begin to die off. But at the time of their early flowering (from late March to April), they look great both as companions for other bulbous plants, and on their own. Due to their small stature, iridodictiums will be appropriate in rocky gardens, their blooming curtains are spectacular and among the bright fresh greenery of lawn grass. They are also suitable for containers and can be used for forcing. The bulbs are planted in the garden in early autumn. You may also be interested in publications:
Sunny golden flowers spring
will give you a wonderful mood. Moreover, they appear when the garden has not yet been colored with bright colors. Erantis bloom - depending on the climate - begins in March or April. Surprisingly, this flower is not afraid of even late snowfalls!The sunny flowers of erantis give a spring mood. Photo
Tiny plants (no more than 10 cm in height, flower diameter - about 2.5 cm) look best in group plantings. They are spectacular both by themselves and in combination with other early spring bulbs - iridodictiums, crocuses and snowdrops. In nature, erantis lives in the forest, so a place under deciduous trees and shrubs will be the most successful for planting it, but any other area located in partial shade will do. Vesennik is sensitive to soil moisture: it does not tolerate drought or stagnant water. Read more about this plant in the article
Gold placers of spring: erantis, or spring men
The most common is Siberian beetle
- blooms in favorable conditions at the end of March. Most often, it can be recognized by its bell-shaped drooping flowers of a sky-blue hue, but in varietal forest trees, flowers can also be white.Proleska thrives best in natural-style gardens
Scylla (scrub) is amazingly unpretentious: it grows both in sunny places and in partial shade, and even in the shade it does not require special care. The only requirement that this plant makes is a permeable soil, moist at the time of flowering of the woodland, but without stagnant water. When choosing a place for planting, keep in mind that the scrub grows well, multiplying both by daughter bulbs and by seeds, so it will have to be controlled. The conditions of a garden designed in a natural, natural style will become ideal for Scylla - here she will feel at home. Well, for more information on how to make friends with this plant, read the articles by Scylla, she is a scrub and the Flowers of my childhood are sculls.
There are not so many herbaceous perennials that bloom in early spring, but each of them is remarkable in its own way.
This is a wonderful evergreen perennial, unpretentious and disease-resistant. In Europe, it is often called the "Rose of Christ", because the bloom of the hellebore often falls on Easter holidays. The hellebore is often called Christ's rose in Europe.
In nature, there are more than 20 species of hellebores, but hybrids are most often found in the garden, blooming from the beginning of April. Among these plants there are varieties with red, white, pink and yellow flowers, but the most popular - 'Atrorubens' - has bright purple flowers with a slight greenish tinge. The hellebore is planted in the spring, as soon as the condition of the soil allows. In the southern regions, where the climate is mild, autumn planting is also possible. I recommend reading the article Hellebore - the flower of winter, which tells in detail about this popular plant, its cultivation and care. Perhaps you will also be interested in the post Oh, frost, hellebore.
