Despite the fact that there are immune varieties of apple trees, most often it is not possible to avoid being damaged by various diseases and attacked by pests. It's a shame when, after a beautiful and violent flowering, after a while, the ovaries either fall off, or the fruits turn out to be wormy. And there are also more difficult cases - when not only the crop perishes, but also the tree itself. To avoid this kind of trouble, you need to know how, how and when to treat the apple tree from diseases and pests.
To prevent possible diseases of apple trees and attacks of pests, it is recommended to carry out preventive treatments in a timely manner.
This is the most important step in the fight against diseases and pests. It is carried out in early spring before the buds swell by spraying the crowns of trees and the soil of near-trunk circles with potent drugs of universal action:
Sometimes it happens that the bark of the apple tree gets damaged. This can occur as a result of frostbites, damage by rodents, bark beetles, careless handling of tools, etc. In such cases, you should clean the wound with a sharp knife to healthy tissue and disinfect with a 1% solution of copper sulfate (you can use hydrogen peroxide, alcohol). After that, let it dry and cover with a layer of garden varnish.
It is not recommended to use garden pitch, which contains petroleum products - petrolatum, kerosene, gasoline, etc. Experienced gardeners prefer protective compositions based on natural components - beeswax, lanolin, vegetable resins.
Experienced gardeners prefer protective compositions based on natural ingredients
Some gardeners use a mixture of cow dung and red clay in equal proportions to protect wounds. This mixture is diluted with water to the consistency of thick sour cream and the wound is coated with it. In the case of large damage, you can additionally wrap a branch or trunk with cotton cloth.
When cutting, all cuts of branches with a diameter of more than 10 mm should be cleaned with a sharp knife and covered with a layer of garden varnish.
Cuts of branches with a diameter of more than 10 mm should be cleaned with a sharp knife and covered with a layer of garden varnish
You can also use special acrylic-based garden paints to protect the cuts.
Garden paints are used to whitewash trunks and protect saw cuts
On the bark of apple trees growing in shady, damp places with a thickened crown, mosses or lichens often appear. Without going into the details of their biology, we note that mosses and lichens are united by the absence of roots. They cannot be attributed to diseases or pests of the apple tree. Mosses and lichens do not feed on the bark, leaves, or fruits of the apple tree. The bark of a tree is only a living area for them - they receive food from dust, rainwater and as a result of photosynthesis. Therefore, harm from them to the apple tree is caused only as a result of the creation of moist areas on the bark, where pests and fungi can live. In order to get rid of mosses and lichens you need:
You can remove moss or lichen from the bark of a tree with a spatula.
These works should be carried out either in the fall or early spring before bud break.
Most often, apple trees are susceptible to fungal diseases. Less commonly, bacterial and viral.
These diseases are caused by various fungi. They are united by ways and means of infection. Spores of the pathogen fall on various parts of the plant with air currents, dust, rain, and are carried by insects. When favorable conditions (temperature, humidity) come, they germinate and the fungus begins its destructive effect. For prevention and treatment, drugs are used, united in the group of fungicides.
One of the most common diseases. Most often, infection occurs in the spring, when bees on their paws bring fungal spores into the flowers of the apple tree. Flowers, young shoots, leaves are affected. All this fades and looks as if burnt. This phenomenon is called monilial burn.
With moniliosis, the shoots and leaves of the apple tree look burnt
The affected parts of the plant are removed and destroyed, after which they are treated with fungicides, for example, Horus, Abiga-Peak, Topsin. To prevent the problem, it is better to start the treatments well in advance. They are carried out:
If the disease cannot be completely cured or the infection occurred in the summer, then moniliosis affects the fruits with gray (fruit) rot.
In summer, moniliosis affects fruits with gray (fruit) rot.
In this case, the affected fruits are collected and destroyed, after which the crown is sprayed with Strobi, which quickly stops the course of the disease, and also prevents its further spread. But this can be done at least 35 days before the expected harvest of apples. If the deadline is missed, then before harvesting, they are limited to the use of the biological preparation Fitosporin with an interval of 1-2 weeks. This drug is non-addictive and safe for humans.
It must be remembered that the fruits can rot not only from moniliosis, but also from damage to the skin by pests, for example, a moth. In such cases, rotting begins locally around the injury site. Pest control measures are described below.
Mold-like formations of a fungal nature sometimes appear on the bark of an apple tree. The fungus grows into the bark and destroys it. In advanced cases, it grows into wood. This is especially often observed when there are untreated branch cuts on the tree. In these cases, hollows may form as a result of the lesion. You can cure an apple tree from a fungus on the bark, regardless of its type:
RanNet is used to protect and heal damage to bark and wood
Black (European) apple crayfish usually occurs in cracks in the bark or on untreated branch cuts. Moreover, this happens only on weakened, unkempt plants. Healthy and strong apple trees are not susceptible to this disease. The first signs of it are the appearance of brown spots on the surface of the branches, after which the bark cracks, black tubercles form on it. After some time, the affected pieces of bark break off, exposing the wood.
