One is worth the other ...

Fishing tales

Perhaps, hunters are most subjected to ridicule because of their exorbitant lies. And the reader can decide whether there are lies among the fishermen.

When I was going fishing early in the morning, the weather was fine. Overcast, warm, light southern breeze. Alas, when I got out of the train car and headed to the place of fishing on the river, the weather changed noticeably. A strong wind was blowing, the dark clouds dissipated, and soon everything around was shining in the sunlight.

He settled down in his usual place at the confluence of a small stream into the river. The peck was bad. Probably, the fish, like me, were hot. I was very sleepy, and in order to somehow cheer up, from time to time I had to walk along the shore. Finally, the long-awaited bite followed, and my first trophy was the little finger roach. Used it for donkey.

Fleeing from the sweltering heat, he moved into the shade under a nearby poplar. And quickly dozed off.

A boy woke me up. Running up to me, he mumbled:

- Uncle, uncle, look, you have a bite!

And when I opened my eyes, he pointed with his hand to where the donka was.

Grabbing the twitching rod, I tried to pull out the tackle, but it did not give in. Apparently, the fish managed to drag it into the grass, where it got entangled. In vain I pulled left, right, up - everything is useless. My manipulations attracted other anglers, who enthusiastically began to bombard me with tips:

- Do not rush, let go a little.

- Act decisively: pull harder.

- Do not hold the rod low, the line may break.

- Pause, knock on the rod, maybe the fish will get out of the grass by itself.

At first I tried to follow the advice of well-wishers, but quickly realized that this was a completely pointless exercise. So he undressed and climbed into the water. The fish really dragged the tackle into the grass, but the line caught not on the plants, but on a small snag. Since the driftwood was at a depth of more than a meter, we had to dive. Not without difficulty, he freed the line, pulled the fish to him, then raised it above the water. There was a pike perch about a kilogram on the hook.

When the onlookers-advisers dispersed, I caught another roach and again used it for donkey. Just before sunset, about to finish fishing, I glanced at the donk and saw the rod leaning towards the water. Without delay, I hooked and immediately felt by the weight that there was a solid trophy on the hook. And indeed, after a short struggle, a three-kilogram catfish was dragged ashore. However, the story with the two caught fish did not end there ...

Already on the train, when the fishermen in the next compartment were discussing the ups and downs of today, one of them said:

- And it must be the same, how lucky the guy in the blue T-shirt: while he was kemar in the shade, the donka first caught a pike perch for two kilograms, and then a catfish for five kilograms.

The rest of the anglers agreed with him that it was really a great luck.

The guy in the blue T-shirt is me. True, now in the train, in addition to a blue T-shirt, I am also wearing a jacket.

A week later I was back in my usual place. Throwing a fishing rod into the water, I watch the float. After a while, footsteps were heard behind me. I looked around and saw a respectable middle-aged man in a straw hat and dark glasses.

“Catch in the wrong place, young man,” he said edifyingly and, after a pause, advised: “You need to fish under that tree,” he pointed to the poplar, under which I dozed last time. - A few days ago, a guy who surprised me here caught a pike perch for three kilos with a hook and a catfish at least six ke-ge on the donk.

At first I was even taken aback, and then I laughed ...

When I told him about how everything had happened, he did not believe it, but hurriedly leaving, condemningly uttered:

- A reliable person told me about these fish. And you, trying to pretend to be a successful fisherman, offer me some invented tales!

So believe after that that only hunters are utter liars. It turns out that there are some among the anglers. In a word, one is worth the other, but otherwise: two pair of boots ...

Alexander Nosov

English houses and gardens photo

There are many beautiful gardens in the world, but the British are rightfully considered the legislators in the world of landscape design.

Luxurious gardens appeared in England in the 18th century.

Historical styles of the English garden:

Augustian style (neoclassical): 1730

The first landscaped gardens in England were inspired by the Roman landscape of the time of Emperor Augustus and were conceived as a classic landscape with forest, water, grass and classical architecture. One of the first professional designers to create an English neoclassical garden was William Kent.

