Early Kiev is an "old well-deserved" peach variety, the advantages and disadvantages of which have long been well known to gardeners in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and the entire post-Soviet space. The wonderful taste of the fruit is combined with early maturity, a quick entry into fruiting and the ability to adapt to the not always favorable local climate.
The breeders of the Institute of Horticulture of the UAAS were faced with the task of creating a peach with winter hardiness sufficient for growing in the Russian temperate climate. Their goal was achieved - Kiev early successfully adapts to the conditions of the middle zone, you can grow it even in the North-West. Frost resistance for peaches is almost a record - up to -26-28 ° C. Even a tree that has suffered from cold weather fully recovers during the next season and bears fruit in another year.
Early Kiev peach bloom lasts 10-12 days - for almost two weeks the tree decorates the site
The varieties Gross Mignon and Kashchenko-208 participated in the selection. Early Kiev appeared in 1939. It was included in the State Register of Ukraine in 1954; it is still not listed in the Russian one.
The tree grows up to a maximum of 4 m. The crown is close in configuration to a regular ball, medium thickening. Young (up to 4–5 years old) peaches are very actively growing new shoots, over time the process stabilizes. Flowering occurs at the junction of April and May, the harvest is harvested in the middle or towards the end of July. An adult tree produces 35 to 50 kg of peaches. The first fruiting will have to wait only three years.
The small dimensions of the Kievskiy early peach make it much easier to care for it and harvest.
Fruits are almost one-dimensional, weight varies between 80-100 g. Fruits are rounded-oval, slightly flattened on the sides. The "seam" is clearly visible. The skin is "fleecy", thin, but rather dense. It allows you to store peaches for 5-7 days. The color varies from a shade of butter to creamy yellow with crimson or deep raspberry blurred spots. The pulp is very juicy, tender, sweet. The stone is not particularly large, but it is problematic to separate it from the pulp.
Kievskiy early peaches have excellent taste, but the stone is difficult to separate from the pulp
The described variety is declared by the creators as self-fertile. But without planting nearby other peaches blooming at the same time, regular and abundant fruiting is impossible. Good pollinators - Greensboro, Redhaven, Velvety, Moretini's Favorite, May Blossom.
Redhaven peach is one of the suitable pollinators for Kiev early
The disadvantages of the variety include:
But he still has more advantages:
There are a few things to consider before disembarking:
Early Kiev peach gives good yields only if it has enough warmth and sunshine.
High-quality planting material is the key to bountiful harvests, therefore, the choice of peach seedlings should be approached as meticulously as possible
Drainage at the bottom of the planting pit will prevent water from stagnating at the roots of the peach tree
The disembarkation procedure itself goes like this:
Early Kiev peach is planted in moderately moist soil
The use of biostimulants helps the peach roots to start growing faster after planting and minimizes the "stress" suffered by the plant
Copper preparations are detrimental to any pathogenic fungi.
A "chatterbox" made of manure and clay provides additional nutrition to the roots and prevents them from breaking during planting
The roots of the planted peach should not stick out up and to the sides, point them down
Air pockets not filled with soil provoke rapid drying of peach roots and plant death
Mulch in the trunk circle prevents weeds from growing and prevents moisture from quickly evaporating from the soil
This variety is not particularly capricious and demanding. The agricultural technology he needs is basically standard. Form a tree in the form of a bush or "bowl".
Given the low drought resistance, in the southern regions of Russia and most of the territory of Ukraine, special attention will have to be paid to irrigation. In the heat and in the absence of precipitation, young trees (up to five years old) are watered weekly or once every one and a half weeks. The norm is 15–20 liters of water. For mature trees, it is doubled.
In the southern subtropical climate, Kiev early peach needs to be watered more often than in central Russia
In central Russia and in more severe conditions without shelter, the Kiev early does not overwinter. The roots are insulated by filling the trunk circle, cleaned of debris, with a layer of fresh mulch about 10 cm thick. At the base of the trunk, a humus mound 20-25 cm high is poured. The trunk itself and the lower part of the skeletal shoots are whitewashed, wrapped on top with a covering material in 2-3 layers. Young seedlings can be completely covered by tying the branches and erecting a "hut" above them from poles covered with the same covering material.
As long as the dimensions allow, it is recommended to cover the peach seedlings whole
In the south, the plant does not need shelter. It is advisable only to renew the mulch layer in the trunk circle.
Whitewashing destroys pests going to winter in cracks in the bark, their eggs and larvae, spores of pathogenic fungi and protects the tree from rodents
Pests to the Kiev early peach do not show much interest. To avoid insect attacks, subject to competent agricultural technology, there are enough preventive treatments. At the beginning and at the end of the growing season, as well as in the budding phase, the peach is sprayed, and the soil in the near-stem circle is spilled with a solution of any broad-spectrum insecticide - Confidor-Maxi, Iskra Double Effect, Commander, Mospilan.