Black (European) apple cancer usually occurs in cracks in the bark
Treating black cancer is no different from treating any other fungus: cleaning the wound to healthy bark and wood; treatment with a 2% solution of copper sulfate; protection with garden var.
Bacteriosis (fire blight) of an apple tree is caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, introduced to us from America. The pathogen enters the vascular system of the plant through tissue damage and cracks. Most often, the bacterium gets inside through the pistil of a flower damaged by moniliosis, and both diseases can occur simultaneously. To diagnose bacteriosis, you need to know its signs:
Dying buds and flowers of an apple tree infected with bacteriosis do not fall off, but continue to remain on the branches and acquire a dark brown color
The carriers of the infection are sucking insects. Therefore, preventive treatments against pests and diseases will also be effective against bacterial diseases. Antibiotics are used for treatment: Ampicillin, Fitolavin, Tetracycline + Streptomycin, Ofloxacin.
Viruses, like bacteria, are carried onto the plant by sucking insects. Viruses enter the vascular system of a tree through damage, cuts, cracks. Viral diseases are known: mosaic, paniculate (witch's broom), stellar (stellate) cracking of fruits and others. There are no drugs that destroy viruses, so only preventive measures are effective. To increase immunity to viruses, spraying with phytohormones is used, for example, Epin or Zircon.
There are quite a few pests that attack the apple tree.
In the fight against harmful insects, preparations of the insecticide group are used.
If the apples on the apple tree turned out to be wormy, the moth has worked on them. The moth is a moth whose caterpillars penetrate the ovaries and fruits, where they feed on seeds.
If the apples on the apple tree turned out to be wormy, then the moth has worked on them
The butterfly lays eggs on the young leaves and flowers of the apple tree. It is at this time that insecticide treatments need to be carried out (Decis, Fufanon, Iskra, Karbofos, Karate, Aktellik are used). The first treatment is carried out immediately after flowering, then two more with an interval of 10-12 days. Thus, it is possible to get rid of the pest even at the imago (butterfly) stage and prevent egg laying. You need to understand that when the larvae that emerged from the eggs get inside the fruit, it will be too late to fight them.
The flower beetle (weevil) hibernates in fallen leaves and the upper layers of the soil. In early spring it rises to the surface and then to the crown of an apple tree. Its female gnaws at the buds and buds, and then lays one egg in them. The larvae crawling out of the eggs eat the flowers from the inside, after which they wither.
The flower beetle larvae eat the flowers from the inside, after which they wither
Spring treatments with insecticides against the moth are at the same time effective against the flower beetle.
Aphids are small sucking insects, usually located on the underside of leaves and feeding on their sap.
Aphids are small sucking insects, usually located on the underside of leaves and feeding on their sap.
Since aphids are carried by ants to the crown of an apple tree, first of all, you should fight with them. To do this, you can use the Inta-Vir agent, which is also effective against many other pests (including the moth and leafworm). The same drug can be used to destroy the aphid itself, if it has already settled on the leaves of the apple tree.
Inta Vir will kill ants on the site in 7-12 days
The leafworm butterfly flies in May and lays eggs on young leaves of an apple tree. After 10-12 days, small (up to 10 mm) caterpillars appear from the eggs, which feed on leaves, twisting them into an irregularly shaped lump covered with cobwebs. Many insecticides are effective for treatments, including those mentioned above. With timely prevention, pest damage can be avoided.
The caterpillars of the leafworm feed on leaves, rolling them into an irregularly shaped ball
The bark beetle is a small (about 4 mm) flying beetle. In spring, its female gnaws long branched passages under the bark of an apple tree deep into the wood. In each turn, it lays eggs, from which legless larvae with powerful jaws appear after 10-12 days. During the growing season, the larvae feed on wood and bast, making numerous and long passages. Usually, the presence of a pest is noticed after the affected areas of the bark have fallen off. An attentive gardener will detect a bark beetle, noticing flight holes with a diameter of about two millimeters on the bark. There is usually a pile of wood flour next to them.
During the growing season, bark beetle larvae feed on wood and bast, making numerous and long moves
To combat the beetle, spraying with insecticides is used at the moment the beetles begin to fly, which coincides with the end of the apple tree flowering. The most effective drugs are:
There is a folk remedy for treating wood from bark beetle and other insects based on diesel fuel. This petroleum product penetrates into the smallest cracks and pores of the bark, which ensures its high efficiency. It is achieved by creating a protective film on the surface that prevents oxygen access. As a result, insects die. The most popular recipes using diesel fuel:
If the bark beetle has already penetrated deep into the wood, then it is necessary to apply insecticide spraying. To do this, they are injected into the flight holes using a conventional medical syringe. For injection, the same preparations are used as for spraying, but their concentration is increased to 0.1 ml of emulsion per 100 ml of water.