Serpentine style (winding landscape): 1750

In the mid-eighteenth century, Lancelot Brown developed an original style that was a more abstract version of the Augustian style. Gardens and parks with winding landscape lines have given less attention to the buildings and architectural structures of the garden, and more use of curved, winding lines in the arrangement of plantings and bodies of water. The classic features of this style were the lawn of the house, the winding lakefront contours and tree plantations that encircle the area. This style could also be called "Brownian" style.

Painting style: 1790

In the second half of the nineteenth century, many landowners formed picturesque parks with exotic plants (rhododendrons and camellias were especially popular).

Landscape (landscape) style: 1794

The landscape style was first described in the first edition of Tom Turner's English Garden Design with the following wording: "composed like a natural landscape with foreground, body and background."

Mixed style (eclecticism): 1810

In the 19th century, a fashion began to develop for the introduction of elements of American, Chinese, Italian and other gardens into English parks. In modern landscape design, a similar eclecticism is observed in the creation of mixed gardens, which are a gallery of small gardens of different styles and trends.

Garden style: 1829

The passion for "wild" gardens was replaced by a love for exotic plants brought to the British Isles from all over the world. English designer Loudon became an enthusiast of the new style and widely promoted round flower beds and flower beds, in a favorable light, demonstrating all the delights of amazing plants and outlandish flowers. After Ladon's death, this idea was embodied in the creation of a large number of woodland gardens with the specific use of rhododendrons, azaleas, camellias and magnolias.

Artistic style (applied art style): 1890

Artistic gardens had a clear boundary between a walled area with clear geometric flower gardens around the dwelling and a naturalistic “wild garden”. The uniqueness of these gardens was also emphasized by the selection of good plants, the use of excellent building materials and the use of traditional crafts. Designers drew inspiration from all forms of art, especially with regard to the issues of presentation and combination of shapes and colors.

Abstract style: 1930

Twentieth century garden designers were inspired by the forms and patterns of abstract art. The abstract style was influenced by the landscape art of North America and continental Europe.

Postmodern style: 1972

Few British designers who are passionate about postmodern ideas draw mostly inspiration from the work of colleagues from other countries (in particular, France). Particular interest is shown in the geometry of constructivism and primary geometric forms.

We present to your attention part 1 of a selection of the most beautiful gardens in England.

1. Garden of the Yorkshire Museum

In the center of York, the Yorkshire Museum Garden is located, which is a significant landmark of the city. It was created in 1830 on the site of the former abbey of Saint Mary.

The territory of the museum, covering 10 hectares of land, contains a number of unique representatives of flora and fauna. A collection of 4.5 thousand plants, trees and shrubs was collected both in the UK and other parts of the world. In the park you can feed squirrels and admire peacocks. Among the lush vegetation are several historic buildings, including the remains of structures from the Roman period.

On the territory of the garden there is an open-air theater where various concerts, competitions and festivals are held.

Jaume Plensa's exhibition Yorkshire sculpture park. Composition "Heart of a tree".

2. Levens Hall Garden

This garden is located in the heart of Cumbria and is considered the oldest garden in the world. The gardens were founded at the end of the 17th century, and the estate itself in the 13th century. The designer of the garden was the French Guillame Beaumont.

In the famous Levens Hall garden, all vegetation is a shape or form. Lions, chess pieces, peacocks, geometric yew compositions grow here, inspiring gardeners all over the world to create their own home masterpieces.

3. Rothschild Garden at Exbury Estate

The gardens and parks created throughout Europe by the Rothschild dynasty are considered some of the most beautiful in the world. One of them is located in England at the Exbury Gardens, where Lionel Nathan Rothschild in the distant 1919 created the world's first unique irrigation system, which is still functioning.