This plant is very diverse: scientists know about 550 species of primroses, of which only a small part is grown in culture. I talked about what primroses are and how to grow them from seeds, I told in the article Primrose: keys to the gates of heaven or fairy houses? But it is not at all necessary to devote time to such a laborious task - you can buy ready-made plants. Primroses are adorable primroses. Photo
Primroses tolerate division and transplantation well, I happened to transplant them even when they were in bloom. Just be careful when purchasing lush flowering bushes in flower shops: often these are hybrids grown on all kinds of stimulants, stuffed with fertilizers for abundant flowering and a healthy appearance. Deprived of "doping", they do not survive. In my experience, it’s safer to buy flowering primroses in the marketplace — from gardeners who sell their surplus plants. Primroses bloom, depending on the species, from April (and in warmer regions - from March), abundantly and for a long time. Moreover, in some species, re-flowering is possible in late summer - early autumn. They can be grown not only in the garden, but also on balconies, loggias, terraces - this is a good container plant. Our publications will help you get to know the primroses better:
The evergreen periwinkle retains its foliage even under the snow, and as soon as the soil begins to thaw, young shoots appear, and in April it is covered with numerous pale blue flowers. Blooming periwinkle. Photo
The basis for varietal periwinkles was periwinkle
), which can be found in the wild in the forests of Southeast Europe. In addition to the traditional blue, varietal plants can have white, lilac and even red flowers, both simple and double. The color of the foliage can also be different: green or variegated (with white and yellow patterns). Usually, periwinkle flowers are sky blue, but varietal flowers can also have other shades. Photo
Periwinkle prefers wet (but without stagnant water) semi-shady and shady areas of direct sunlight, he does not like, and in drought needs watering. Otherwise, it is a completely undemanding plant that grows quickly and is easily propagated by division and cuttings. It is enough to purchase one bush, and over time it will grow as widely as you allow it). The best time for planting periwinkle is considered April-May, but I will say from practice: I happened to plant rooted cuttings in early summer and plant the acquired plant at the end of August - the unpretentious periwinkle takes root without problems. Of course, this list cannot be called exhaustive: it could well be supplemented by hyacinths and botanical tulips, white flowers and chionodoxes, anemone and liverwort ... - but we must stop sometime. I think gardeners, whose spring has already come, will supplement my story not only with references to primroses, but also with their photographs. What flowers are the first to bloom in your garden?You may also be interested in publications:
Homeland - Europe (Alps, Pyrenees, Apennines). It grows in the undergrowth of light mountain forests, in the subalpine and alpine mountain belts, at an altitude of 1500-2850 m above sea level. sea, settles on leached limestones.
Evergreen, low, densely branched shrub. Height 0.7 m, crown diameter up to 1 m. Creeping crown. The bark is grayish-brown. Leaves are leathery, ovate, 3-4 cm long, up to 1.5 cm wide. Above are dark green, shiny, below with rusty scale-like glands. Flowering is noted from late May to late June (30 days). The flowers are pink-red, rarely white, up to 2 cm in diameter, collected in inflorescences of b - 10 pieces.
The fruit is a capsule, the seeds are light brown, ripen in October. It grows slowly. Annual growth is 1-3 cm. Photophilous. It tolerates calcareous soils, but covered with a thick humus layer, preferably acidic (pH 4.5). It is quite winter-hardy. Alpine slides, single and group plantings on the lawn with the participation of rusty rhododendron will decorate the garden.
In GBS since 1964, 2 samples (3 copies) were grown from seeds obtained from Bremen (Germany, 1976), seedlings - from arboretum "Novy Dvor" (Slovakia, 1988). Height 0.5 m, crown diameter 60 cm. Vegetation from 17.V ± 5 to 14.X ± 7, 150 days. It grows slowly. Annual growth is about 1, less often 2 cm. The first flowering and fruiting from 5 years. Blooms from 20.V ± 4 to 15.VI ± 3, 27 days. Propagated by seeds, dividing the bush, layering. Winter hardiness I. Seed germination 76%. 22% of cuttings are rooted when treated with 0.1% IMC solution for 16 hours.
Greetings to you on my website dedicated to suburban design and gardening!
My name is Ruslan Terentyev, I am fond of flowers, landscape design, garden plants and trees. My inner world is open to everything natural, natural, so I have great pleasure I have been running my project since 2009.
During this time, I have already published a lot of useful and beautiful material. Country tips, ideas for your suburban area... Own experience in growing and breeding ornamental and garden plants.
I travel a lot around the world and visit beautiful parks, botanical gardens, where I try to photograph interesting ideas and garden techniques used by leading experts.
In the column on the right, you can see the menu items broken down into categories. Scroll, read and gain knowledge! Happy viewing!
Small primrose - R. minima
The lowest of the primroses, growing in the mountains of Central and Southern Europe, where it is found in rocky areas and in rocky cracks on acidic rocks.
Reaches 5 cm in height and grows in width up to 12 cm. It blooms in May and June, sometimes covering part of July. Unfortunately, in the lowlands it does not always develop as successfully as in the mountains. In the garden, he needs acidic soil rich in humus, mixed with peat and small pebbles. Loves moisture, so it should be planted on a slope away from the sun.
Name: comes from the Greek 'primus' - early, first, for very early flowering.