If the bark beetle has penetrated deep into the wood, then it is necessary to apply insecticide injection
Most often, a spider mite is seen on the apple tree, which settles on the underside of the leaves of the apple tree and feeds on their juice. Damaged leaves curl slightly and become covered with cobwebs.
Spider web on the leaves is a sign of spider mite damage
In early spring, for the prevention of any ticks, including spider mites, the preventive treatments described above with potent drugs are sufficient. Then acaricides are used, for example, Fufanon, Karate, Aktellik. Since these agents have a wide spectrum of action, their treatments prevent the attack of many insect pests. Such treatments are also preventive in nature and are carried out three times: before flowering, after flowering, and 7-10 days after the second treatment.Further processing is carried out as necessary - when signs of damage are detected.
In winter, apple trees are often attacked by rodents - field mice, hares. Young trees with tender and juicy bark are especially susceptible to this. Of course, it is better to take measures in advance to prevent such a nuisance. To do this, in the fall, the trunks are whitened with lime mortar or garden paint, and they are also tied with protective materials - roofing material, film, spruce branches, etc.
To protect the trunk of an apple tree from rodents, plastic bottles are quite suitable.
But if it was still not possible to save the apple tree, then first of all it is necessary to assess the extent of the damage. If they are insignificant, then the usual measures for the treatment of damage to bark and wood, described above, are applied. In cases where fresh lesions are found and the bark has not yet had time to dry, medical dressings are used.
Dried linden can be used to heal apple tree wounds
Garden universal bandage is great for applying medical dressings
The timing of the treatment of apple trees from pests coincides with the timing of treatments for diseases. Eradication treatments are carried out in early spring and / or late autumn. Preventive treatments against flying forms of insects are carried out before flowering, after the flowers have fallen, and after another 1-1.5 weeks. Further treatments are carried out as needed when pests are detected.
For spraying apple trees, chemical, biological and folk remedies are used. For the convenience of the reader, we will summarize all the drugs mentioned in the article (and not only) in a table.
The methods, methods of processing, the applied preparations do not depend on the region of growing the apple tree. They will be the same for the Far East, Siberia, the middle zone or the Western Crimea. The only difference is the calendar processing times. That is why we tied them to certain phases of plant development - a state of dormancy (before the buds swell), the period before flowering, flowering, falling flowers, fruit setting and growth, fruit ripening. Therefore, the recommendations of the presented material are applicable to gardeners of any region.
The most important apple treatments are preventive. If the gardener promptly carries out eradicating spraying with potent drugs, as well as preventive spring treatments, then this will almost certainly save him from disappointment.
Hello! My name is Peter Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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An apple tree can be found in every second garden of a Russian gardener. But alas, not everywhere it pleases with its appearance and rich harvest. Most often, there are unkempt old trees covered with lichen, with a bunch of sores and wormy and scabby apples that fall off before they ripen. In order for the apple tree to be healthy and delight with the harvest of large fragrant and sweet fruits, it is necessary to take preventive measures throughout the garden season.
There are several types of products designed for the treatment of horticultural crops. They all differ in purpose, dosage and time of use.
These drugs with potent universal properties include:
Of the fungicides among gardeners, Fitosporin, which has antifungal properties, is quite common. The drug is used diluted with water in a ratio of 5 g: 10 l.
The products are designed to treat apple trees from harmful insects. The most commonly used are the following:
For the purpose of processing saw cuts, as well as protecting the bark from pests, the following substances are used:
To destroy harmful microorganisms, gardeners use:
Popular means for combating viral diseases are:
In addition to special formulations, folk remedies are used to combat insect pests, for example:
It is very important not to be late and to carry out the first early spring processing of the apple tree on time. However, don't rush too much. If there is still snow outside the window or the weather is unstable: it often rains, sleet, fog, then spraying at this time will be simply ineffective.
Thus, when the weather is stable (+ 4..5 degrees during the day and not lower than 0 at night) and dry, the first treatment can be carried out.
Note! If you did not have time to do it back in the fall (and you should have), then late winter - early spring (February-early March) highly desirable to spend whitewashing apple tree trunks... This treatment will protect your fruit trees from the sun (ultraviolet) rays and sudden temperature changes in the winter-spring period, which will prevent the appearance of cracks on them, into which various infections (fungal spores) and pests can no longer get.
By the way! About, how and how to whiten apple trees in spring, summer and autumn, read here.
It is quite obvious that different diseases and pests appear at different times. Accordingly, for each phase of the development of an apple tree, there should be its own specificity of its processing.
Naturally, it is very difficult to name specific dates, it is much easier to navigate by the phases of development (vegetation) of trees in spring.