Exbury Gardens is called an earthly paradise. Fertile soil and mild climate are combined here, which makes it possible to grow many camellias, rhododendrons and azaleas. Exbury Park has a unique collection of plants from different parts of the world. There are many hidden corners in the garden, small ponds with neat bridges and silver streams.

The well-known company Exbury Enterprises grows and sells about 300 thousand plants around the world every year.

Bees in the garden

Hello dear friends!

From a letter to N.G. Grigoriev from Donetsk region, I learned how for many years, walking the seas on a ship, he dreamed of a small piece of land on which he could plant a garden. Finally, he got it, mastered it, and he wanted to breed bees in the garden, since without them his garden bloomed well, but almost did not set fruit. Telling about his intention to the board of a horticultural partnership of which he was a member, he met with a lack of understanding and heard the answer: “In no case, since bees in the garden beating the grapes. " - "Is this statement true?" - asks N.G. Grigoriev.

I will try to answer this question.

Bees are true friends of the garden, as they bring great benefits to it. Those who call them pests and drive them out of the garden would not be superfluous to get acquainted with the life of these amazing creatures and, of course, with the basics of fruit growing.

Having read even the most elementary books on the biology of bees, they would have learned that bees have nothing to gnaw through the rather thick and dense skin of grape fruits, and gardening manuals would teach not only how to grow fruit crops, but also how to get high yields from them.

Bees, indeed, can be seen on fruit, but only on those that are damaged or cracked. They are attracted to the sweet juice and collect it vigorously. But is it worth it to expel the bees from the garden? Not worth it in my opinion. After all, there are few such fruits in the garden, and the owners are unlikely to be very interested in this fruit marriage.

Now about the grapes. It, as you know, does not burst or crumble, and bees are on it, and sometimes a lot. The fact is that many birds, especially starlings, are not averse to eating ripe grapes. Here bees fly to their oklyovysh.

Grape juice (dessert varieties) is almost the only source of food for some wasp species in autumn. Unlike bees, wasps bite through the skins of grapes and fruits without much difficulty. This is what bees use. Suppose that some unlucky gardeners expel bees from the garden - will the gross yield of fruits increase from this? Of course not. Birds and wasps will continue to harm them.

In this regard, it is useful to know something else about bees. A person is indebted to them not only for the fact that they give him honey - a wonderful elixir of health and energy, wax - an irreplaceable raw material for many important industries, propolis and royal jelly - products from which effective medicinal preparations are prepared. Several times of great benefit bees in the garden are brought to humans by the fact that, collecting pollen from flowers, they simultaneously cross-pollinate plants. There was a time, and not so long ago, when people tried to replace the pollination work of bees, for example, with a rope, dragging it along the massifs of flowering buckwheat, and pollinated sunflower inflorescences with the help of special down mittens, etc. In the end, agronomists realized that all this titanic the job can be done better and cheaper by bees. And they began to be effectively bred. True, wild insects can also pollinate the flowers of agricultural plants, but they are not enough in nature and the number of single bees and bumblebees is constantly decreasing due to the plowing of meadows and the treatment of fields with pesticides. In addition, in early spring, when the gardens are in bloom and need pollinators, there are still very few of them in nature.

So bees are the only reliable helpers for agronomists and gardeners. It is also known that the overwhelming majority of apple, pear, plum, cherry, raspberry, gooseberry varieties are self-fertile, that is, their ovaries cannot be fertilized with their own pollen. True, some varieties of fruit and berry crops bear fruit even with self-pollination, but they give very low yields.

Self-infertile crops have another very important biological feature. The ovaries of their flowers are normally fertilized, and the fruits are well-formed and with pronounced varietal qualities only when pollen gets on the stigma not just from some other cross of the same species, but from a strictly defined one. Antonovka, for example, bears fruit if its ovaries are fertilized with the pollen of Slavyanka, Anis or Pepin saffron and Borovinka with pollen of Bellefleur Chinese or Pepin of Lithuania, etc. provided that these varieties grow close to each other. That is why it has become an unapplicable rule for gardeners to place varieties that need each other in a strictly defined sequence, and with the beginning of fruiting, take measures to pollinate the gardens with bees. The rate of bee saturation is two to three strong bee colonies per hectare of garden.