From the history: Among the many beautiful plants, people have long identified primroses. They did not get lost among the bright splendor of roses. peonies, tulips, gladioli and other equally catchy plants. This is surprising when you remember that most primroses are small, humble plants with small flowers. Probably, they attracted the attention of a person by their early flowering, when the heart, yearned for the long autumn and winter, longs for a meeting with spring, with the revival of life. It is here that these delicate golden-yellow flowers appear, coloring the meadow, the corners of the park and garden. And although there are other plants that bloom earlier than primroses, it is the primrose that belongs to the name "primrose" - blooming first. The people also call them "rams" (young leaves, wavy and pubescent, similar to the backs of lambs), "keys" (flowers are collected in an inflorescence that resembles a bunch of keys).
Primrose was known in ancient times and was considered the medicinal flower of Olympus: it was called the dodecateon (flower of the 12 gods) and it was believed that it is a cure for all ailments. One of the first spring flowers, the primrose looks like a bunch of golden keys according to the Old Norse sagas, these are the keys of the fertility goddess Freya, with which she opens spring. According to another legend, these are the sprouted keys to paradise, which St. Peter dropped it to the ground. In some areas of Germany, these are the keys to marriage since the days of the Celts and Gauls, primrose was part of a love drink. According to Danish legends, the elves turned their princess into a primrose when she fell in love with a mere mortal. According to ancient Greek legend, primrose arose from the body of the young man Paralysos, who died of love, whom the gods turned into a fragrant flower out of compassion, therefore they believed that it cures paralysis, and in medicine until recently it was called a paralytic herb. The miraculous power of the primrose covered many areas: in Piedmont it was believed that it protects from devilish obsessions, drives away demons, makes the bones of innocent people who died in Germany crawl out of the ground, he was credited with the magical property of a rupture of grass - to open treasures in Little Russia, it was a talisman protecting life in In England, it was a magical flower in which tiny fairies and gnomes live. It is the primrose in Switzerland that is considered a symbol of happiness, an emblem of love for the homeland.
The primrose enjoys a special affection of the British during the development of Australia, the shipment of primroses to the British who left there took on extraordinary proportions.In England, there are several clubs for only auricle primroses, not to mention other species. Auricles are the most popular primroses in England. If in 1597 only a few varieties of this species were grown there, then in 1629 a large number of them were already described. Like tulip mania in Holland, England was struck by auriculomania. New varieties of primrose auricle were grown everywhere by both very rich and poor people. Primroses, primarily auricles, have become a favorite national flower. In the 17th - 19th centuries, a huge number of their varieties, including terry, were obtained in the country. The varieties bred over 350 years ago were called Florist Flowers. They were planted according to certain rules and established standards. However, by the end of the 19th century, these rules had lost their popularity. During the first and second world wars, people had no time for flowers, and the collections were preserved only in the associations of primrose lovers.
But since 1945, a revival of the culture of primroses in general and auricles in particular has begun. In modern England, primroses are held annually, where both new and preserved old varieties are demonstrated. There is something to show and see. Amazing grays, greens, oranges, reds, two-color and terry, as if sprinkled with chalk - these auricles never cease to delight and amaze. In general, primroses began to be grown in gardens as early as the middle of the 16th century. They competed successfully in Europe with lush carnations. They were depicted in paintings, dishes.
The healing power of the spring primrose has long been known among the people: in Germany, dried flowers were used as a nerve-strengthening tea, they were mixed with wine in England, young leaves are eaten in spring as a salad, and the roots are used as a spice in Russia, it was considered a flower of vigor and health. Flower arrows were used for food, diaphoretic and soothing decoctions were prepared from leaves and flowers, ointments for eczema with powder from dry leaves were treated for scurvy with roots boiled in milk, they were treated for consumption and fever. One leaf of primrose replenishes the body's daily need for vitamin C, which makes it an indispensable remedy for exhaustion and anemia.