So, there is a certain scheme for processing the garden in spring, according to which spraying is carried out in the following stages of development (vegetation) of the apple tree:
This processing is also called "Early spring spraying", and more often by spraying "on a bare tree", because at this time, no signs of awakening (vegetation) have yet appeared on the apple tree.
By the way! Instead of processing on dormant buds, some gardeners spray on the buds that have already begun to wake up, so to speak, i.e. at the very beginning of their swelling.
Interesting! Sometimes the treatment is carried out just before flowering, when the buds are about to open.
Video: spraying scheme for apple trees and other fruit trees in spring
Important! If it seems to you that it is unrealistic to carry out such a number of treatments, then this is not at all the case, even if you are at the dacha only on weekends (1-2 days a week). Each stage does not last one day, but about a week or more. In addition, you can track all stages on city trees.
Video: protecting the apple tree from diseases and pests
For the first time, it is necessary to process apple trees in the spring against diseases and pests. before bud breakwhen they are still dormant.
By the way! The site already has a separate one on when and how to conduct early spring eradicating spraying of the garden, after reading which, you can familiarize yourself with all the nuances of this treatment.
The second treatment of apple trees in the spring for diseases and pests should be carried out during the period of swelling and budding, in the so-called "green cone" stage.
This phase is characterized by the fact that the buds on the trees have already burst, but the leaves have not yet unfolded, although they are already clearly visible (hence the "green cone").
Note! Spraying in the "green cone" phase is considered the most important and most favorable period for the treatment of apple trees from diseases and pests.
Important! If for some reason you did not carry out the processing at the previous stage, then it is better hurry up, insofar as the duration of this phase ("green cone") is relatively short... Moreover, if the weather is good, sunny, the temperature is stably above +10 degrees, then the kidneys will open quite quickly.
At this stage, as a rule, are already using more serious means, for example, Horus (fungicide against diseases), Decis Profi, Biotlin, Kinmiks, Tanrek, Engio (all insecticides), some of which, by the way, can be mixed (to prepare a tank mixture - see a separate paragraph on tank mixtures). You can also use copper-based fungicidal preparations, for example, Abiga-peak, Hom, Polyhom.
Specificity! For example, Horus works great at low positive temperatures (about +4 .. + 5, but up to +15), but Speed or Rayokon the contrary, it works better at higher temperatures (from +10 .. + 15)... Therefore, at the stages before the buds protrude and flowering (before the buds awaken, in the “green cone” phase), it is advisable to spray with Horus, and Skor or Rajok - already at the “green cone”, “pink bud” stages and after flowering (“ovaries with pea ").
Video: apple tree processing in spring "on a green cone"
But, if you skipped the previous processing, then at the stage of the "green cone" is still you can spray the apple tree with Bordeaux liquid or simply copper sulfate, or one of the solutions copper based (Abiga-peak, Hom, Oxycom).
At the same stage for additional protection of apple trees from insect pests You can put on boles trees special trapping belts, build and hang on branches glue traps, pheromone houses.
Interesting! Exactly in this phase starts its activity apple blossom beetle (weevil).
In the fight against it, you can also use and physical methods of struggle: quite simply shake the beetles off the trees... Moreover, this should be done early in the morning, when it is still cold and the weevils are sleeping. Take a long stick and gently slap the apple tree, shaking off the bugs onto the film / oilcloth laid on the ground in advance.
Video: the second spring spraying of the garden
The third stage of processing apple trees in the spring from diseases and pests is carried out at the stage when the bud has already formed and advanced (it is pink), but has not yet opened.
Naturally, at this stage, no Bordeaux liquid, copper or iron sulfate is used. Spraying must be carried out with modern drugs, for example, Horus, or better Skor or Raek (against diseases), Decis Profi, Karate (against pests).
Temperature conditions during the rosebud stage tend to improve, weather it is warm and sunny (temperature + 10-15 degrees and above), which means you can start using biological drugs such as Fitoverm, Bitoxibacillin, Lepidocid and others (see separate paragraph on biologics).
Immediately after flowering, when small ovaries are already formed, it is necessary to carry out complex processing of apple trees as against diseases (especially against moniliosis)and against pests (against apple moth).
The means for processing are similar - fungicides and insecticides (+ Gerold, Aliot, Kinmiks, Senpai, Sharpay), including biological products (for example, Fitolavin, Bitoxibacillin, etc.).
Video: spraying an apple tree after flowering from an apple moth
Also, in early spring, trees can be treated with combined means. They will help you deal with several types of pests at once, which will give you the opportunity to avoid multiple spraying cycles of trees and fertilize the plant at the same time. Urea is an example. You can find out about this from our other materials.
In order for the work on spraying trees to be carried out efficiently and to have good efficiency, it is necessary to have all the necessary tools and devices.