Do not spray fruit trees while they are in bloom to bees in the garden were able to do their job with high quality, and you got a wonderful harvest of fruits.

How to pollinate cherry plum: self-fertile, partially self-fertile, for different varieties

In short, HozGround received several questions about pollinators for plums and methods of manual (artificial) pollination. At first, there was an intention to answer the question briefly, but in the end the information was gathered into a full article.

So, the Prunus section has 12 species and hundreds of varieties. Only a few species are adapted for cultivation in Russia:

  • Homemade - these are the usual varieties of European plum, round or oval in shape with dark green wrinkled foliage and tasty fruits with a loose bone. Many of them have adapted well to growth and fruiting in the Middle Lane, in particular Vengerka Moskovskaya, Renklod Kharitonova, Siny Dar, Skorospelka Krasnaya and others
  • Chinese plum - worse adapted to growing in the Moscow region, does not tolerate frost well. Skoroplodnaya and Red Ball varieties have proven themselves well.
  • Ussuriiskaya is a very winter-hardy species with a delicate apricot aroma; it is more often cultivated in Siberia and the Urals. The most famous varieties are Yellow Hopty and Altai Jubilee.
  • A hybrid of plum Russian - the result of crossing cherry plum and Chinese plum. In the middle lane, the most often grown varieties are Zlato Scythians, Traveler, Cleopatra, Nesmeyana, etc.

Self-fertility is important

Most of the fruit and berry plants are cross-pollinated, i.e. for the formation of fruits, they need pollination with pollen of a different variety, which insects carry from flower to flower.

During self-pollination, when the fusion of female and male cells occurs, a decrease in the viability and fertility of the offspring is manifested, while in most plants, extremely little or no fruit is formed.

Therefore, pollination with own pollen in the plant kingdom is very limited.

Self-fertility is the quality of the variety that puts the plant in conditions independent of the weather and contributes to stable yields. This property is of particular importance in areas characterized by unfavorable weather conditions during the flowering of plants.

Cold, rainy weather, strong winds, lack of flight of bees and bumblebees - all this negatively affects pollination and the formation of ovaries, but self-fertile varieties do not require cross-pollination. They do not depend on the flight of pollinating insects, and this is their significant advantage. However, there are very few varieties with this quality.

Self-fertile varieties can be grown in a single array, and planting pollinating varieties among them only increases yields.

To identify self-fertile varieties of fruit plants, an experiment is required. It happens in the following way. Before flowering, gauze insulators are put on one branch to exclude pollination by insects, and then artificially pollinated flowers with pre-harvested pollen of the same variety, but from other trees.

The second branch is also isolated from insects, but not pollinated. On the third, the flowers are left uncovered for free natural pollination. In all three separate cases, the number of flowers is counted. During the ripening period, comparing the number of fruits formed on each branch, the degree of self-fertility of the variety is determined.

Usually the experience is repeated for at least three years. Self-fertile varieties include varieties in which, during self-pollination during this period, the formed fruits were no less than during natural pollination. Among the varieties of fruit crops, the self-fertile variety can be considered as the one that forms 15-40% of the fruits of the total number of flowers, and self-fertile - 0-4%.

Partially self-fertile varieties include those with intermediate indicators.

The information accumulated by researchers testifies to the inconsistency of the self-fertility indicators of the variety in different years and different climatic conditions. One and the same variety may show stable self-fertility under some conditions, while in others it may be partially self-fertile.

Let us dwell on the manifestation of the sign of self-fertility of the main fruit and berry crops.

The overwhelming majority of apple varieties are self-fertile. When pollinated with their pollen, they practically do not form fruits or their formation is up to one fifth in comparison with those obtained from free pollination. Partially self-fertile varieties with self-pollination give 20-50% of fruits from freely pollinated flowers.