The most dangerous disease for Kiev early is leaf curl. It mainly affects the leaves on the tops of the shoots. They coarse, curl, go in "bubbles", change color to pinkish-crimson. The disease itself will not kill the peach, but the tree will significantly slow down in development, winter hardiness will greatly decrease. For prophylaxis in the spring, 2-3 times with an interval of 12-15 days, the tree is sprayed with a solution of any fungicide (Skor, Horus, Topsin-M, Strobi, copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid). Having found signs of the disease, they use the same drugs.
Curliness for a peach is not a fatal disease, but a tree weakened by it is likely to die, only from other reasons.
Fruit rot destroys most of the crop. Peaches become covered with white or pinkish "tubercles", rot and fall off. Effective prevention - the same fungicides (treatments before and after flowering, at the end of the growing season). Infected fruits are immediately removed and destroyed, they cannot be eaten.
Peaches infected with fruit rot are prohibited from eating.
Early Kiev peach, despite its "venerable" age, is still cultivated by gardeners, successfully withstands competition from new selection. The excellent taste of the fruit is very successfully combined with "plasticity", which allows the tree to adapt to different climatic conditions, and frost resistance.
Peach is a short-lived plant... It is distinguished by its rapid entry into the fruiting phase, intensive growth.
Peach buds have the ability to quickly awaken and release young shoots. The crown grows and if it is not thinned out, starting from the second year, then the yield will decrease.
From the fourth year, the peaches will become small and misshapen. Young trees begin to bear fruit in the second year after planting. With good care, they can give a crop in the first year, with autumn planting.
But this should not be allowed. Better to let the plant develop. You will collect a small crop, but time will be spent, and the plant will lose strength.
In the past, gardeners dreamed of peaches that can be grown in all regions of the country, not just in the south.
Today, their dreams have come true: breeders have developed many interesting winter-hardy, frost-resistant varieties with different fruiting times, fruit shapes and taste.
Peach trees are divided into four groups (depending on the shape of the fetus):
Peach trees are divided into four groups depending on the shape of the fruit.
The timing of fruit ripening, the flowering period - it all depends not only on the area where the tree is grown, but also on the characteristics of the variety:
The yield of the plant depends on the correct choice of the variety. When buying a seedling, you need to pay attention to several important points, we give their description:
Annual seedlings take root better and delight with the harvest faster. When buying, it is better to focus on them, but choose strong, healthy plants, and not frail twigs.
Since this peach variety is considered industrial, it will not be difficult to purchase its planting material. Well, as for the advantages of this variety, they include the following:
It is worth noting that this variety is recommended to be planted in the middle lane of our country. But as a rule, it is quite possible to grow this variety in those regions where winters are characterized by severe frosts. The main thing is to properly cover the tree before wintering.
Early Kiev peach is an excellent option for growing not only in the southern regions, but also in the middle zone: the tree perfectly adapts to weather conditions, a high (for this culture) degree of winter hardiness, early, early ripening of fruits. The origin of the variety is the Kiev Institute of Horticulture. The peach was bred back in the 30s of the last century by crossing the popular varieties Kashchenko 208 and Gross Mignon.
The tree is quite compact, no more than 4 m high. The crown is spherical, spreading, medium leafy. The peach grows and develops at a rapid pace, therefore it is excellent for growing on an industrial scale. Shoots grow upward, the bark is gray with an olive tint. The leaves are small, with a rough structure, bright green.
During flowering, the entire crown is covered with inflorescences. The flowers are small, the petals are pale pink with a burgundy center. The fruits are round, yellow with an orange tint and a slight blush. The beak is pronounced. The stone is large, oblong, it is difficult to separate from the pulp.
Kiev peach is fast-growing, the first harvest is harvested in the third year after planting. Shoots and flower buds have a high degree of winter hardiness, quickly recovering from frost and cold weather.
The plant bears fruit generously and regularly, with proper care and optimal climatic conditions, an average of about 60 kg is harvested from one tree. Resistant to clasterosporium disease, powdery mildew, curly leaves.
Fruits weigh on average about 80 g, but they can weigh more than 110.
Peaches have an unusual white flesh without burgundy veins near the stone.The consistency of the pulp is dense with a delicate structure, very juicy.
Taste qualities are at the highest level and deserve the best marks: rich sweetness has light notes of sourness. The aroma is pronounced, fruity-floral. The skin is thin, so the fruit should be transported very carefully.
Peaches ripen in July - in the southern regions at the beginning, in the central and northern regions towards the end of the month.