Description: the genus primula, or primrose (Primula L.), is one of the most numerous genera of plants in the world flora. According to various authors, in nature there are from 400 to 550 species of these plants. Moreover, scientists are still discovering new species of primroses. Most of them (about 300 species) grow in Asia, the Himalayas and western China. Only 33 species grow in Europe, and 20 species in North America. Only a few species are found in Africa, South America, in Arabia, and one species (imperial primrose - Primula imperialis) - on the island of Java.
Many primroses in nature grow in humid places - along the banks of mountain streams and streams, in wet meadows. For example, Florinda primrose can be found in Tibet, near watercourses at an altitude of about 4000 m, and fine-toothed primrose - in the alpine meadows of the Himalayas at an altitude of 2300-4300 m. The popular primrose auricula (auricular) comes from the mountains of southern and central Europe, where it lives in cracks rocks, between stones, rising to a height of over 2000 m. Wet meadows, banks of streams and streams are the favorite places of the beautiful Bulley primrose growing in China at an altitude of about 3000 m. Japanese primrose lives in the mountain valleys of the Kuril Islands and Japan. As you can see, primrose babies live and thrive in such harsh conditions, where other, large plants cannot grow. The mountains are a kind of pedestal that raises primroses high above other plants. Some of them grow near snowfields, in very specific ecological conditions. Such species are difficult, and more often impossible, to grow in flower beds. In general, plant lovers have long noticed that the most beautiful mountain primroses cannot be grown in gardens. If some species grow in culture, they turn out to be short-lived. However, to the delight of flower growers, there are many species that can be cultivated without much difficulty. In general, about 200 species of primroses are now grown in the world, i.e. a third of all known ones.
Location: some species of primroses grow in open areas, others most often in shade, among the grasses of mountain and foothill meadows, bushes and trees, on the northern mountain slopes, in crevices of rocks, between stones. But both those and other species in the middle lane are best grown in shaded areas or in areas shaded at midday. This can be a shady corner of the garden, among fruit or other deciduous trees, or a flower garden, illuminated by the sun only in the morning, located on the east side of the house. On rocky hills, primroses are best planted from the east, north or west.
The soil: the water regime of the soil is an important element of successful plant cultivation. For primroses, it is especially relevant. Indeed, in nature, they grow on moist soils, often near snowfields, along mountain streams or rivers. Therefore, in flower beds, they should not lack moisture, but the soil should not be damp either. Most species do not like stagnant water. Wet, well-drained soil is what they need. Primrose especially requires a lot of moisture in spring. At this time, in the mountains, where most of them come from, the snow melts, and the plants literally bathe in the water - for this reason, they are not afraid of the cold spring water. In the middle lane in April and May, when growth and flowering begins, most primroses are often dry and sunny. The lack of moisture in the soil during this period, which is responsible for growth and development, leads to the weakening of plants and a decrease in their decorative effect. Therefore, in the spring, you need to maintain the soil on the site in a moist state, make sure that it does not dry out. Moreover, flower growers successfully grow some primroses (for example, Siebold's primrose) even submerged in water for 1-2 cm! It is not recommended to plant primroses in high ridges, where the ground usually dries up quickly.
Soil nutrition and fertilizing. In nature, some species of primroses, for example Haller, Julia, shaggy, coarse-haired, grow on rocky slopes, settle between stones, in crevices, where the nutrient soil layer is small. Other species (Japanese primrose, fine-toothed primrose, Florinda, Bissa, Siebold, etc.) are plants of meadows and forests, river valleys, river banks, preferring fertile soils and shading. In the garden, both those and other species need to be grown on nutritious loose soils. Particularly good are the cultivated loose clay soils, which contain a lot of nutrients and retain moisture.
Heavy clay soils are not suitable for primroses. To improve them, add sand (a bucket per 1 m2), vermiculite, chopped sphagnum moss, and also apply up to 20 kg of organic fertilizers per 1 m2 or replace the top soil layer (20 cm) with a prepared nutrient mixture. In the second and third years, it is enough to apply only mineral fertilizers, and phosphorus and potash fertilizers - in the fall.