In the conditions of the North-West of Russia, self-fertile varieties have not been identified. Only partially self-fertile were noted: Antonovka nova, Barkhatnoe, Bessemyanka Michurinskaya, Belorussky Sinap, Zvezdochka, Melba, Renet Chernenko, Slava Michurinsk, Tellisaare.

In central Russia, Bryanskoye, Melba, Narodnoye, Pepin saffron, Pepinka Lithuanian, Welsey are prone to self-pollination. In the gardens of the Volga region, the ability to self-fertility is noted in the varieties Astrakhanskoe red, Zhigulevskoe, Iulskoe Chernenko, Malt Bagaevsky, Shafran Saratovsky, Yandykovskoe.

In Siberia, among small-fruited varieties, self-fertility is manifested by the Red Bunch, Krasa Steppe, Firstborn of Buryatia, Slava of Buryatia.

For a pear, self-fertility is a very rare valuable property that contributes to a good harvest. The domestic assortment includes no more than 20 varieties prone to self-pollination. Belorussian late, Severyanka red-cheeked, Rossoshanskaya beautiful, Morning freshness show partial self-fertility.

Cherry, along with other fruit crops, belongs to self-infertile plants, therefore, the identification of stably and partially self-fertile varieties in difficult flowering conditions is very important for it. A few classic examples of self-fertile cherry varieties are Lotovaya, Lyubskaya, Apukhtinskaya.

In addition to them, researchers in various geographic points identified Griot Ukrainian, Dessertnaya Volzhskaya, Tambovchanka, Shakirovskaya, Shokoladnitsa, Schedra.

In the conditions of the North-West and in central Russia, there is a significant group of partially self-fertile varieties: Amorel Nikiforova, Ballada, Vladimirskaya, Gorkovskaya, Enikeevka, Zhagarskaya, Zagoryevskaya, Korostynskaya, Leningradskaya, Excellent, Meteor, Molodezhnaya, Rubinovaya, Chernookaya, etc.

Like cherries, plum varieties vary considerably in the degree of self-fertility. Back in 1930, the famous agronomist and fruit grower V.V. Pashkevich emphasized that for most varieties of plums, self-fertility is an unstable trait, it significantly depends on the geography of the place and the climatic conditions of the year.

Pashkevich recommended studying varieties in each fruit growing region in order to avoid mistakes in the selection of assortments for planting orchards. The plum varieties that are stably self-fertile in any conditions have not yet been identified.

You can give examples of self-fertile varieties for the North-West of Russia: Iskra, Vengerka Moskovskaya, Vengerka Pulkovskaya, Hungarian ordinary, Timiryazev's Memory, Skorospelka Krasnaya.

Among the varieties grown in the southern fruit-growing zone, the home-made Hungarian, Italian Hungarian, Wangeigeima Hungarian, Iskra, Kabardinskaya early, Kuban comet, Early blue, etc. have the property of self-fertility.

Berry crops - currants and gooseberries - according to the manifestation of self-fertility, are divided into highly self-fertile (more than 50% of mature berries), with good self-fertility (31-50%), medium-self-fertile (21-30%), with low self-fertility (10-20%) and self-fertile (less than 10% of the resulting fruits of the total number of pollinated flowers).

The results of many years of research carried out at the V.I. N. I.

Vavilov, showed that high stable self-fertility is inherent in varieties of black currant Alexandrina, Bagira, Biryulevskaya, Brown Far East, Veloi, Glebovskaya, Dobraya, Dubrovskaya, Green haze, Izborskaya, Katerina, Krasa Altai, Fertile LSHI, Poetziya, Satrai, Sokorovka.

In gooseberries, self-fertility rates also vary significantly. The varieties Aimiseppa, Belorussky Sugarny, Isabella, Canned, Kuibyshevsky black-fruited, Malachite, Masheka, Selected Leba, Plum, Dark-green Melnikova, Prune are characterized by good self-fertility.

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