Unlike other varieties, Kievsky Early is a non-capricious culture that takes root on any type of soil. Light, well-drained soil is preferable, but other soil will do, except for waterlogged and waterlogged. Usually, two-year-old seedlings are planted, with a well-developed root system, without damaged areas and dry above-soil parts.
The place is chosen sunny, well protected from gusty winds and drafts, with deep deposits of groundwater. The soil must be fed with organic and mineral additives, and wood ash must be added to bring the acidity to the optimal level.
Given that the variety is self-fertile, it does not need pollinators. However, by planting next to suitable varieties of the same ripening period, you can significantly increase the yield.
Also, the tree needs regular sanitary and anti-aging pruning, which will help prevent thickening of the crown, provide ventilation and access to light to all branches and reduce the risk of various diseases.
The tree is fed twice a year. In the spring, ammonium nitrate or urea is applied, and in the fall, potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. The peach needs shelter for the winter. Before wintering, the tree is watered abundantly, the near-trunk area is mulched with sawdust and humus, lime and wrapped with agrofibre or covered with spruce branches.
Like other fruit crops, peach has pros and cons. Undoubtedly, a high level of winter hardiness for this culture, early maturity, self-fertility, excellent presentation and excellent taste characteristics of fruits, high yield, early ripening of fruits, resistance to diseases.
However, it will be fair to note that the culture is still rare, but suffers from fruit diseases, is often attacked by pests and without shelter in winter can be quite severely affected.
However, these shortcomings can be corrected by following certain rules for caring for the tree and carrying out preventive treatment with chemicals.
As the saying goes, any good result requires some effort. Take the risk of planting an early Kiev peach in your garden, and it will surely surprise you.
In this video, you will learn how to properly care for a peach tree.
It is no secret that almost every gardener dreams of growing a peach tree with the sweetest and tastiest fruits on his site, which would give a good harvest. The Redhaven peach variety is exactly what you need. In addition, this plant is suitable for growing both on the territory of Ukraine and in the central regions of Russia. It has excellent vitality and amazing taste.
It belongs to the American school of breeding, since this variety was bred in 1940 at one of the US universities as a hybrid of industrial importance. Now almost 70% of all existing peach plantings on farms and individual farms in the United States and Western Europe consist of trees belonging to the Redhaven variety. It was also included in the State Register of Plant Breeding Plants of the Russian Federation and recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus region.
A peach tree can grow up to five meters tall. It has a spherical, medium-leafed crown with rather large (2-3 cm wide and 15-18 cm long) dark green shiny leaves. Its single flowers grow to medium size (about 18-22 mm in diameter). They are bright pink in color and consist of five rounded petals. Their flowering period falls at the end of April - mid-May.
Peach Redhaven, photo and description of which is presented in this article, has slightly flattened elongated-rounded fruits weighing from 120 to 200 grams. It has a dense, firm skin with a slight pubescence, yellow with a red blush. The peach pulp is bright orange with thin crimson veins. The fruit is sweet and has a high tasting score of 4.9 out of a possible five. The pointed bone can be easily separated from the ripe fruit.
A fruit like Redhaven peach contains organic acids (tartaric, malic and cinchona), micro- and macroelements (potassium, manganese, iron, magnesium), essential oils, pectins, carotenes, as well as B, C and PP vitamins. The calorie content of 100 grams of fruit is 39 kcal.
Experienced gardeners advise buying Redhaven peach seedlings only in the nearest specialized fruit and berry nurseries, because the plants are already adapted to the local climate and have undergone the initial pruning procedure. This approach to the matter greatly increases the chances of its early survival. By the way, it is the annual seedlings that turn out to be the most viable.
When buying a Redhaven peach for planting in your garden, you should pay attention to its appearance. In the event that the plant is grafted onto an almond stock, then the grafting site itself, however, like the rest of the bark, should be even and smooth, brown in color, without any sagging. In addition, it is necessary to inspect the roots of the seedling. They should not show the slightest sign of rot and should be clean and damp.
Peach, which is planted from mid to late April, adapts well when the air temperature at night does not drop below + 10 ... + 15 ⁰C. It is this period of time that is ideal for planting a plant that, in an already heated and fertilized soil, can quickly strengthen and develop its root system. In the first year, the tree lays the required number of growth (vegetative) buds for the subsequent formation of a well-developed crown.
The first step is to take into account that the peach, which is planted exclusively from the south side of the plot, must receive enough sunlight in order to form generative buds. If the place is darkened by other trees or buildings, then the fruits will be small and sour. In addition, the peach does not like wind and drafts, so a few meters from it there should be at least some kind of shelter in the form of a high fence or a number of other fruit trees.