Light soils, where there are few nutrients, require at least 15-20 kg per 1 m2 of organic fertilizers: decomposed humus (5 kg), compost or leaf soil (10 kg), weathered peat (5 kg), which not only enrich the soil with nutrients substances, but also improve its structure and water regime. For a more lush flowering of plants, 20 g of phosphorus and potassium and 10-15 g of nitrogen fertilizers are added to the mixture. If all the components are not there, then the mixture is made up of two, introducing them in such an amount: 10 kg of compost soil and 10 kg of humus or 15 kg of humus or compost soil and 5 kg of peat. Peat crumbs or leafy soil should make up a quarter of the organic fertilizer applied.
Care: they do not require much care. The soil should always be moist, loose and free of weeds. In loose soil, roots form faster at young rosettes. During the growing season, the plants are fed three times. The first feeding is carried out in early spring, the second - after 2-3 weeks, the third - at the end of July - mid-August with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Primroses are very responsive to slurry application during the growing season. Every year, 2-3 cm of loose nutritious soil is poured under the bushes of primroses, and it is even better to cover the entire area occupied by plants with this layer.
Within 3-4 years, primroses' bushes grow, and new rosettes begin to press against each other. Therefore, after 3-4 years they are seated, ie. divide the bushes. If this is not done, the plants become smaller, flowering weakens, decorativeness is lost.
For a good overwintering of plants, it is important to preserve the rosette of leaves until late autumn, as it serves as a natural shelter. It is recommended to cover such species as fine-toothed primrose and common primrose with dry wood leaves with a layer of 10 cm for the winter. Japanese primroses, Clusiana, Sibthorp, Siebold are recommended to be covered in late autumn with a sheet of up to 10 cm.
Experienced flower growers recommend plucking out rosettes of leaves from fine-toothed primroses, Japanese, Florinda, leaving no more than three to four in each bush. This technique contributes, firstly, to a more lush flowering of plants, and secondly, to a decrease in the incidence of leaf rot and root collar.
Diseases and pests: primrose can be affected by stem rot and root collar, rust, white rust, bacterial leaf spot, anthracnose, powdery mildew, jaundice, cucumber mosaic viruses and tomato spotted wilt, leaf, stem and gall nematodes, aphids, weevils, spiderwebs , flea beetles, etc.
The greatest harm to primroses is caused by the spots caused by the fungus Ramularia cercosporella.
The disease manifests itself in late spring and early summer. On the leaves, rounded or angular spots are visible, at first pale, then gray or brown with a yellowish border. In the middle and late summer, a gray or white bloom forms on the spots - conidial sporulation of fungi. The affected leaves gradually dry out, the flowering of the plant is weakened, the primroses lose their decorative effect.
Control measures. Diseased leaves are removed and destroyed. Plants are sprayed with foundation (2%), topsin (0.2%), zineb (1.5%). Bordeaux liquid (1%), copper oxychloride (0.5%) are also used. Plants are processed in early spring and after flowering. In the fall, primroses are sprayed with nitrafen (1%).
Observations have shown that Japanese primrose, fine-toothed primrose, Florinda primroses are not affected by spots, single spots are found on auricular primrose, Pallas, pink, an average degree of damage (up to 25%) is noted in spring primrose, common, high, strong (50% and above) - at the primrose Julia, pruhonitskaya.
Reproduction: fruits in most species ripen in July-August. Propagated by primroses by seeds, dividing the bush and leafy cuttings.
Primrose seeds quickly lose their germination. For example, the germination capacity of seeds stored before spring sowing, especially at high temperatures (20 ° C), decreases by 20-40% or more. In addition, seed germination, even if stored for only a few weeks, will be prolonged. Therefore, it is best to sow freshly harvested seeds - immediately after harvesting in open ground, or better in boxes installed in the ground, so as not to lose seedlings. In the greenhouse, sowing is carried out in early February. For most plants, a substrate of a mixture of leaf humus (2 parts), turf and sand (1 part each) is suitable. Sow them superficially, no more than 5 grains per 1 cm, press and place in a plastic bag. Close and put in a freezer for 3-4 weeks at a temperature not higher than minus 10 ° C. After freezing, the crops of pink primrose, n. Pubescent, n. Florinda and n. Japanese, put on the window, shade from the direct sun, try not to overdry. The temperature for germination is 16-18 ° C. The germination of seeds that are sown in winter is accelerated if the crops are covered with snow for several days. Seeds of primroses sown in autumn germinate in 14-18 weeks, and seeds sown in spring - in 20-30 days. Sowings of high primrose and p. Siebold after freezing are set in the dark at the same temperature as for the above species. As soon as the seeds hatch, they are rearranged to the light, but with a tint.
