Foliar dressing has a significant impact on the quality of the future crop. You need to figure out when and what potato baits to use. About this and much more in the article.
The root crop can absorb substances not only if they are put in a dry hole or through the root system and soil, but through the leaves too... It makes sense to study what types of dressings exist and how they are applied for potatoes, strawberries and other crops.
It is a fertilization of potatoes through bushes on the soil surface. Foliar feeding should be carried out in the evenings or in the morning... If fertilized in the sun, the solution will evaporate and damage the leaf tissue.
The plant assimilates nitrogen and magnesium well. Average absorption rate of sulfur. The process is carried out more slowly with calcium and phosphorus fertilization. Although foliar dressing is much faster than root dressing.
Fertilization with a superphosphate solution is popular. To do this, make a mixture: mix 10 liters of water with 3 tablespoons of granules.
Each useful element has its own function. If you increase potassium and nitrogen, then the mass of the tuber increases... If you add phosphorus, then you canincrease the number of root crops.
There is organic and chemical feeding. Each is good in its own way. Organic is not harmful and you can not be afraid to fertilize with excess. With chemical fertilizers, you should be more careful and apply according to the instructions indicated on the package in the preparation.
Spraying fertilizer is a very convenient method of foliar feeding and helps to reduce the processing time of potatoes. This method is especially relevant for urea fertilization. To prepare the solution, you need to take 50 g of carbide and dilute it in 10 liters of water. Consumption - 3 liters per 100 sq.m.
Although it is much easier to use immediately ready-made fertilizer for spraying: Ideal, Surprise, Impulse Plus.
It is carried out using a multi-drop sprayer. Processing is carried out at temperatures above 15 degrees in the morning or evening.
Top dressing should be in different periods of growth plants. When flowering begins, half of the microelements have already been absorbed and foliar feeding will be ineffective. The best time is before bud formation begins.
Nutrients from top dressing are delivered through the leaves and stem... A solution is sprayed onto the surface of the bush. This type of feeding is needed for plant diseases.
With a cold snap and drought, the metabolism of the plant is significantly reduced, therefore, to maintain the strength of the root crop, it is necessary to spray fertilizer on the leaves.
Fertilization with Urea (urea) is considered one of the best nitrogen baits... It is produced in the form of white-gray granules, less often in tablets.
Urea has a beneficial effect on productivity, increases the number and weight of root crops. Foliar dressing is carried out by irrigation with a solution in the proportion of 3 liters per 100 sq. M.
Method of preparation: Dissolve 50 g of urea in 10 liters of water. Irrigation is carried out with a 0.5-1% solution.
From phosphate fertilizers, a water extract of superphosphate is suitable for foliar feeding. Phosphorus promotes the development of the root system... Fertilizers are poorly soluble and well retained by the soil.
The most popular phosphate fertilizers:
For autumn foliar fertilization, superphosphate is best suited. Phosphate flour is applied in the fall on alkalized soil
Humates - are able to awaken the action of microorganisms responsible for the mineralization of organic substances. The benefits of humates are as follows: increases fruit growth, mass, increases the absorption capacity of the plant to accept microelements.
Humate is available in the form of tablets, instant powders, and in liquid form.
Method of preparation: Dissolve 10 g of humate in 10 liters of water. Let it brew for 15 hours. It is necessary to process the bushes in the sprouting phase during the budding period. Processing can be done a maximum of 2 times.
Nettle is a natural organic food. It is rich in nitrogen.
You need to make the tincture as follows: a 10 liter container is filled with two-thirds of nettle and poured with water, left to ferment for 14 days. The concentration is diluted with water 1:20.
Nettle can be mixed with other herbs: field horsetail, wormwood, you can add ash, mullein. Fertilizer is applied after germination.
Best recipe chemical complex feeding: mix carambid at a dosage of 200g, boric acid 15g, potassium monophosphate 300g, potassium magnesium 40g, zinc sulfate 5g, manganese sulfate 5g, colbate chloride 1g, potassium iodide 1g, copper sulfate 5g, iron sulfate 1g, water 10l.
Organics are good because does not have a toxic effect on the plant and you can cook it yourself.
There are the following options for organic foliar fertilization:
The main element that allows you to improve the quality of the crop - nitrogen... Correct introduction of this element helps the fruit to grow, improves keeping quality. Just as important magnesium, boron and zinc... In the spring, you need to add nitrogen and a small amount of phosphorus and potassium. Closer to autumn, on the contrary, there is a minimum of nitrogen, and there is more phosphorus and potassium.
100 g of urea contains 46% nitrogen.
Any preparation contains a large percentage of a certain trace element. You need to understand when calculating which element is needed for your potato crop.