When choosing and planning a place for planting a tree, you need to know that Redhaven peach has a crown of about 10 m in diameter. Experts do not recommend planting it in a place where cruciferous, melon or nightshade crops, as well as strawberries or strawberries, have grown in a year or two. Peach does not develop well in low-lying areas with acidic and waterlogged soil, where water usually stagnates. It is known that the root system of this tree penetrates into the ground by 30-70 cm, therefore, ground flows should lie at least at a depth of 1.5-2 meters.
In order to properly plant the Redhaven peach, it is necessary to prepare the pit in advance (at least two weeks in advance). Usually this is done in the fall, but it is possible in the spring, after fertilizing the deepening. In the planting pit, located on sandy or poor soil, 5 to 8 kg of organic fertilizer (compost or rotted manure) are applied. If the soil on the site is fertile, then it will be enough to fill the bottom with a mixture consisting of 300-500 g of wood ash and 50 g of potassium chloride and superphosphate. By the time the plant is planted, the pit will have time to settle.
Redhaven - a peach, the cultivation of which is associated with some peculiarities, belongs to a rather whimsical culture. Although formally this plant belongs to the category of self-pollinated, that is, it can bear fruit without extraneous pollinators, which include insects and other trees, this happens very rarely.
Judge for yourself, this process can be negatively affected by windy or wet weather, as well as the usual draft. Therefore, experienced gardeners recommend planting 2-3 peaches at once with the same flowering period. Next to Redhaven, you can place such famous varieties as the Ambassador of Peace, Kiev's Gift, Lyubimets or In Memory of Shevchenko.
The Redhaven variety is distinguished by its drought tolerance. This tree needs abundant watering only during the period of its maximum growth and fruit formation. At least 20-30 liters of water will need to be poured under one tree. These periods include:
Water must be poured into grooves no more than 8-10 cm deep, previously made in the area of the suction root zone at a distance of about 70-80 cm from the tree trunk. The rest of the time, the plant is watered 1-2 times with a frequency of 2-3 weeks for 5-10 liters of water.
Redhaven has an average fruit ripening period. They begin to pour in at the end of July. I must say that the fruits do not ripen all at once, so their harvesting lasts for 35-40 days until the end of August. The flowers of the tree develop well even on annual shoots, so the first, albeit small, harvest can be harvested in the second or third year. Starting from the sixth, the peach gives stable yields, which can reach 35-40 kg of fruit annually. When the 11-12th year of the tree's life comes, it will bear twice as much fruit and will give about 100-110 kg of its sweet and extremely useful products.
Redhaven peach fruits perfectly tolerate transportation, but it will be much more reliable if they are harvested a little ahead of time, that is, in a state of so-called technical maturity. The pubescence, which is present on the fruit, protects them well from any minor blows, contacts or friction.
Redhaven peach trees grow very quickly. The growth of their lateral branches per year is about 30-40 cm. These trees can form a crown up to 9-10 m in diameter. That is why they must be pruned annually. A three-year-old plant manages to develop its crown sufficiently to be able to begin its decorative formation.
It is very important to know how to prune a peach in the fall, since the main task of this process is both the sanitary care of the tree and the regulation of its fruiting. As you know, during this period there is a decline in the active phase of the vegetation of plants. This means that pruning the branches will save the peach from severe stress and numerous diseases. Autumn pruning can be done from early September to mid-October, but only after the crop has been harvested. If the autumn turns out to be warm, then the peach will have additional time to recuperate.
Some gardeners are skeptical about this process and consider it a waste of time. However, it is not. Having eaten a delicious, sweet and aromatic peach, it is worth spending a little time planting its seed or seed in the ground in order to taste its fruits again in three or four years. But for this you need to know a few secrets.
The seed peach can only be grown if it is taken from a ripe fruit. It can be planted directly in the ground in a permanent place, since often such plants germinate much better. It is recommended to plant several seeds at the same time, because some of them may not sprout. Sometimes it happens that a plant can hatch only in the second or third year after it is planted in the ground. They are usually planted from October to early November.
In order to preserve the bone, it is dried and removed to a cool dry place. A few days before planting, it is soaked in water. Then there are two options. The first of them is to split the seed and extract the seed from it, and the second is to plant it as it is to a depth of 8 cm, and then water and mulch.
Basically, Russian gardeners are satisfied with this peach variety, as it is frost-resistant and tolerates temperatures well, even at -25 ⁰C. Ripe and juicy fruits can be stored at home at room temperature for no more than four days, and by putting them in paper or plastic bags and placing them in the refrigerator for a whole week.
In addition, Redhaven peach, whose taste reviews are extremely positive, can be laid for longer periods of time. For this, fruits with a minimum stage of maturity are suitable. They can be stored either in a warehouse or in a basement, after having previously disinfected them with slaked lime vapor or fumigated coal. Thus, they can be stored for 2.5-5 weeks. Avid lovers of this fruit add it to various desserts, and also prepare preserves, jams and compotes from it.