Common primrose and p. Fine-toothed do not need freezing. Crops of the first type are germinated in the light, the second - in the dark. After the emergence of seedlings, the packages are slightly opened and gradually they begin to accustom the seedlings to the air, but continue to shade from the direct sun. After 10-12 days, when the seedlings grow and get stronger, the packages are removed. Seedlings of primroses grow very slowly. It is important to keep the substrate underneath constantly moist.
When one or two true leaves appear, the seedlings dive into the boxes. You can dive seedlings directly into the ground to a permanent place. The distance when planting for small species is 10 - 15 cm, for larger species - 20 - 30 cm. It is necessary to plant primroses in such a way that the plantings are closed and there is no open space between the rosettes of leaves, since the plants do not like this. For two years, they are grown, covering for the winter with a layer of foliage of 10 cm. They are planted in a permanent place in the spring or autumn of the second year. Young plants bloom in the second - third year.
Sometimes, in unfavorable winters, plants freeze out or vytuyut. So that the garden does not remain without their bright flowers, it is always necessary to protect the seeds of last year's collection until spring. They should be stored in a cool place (for example, on the balcony or just outside the window, in basements, refrigerator), mixed with sand or earth.
Japanese primrose must be periodically propagated by seeds, since 2-3-year-old plants have more lush flowering.
Primroses are usually divided in the third or fifth year of cultivation, when they grow enough, in early spring or summer, at the end of July - August. You can do this immediately after flowering. The plant must be dug up, thoroughly shaken off the ground from its roots, the remains of the earth must be washed off with water in a bucket. It is possible to divide a plant without such preparation, but it is much more convenient to work with pure plants.
The best time for planting bushes is August and the first half of September. With a later transplant, they may freeze and suffer from bulging in the spring (in this case, after the snow melts, the plants must be pressed tightly to the ground). Such plants often freeze out in winter.
Most primroses are spring flowering plants. April and May are the period of their active growth. After flowering and ripening of seeds, primroses have a period of summer dormancy. In early August, the plants "wake up" - the growth of roots and leaves is activated, flower buds are laid, which will turn into beautiful flowers next spring. This feature of the development of plants determines the optimal time for their division: August - the first decade of September or early spring, although species common in gardens (Julia's primroses, tall, multiflorous, Siebold) tolerate transplanting well even at the time of flowering. But it is advisable to divide the fine-toothed primrose blooming in spring in early spring or in August. The plant tolerates later division worse, it can freeze in winter.
Summer flowering, insufficiently winter hardy in the middle zone of Florinda primrose, Bissa, it is better to plant Japanese in the spring, before flowering.
Before digging, the plants are watered. With a knife, the plant is divided into several parts. The size can be chosen arbitrarily, but each part must have at least one renewal bud. The surface of the cuts should be sprinkled with ash. The prepared planting material should not dry out. It must be planted in the ground as soon as possible, labeled and watered.
Division allows not only to obtain planting material, but also to rejuvenate the plant. If primroses grow in one place for a long time without transplanting, then the flowering of old bushes weakens, and the rhizome with the bulk of the roots, located close to the soil surface, is exposed. In winters with little snow, such bushes can freeze out, in hot weather - dry out.Therefore, every year in the fall, starting from the second year, nutrient soil should be added to the plants in order to cover the rhizome.
Many species, such as primrose auricula, are propagated by small rosettes of leaves, which are easily rooted in cold greenhouses or in beds, with an obligatory shading. It takes root in 15-20 days. Here they winter, and in the spring they are planted in a permanent place. The toothed primrose can be propagated by root cuttings. In large specimens of this species, several thick roots are separated. To accelerate the formation of buds in the upper part of the root, a longitudinal incision is made 1-1.5 cm long. The prepared cuttings are planted in light soil to a depth of 3 cm. Further care is carried out according to conventional technology.