Effectively use the drug Nitrofoski or make a solution: 30 g of superphosphate, 30 g of urea, 60 g of potassium chloride. It is recommended to treat shrubs with urea: after flowering, then a month later and last time 3 weeks before harvest.
Before applying top dressing you should carefully read the instructions.
|After landing||Nitrophoska, superphosphate, urea, ash|
|After germination||Urea, carbamide, nitrophosphate, nettle infusion, humates, bone meal|
|Before flowering||Ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride, superphosphate, copper sulfate|
|In the spring||Phosphorus, potassium, boron, zinc|
So that potatoes grow well, bushes need microelements... The main ones are:
The most important thing is not to overdo it with fertilizers, otherwise the opposite effect will work. I wish you a rich harvest!
In order for the harvest to be good, during the growing season, you need to water the plants at least 2 times in dry summer, loosen, huddle and feed if necessary. What else is important to consider?
If filling the holes and pre-sowing soil cultivation was carried out flawlessly, then when growing potatoes, you can do without top dressing. It should be taken into account that nutrients are washed out during the rainy season. Foliar spraying significantly increases the yield. Therefore, top dressing of potatoes provides a consistently high yield.
Gardeners usually receive the largest potato yields when they just start developing the site, in the first years after its development. Virginia is rich in all the nutrients needed to grow this root vegetable. But gradually the land becomes poorer. Potatoes need top dressing, which is applied both during the preparation of the soil for planting and throughout the entire growing season.
Most often, fertilizers for potatoes are combined, combining organic matter and agrochemicals.
General recommendations for autumn application are as follows: for 1 sq.m. soils take 5-7 buckets of humus (or fresh manure, it will crush over the winter). In parallel, mineral fertilizers are used. Superphosphate, which has a long period of transition of nutrients into the soil complex, is traditionally applied in the fall, about 30 g per sq. M. Phosphorus from the composition of this fat will have time to transform into a form accessible to plants by the spring. Potassium sulfate is added together with phosphorus, at the rate of 15 g per 1 sq.
For fertilization, you can use some agrochemicals, without organic matter. This is usually done on soils infected with pests or pathogenic microflora, for which manure is a favorable habitat. In the fall, in this case, you can apply double superphosphate, and potassium sulfate, in a ratio of 1: 2, since potassium fertilizers are consumed by potatoes in a larger volume.
After harvesting the tops of the potato field, you can plant siderates. But not all. Lupine, for example, will not even have time to ascend, and he will not want to, he does not like low temperatures too much. And growing white mustard is ideal. For the formation of a sufficient amount of vegetative mass, it will take three weeks. With the onset of cold weather, the siderates will fall on their own, and in the spring they can be plowed along with the soil.
When the site is prepared in the autumn, there is an opportunity to make a deep digging of the earth, it is still loose after harvesting the potatoes, and has not had time to crumble. If the soil is to be cultivated by a tractor, then it must be plowed and cultivated. When using a walk-behind tractor, the site is passed twice if the soil is clayey, and once if it is sandy. Manual digging is carried out to the full depth of the shovel bayonet. It is not necessary to break large clods - there is more chance that cold air will get to the roots of the weeds, and they will freeze out.
If the soil on the site is acidic, then in the fall you can start restoring its normal balance. For this, dolomite flour, lime or ash are used. Application rate - 200 g per 1 sq. You can understand that the pH has changed by the appearance of sorrel, moss on the beds, as well as by the color of the soil, which turns blue when acidifying.
During the season, on one hundred square meters of land, potatoes assimilate up to 3 kg of nitrogen, 4.8 kg of potassium and 0.8 kg of phosphorus. In most soils, there are not enough microelements, therefore, potatoes must be fertilized with organic and chemical fertilizers. But it is impossible to add all the nutrients in one step, since the concentration of minerals in the soil will become prohibitive, which will lead to plant poisoning, deterioration of the taste and smell of tubers.
In order not to exceed the concentration, potatoes are fed in 3-4 doses, starting in autumn and ending with the flowering period. As a result, plants evenly assimilate nutrients without being oversaturated with microelements.
Autumn feeding of the potato field. The most effective method to increase yields. Fertilizers are applied before plowing the land.
For 1 square meter of soil:
If the soil is infected with pests or pathogens of potato diseases, organic fertilizers (manure, humus) are not applied, since they are a favorable habitat for pathogenic microflora. In this case, it is better to confine ourselves to agrochemists: superphosphate, phosphorus and potassium sulfate.
Spring feeding of potatoes when planting. It is more useful and economically profitable to apply fertilizers pointwise under each plant, rather than sprinkling it all over the field. To do this, you need to add potato dressing directly to the hole or furrow.