Usage: unpretentious cultivation, cold resistance, early and very long flowering made primrose indispensable in places with cool and humid climates.
It is recommended to plant primroses under a not too dense canopy of trees and in open sunny places in single and mixed plantings with other perennials. If you make even a small collection of representatives of this vast genus, it will decorate the garden from early spring to mid-summer. From primroses, you can choose varieties for any place in your garden. You can create ridges from them, groups on the lawn, decorate waste corners, rocky slides. Primroses perfectly decorate flower beds of various shapes and configurations, artificial mini-ponds, garden vases.
In any garden there are always more or less uncomfortable places on which, it seems, nothing good will grow. In this case, primroses will help out. Among them, you can choose a group of the most unpretentious species, which, although they do not shine with special brightness and beauty, will nevertheless delight with their freshness. These types include spring primroses (P. veris), common (P. vulgaris), large-calf (R. macrocalyx). In addition, these species have many garden forms and hybrids. More vivid and decorative, but also not particularly demanding on growing conditions, are species such as fine-toothed primroses, tall, auricular, Japanese primroses. The flowering of primroses is quite long and stretches from April to the end of June. Primroses look good both in single plantings and in groups. When choosing plants for group plantings, it is necessary to take into account the flowering time and the size of the leaf rosettes. Plants blooming in turn will increase the decorativeness of the flower bed, and closed foliage will not allow weeds to appear. A group of varieties and garden forms of spring primrose will look very good on the lawn. In early spring, it will delight you with abundant flowering, purity and brightness of colors. After planting a pure spring primrose, you can use its leaves to make vitamin salads.
Primroses do well not only on flat horizontal areas. Neither an alpine slide nor a decorative reservoir can do without them. Julia's primroses (P. juliae), ear, rocky (P. saxatilis) are very suitable for planting on a hill. They are all very different from each other and will create the necessary variety.
To decorate the reservoir, primroses will be required, growing wild at high altitudes of the Himalayan ridge, mainly along wetlands and stream banks. These species include the magnificent primroses of Florinda (R. florindae), alpine (R. alpicola), Sikkim (P. sikkimensis). In addition to decorative qualities, these species have a wonderful aroma. They are the best spring decoration for gardens and parks. They should be placed under a thin canopy of trees in single and mixed plantings. Primroses grow well in containers (box, barrel, flowerpot, etc.). Decoratively stable, long-blooming perennials form motley carpets of delicate cheerful colors during flowering. Toothed primrose and Japanese primrose can also be used for cutting.
The beauty and variety of appearance, flowering forms and colors of the representatives of the rich family of primroses will certainly not leave indifferent collectors either. When choosing a place, a specialized site that will be set aside for a collection of primroses, specify only the requirements of plants in relation to soil, moisture and light, and it is completely unnecessary to allocate a separate area for your favorite flowers. If you have several varieties of tall and polyanthus primroses, you can plant them along the path that leads from the entrance to the site to the door of the house, or create a large group on the lawn. Garden forms of Japanese primrose with pink, lilac, white flowers, its natural appearance with bright purple inflorescences - this is another mini-collection that will perfectly fit into the rhododendra garden and give it a peculiar flavor. A group of varieties from Julia's primrose will create a reliable, stable border for the flower bed and at the same time demonstrate all the variety of colors.
Recently, it has been popular to grow primroses in containers - bowls, carts, baskets, etc. In this case, it is good to use water-retaining gels that will keep the rapidly drying container soil in the moist state necessary for primroses.
Forcing primroses: Plants intended for distillation are planted in July in containers that are left in the garden until the autumn cold, and then transferred to a cool room or left in the garden, covered with leaves, with any other material. For 1-1.5 months before the desired flowering period, the containers are transferred to a bright, warm place. In the spring, faded primroses are divided and planted in the garden.
Partners: go well with daffodils, scilla, muscari, phlox, low irises.