Combinations of fertilizers for planting per 1 square meter of soil:
Microfertilizers are used separately: molybdenum, copper and boric (only for calcareous soils), which help plants to absorb nutrients. The concentration is indicated by the manufacturer.
For application directly into the wells, you can use ready-made fertilizers, they are added according to the instructions on the package.
Root dressing. It is done before the first hilling along with light loosening of the soil, thanks to which nutrients quickly enter the root system of the bushes. After fertilization, abundant watering is required so that the potatoes do not get burned.
Foliar dressing. Not all fertilizers applied to the soil reach the bush, many nutrients are taken by the weeds. Foliar dressing is based on the ability of the potato to absorb trace elements through the leaves and distribute them throughout the bush, accelerating metabolism and photosynthesis.
Fertilizers are applied during flowering and tuber formation. It is necessary to spray the solution after weeding in the evening or early in the morning, preferably immediately after rain.
Types of foliar feeding:
The complex use of all types of feeding increases the yield of potatoes by 12-15%, and makes the tubers themselves tastier. The main thing is to choose the right fertilizers.
How can you make foliar feeding of potatoes?
When is it better to do foliar feeding of potatoes?
Usually, before planting potatoes, the soil is filled with all the fertilizers necessary for its proper development - mineral or organic. It is preferable, of course, organic.
But sometimes, under the prevailing unfavorable conditions (insufficient amount of fertilizers applied, lack of moisture for the complete assimilation of nutrients from the soil, etc.), it becomes necessary to additionally carry out foliar feeding of potatoes.
For foliar feeding, in this case, use a one percent solution of superphosphate and potassium salt.
But besides this spraying, to prevent the development of late blight, potatoes are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid.
Foliar dressing is carried out during flowering and during the formation of tubers. As usual, spraying is carried out in the evening (very early in the morning) or in cloudy weather.
It is advisable to feed potatoes for a good harvest in the future.
1) The first foliar feeding of potatoes is done 14-20 days after germination. At this time, it is recommended to use nitrogen fertilizers, for example, urea. Care must be taken to ensure that all granules are completely dissolved in water, so that the shoots do not receive a chemical burn.
2) During flowering, foliar feeding of potatoes includes complex feeding, it includes ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride, copper sulfate and superphosphate.
3) During the period of tuber formation, after the potatoes have faded, you need to feed the plants with manganese and boron.
During the season, you can make 3 foliar dressing of potatoes.
The first feeding is done during budding.
The third foliar dressing of potatoes is done after flowering. These two dressings are prepared as follows: 1 teaspoon of copper sulfate, 0.5 teaspoon of boric acid, 1/4 spoon of potassium permanganate are diluted in 1 liter.
The second foliar dressing of potatoes is done during the flowering of the potato. Prepare the following solution: in 1 liter of water, dilute 0.5 teaspoon of boric acid, 1/4 spoon of potassium permanganate.
Foliar dressing is done by spraying potato leaves on a dry, non-rainy day.
For the whole season, potatoes can be fed three times, the composition of the top dressing should depend on the type of soil and climatic conditions of the region or region of potato growing, so on sod-podzolic soils poor in nitrogen. with a high pH concentration from 4.5-4.3 In acidic soil, soluble phosphorus fertilizers pass into hard-to-reach forms of aluminum and iron phosphates, and in soils rich in lime, into tricalcium phosphates, which are also difficult for plants to access. These processes reduce the utilization rate of phosphate fertilizers. With a low supply of soils with phosphorus and the introduction of small doses, especially when mixing them with the entire arable horizon, you may not get the desired result from phosphorus fertilizers. fertilizers saturated with phosphorus are preferred. in gray forest or chernozems, the most preferable fertilizers saturated with potassium but without chlorine It has been established that with the systematic use of chlorine-containing potassium fertilizers, the starch content in potato tubers decreases, which reduces its commercial qualities, the most effective is the use of organic fertilizers in combination with mineral complex ones, for example, nitroammophos, the use is difficult only high cost, it should be remembered feeding should be carried out during the periods of budding, flowering and clubbing, the dose depends on the given yield of the type and soil and the characteristics of the variety, while I advise you not to forget that from an agronomic point of view, a potato monoculture can be cultivated for a period of 3-7 years if there are conditions for the introduction of organic fertilizers, otherwise you will deplete the soil and the potatoes will degenerate, in addition, to prevent premature degeneration, varietal renewal should be carried out, and it is better to sow another crop for at least two or three years first if it is possible, because it removes weeds, and after it grass grass of legumes with cabbage, such as alfalfa with rapeseed, and it would be nice to have a double benefit of success next to the apiary.
The nutrient (working) fertilizer solution Nutrivant is prepared directly in the supply tank of the sprayer / drip irrigation system. The general rules for the preparation of working solutions of Nutrivant fertilizers are as follows:
Spraying with Nutrivant solution is carried out according to the usual rules: in the morning (better) or in the evening on dry plants in dry warm weather, preferably cloudy. Time until rain 4 hours. The consumption control is visual: the leaves should be covered with a continuous thin film of the solution, the appearance of flowing drops is unacceptable. The maximum air temperature during processing is +25 degrees Celsius, otherwise the fertivator will not work and the fertilizer will be lost - in the thin film of the fertivator, when the solution is applied to the plant, a rather slow chemical reaction begins. If the water - the solvent - dries out too quickly, the reaction will not end, the dried film will crack, peel off, and the top dressing will disappear.
Note: about the principle of action of Nutrivant fertilizers, see also the video:
The first is before budding begins.
The second - in the flowering phase 10-15 days after the first
The third - at the stage of fruit ripening 10-15 days after the first.
For cucumbers on fat, well-structured and moderately moist soils under favorable temperature conditions (for example, greenhouse), the total consumption can be increased to 9-12 kg / ha (3 + 3 + 3 or 4 + 4 + 4).
The first - in the period from the beginning of the formation of flower tubercles until the ejection of the first brush.
The second - if there are 8-9 true leaves on the plant (in good conditions, tomatoes enter generative phases with 4-6 true leaves).
The third and fourth - 15-20 days after the second, with an interval of 15-20 days too.
The first is during the period of unfolding of the leaves.
The second - at the budding phase not earlier than 10-12 days after the first.
The third - at the stage of flowering or the formation of ovaries, not earlier than 10-12 days after the first.
The fourth - at the stage of fruit filling not earlier than 10-12 days after the first.
"Zero" (in especially favorable years) - 1.5-2 kg / ha at the stage of leaf unfolding.
The first is 1.5-2 kg / ha (2.5 in especially favorable years) at the budding phase (before flowering).
The second - 1.5-2 kg / ha (2.5 in especially favorable years) in the phase of berries with a pea.
The third - 1.5-2 kg / ha (2.5 in especially favorable years) at the stage of berry filling not earlier than 10-15 days after the second.
The total application rate for the season is 4-8 kg / ha.
The first is 1-2 kg / ha at the stage of rosette formation.
The second - 3 kg / ha at the phase of root crop formation not earlier than 15-20 days after the first.
The third - at the phase of filling the root crop 15-20 days after the second.
The total consumption for the season is 6-7 kg / ha.
The first one is at the stage of 3-5 leaves.
The second - at the stage of 6-8 leaves before the beginning of the emergence of the cobs from the leaf axils.
Incompatible with preparations containing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) and alkaline with calcium (Ca).
Potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate and urea can be added.
Prepare the solution in water with a temperature of 10-20 degrees Celsius (optimum 20 degrees).
The first one is 1.5-2 kg / ha (3 in especially favorable years) at the stage of rosette formation.
The second - 1.5-2 kg / ha (3 in especially favorable years) in the phase of stem emergence.
The third - 1.5-2 kg / ha (3 in especially favorable years) before flowering.
The total application rate for the season is 4.5-9 kg / ha (the rate is 6 kg / ha).
The first is 1.5-2 kg / ha (3 in especially favorable years) at the phase of 2-4 true leaves.
The second - 1.5-2 kg / ha (3 in especially favorable years) at the beginning of flowering.
The third - 1.5-2 kg / ha (3 in especially favorable years) at the beginning of yellowing of the pods of the lower layer. Add 10-20 g / l of urea to the solution.
The total application rate for the season is 4.5-9 kg / ha (the rate is 6 kg / ha).
"Zero" - 2 kg / ha in the fall for the shoots that have formed a rosette.
The first - 2 kg / ha in spring at a temperature not lower than +12 degrees before going into the tube (21-31 days of active growing season). Add 5-10% carbamide solution to the nutrient solution.
The second - 2 kg / ha before the beginning of heading (37-51 days of active growing season). Add 3-5% carbamide solution to the nutrient solution.
The total application rate for the season is 6 kg / ha.
The second - no earlier than 10-15 days after the first in the phases from entering the tube until the beginning of the ejection of panicles.
The volume of the nutrient solution for one feeding is 250-300 liters.
The first - 2 kg / ha in spring at a temperature not lower than +12 degrees before going into the tube (25-32 days of active growing season).
The second - 2 kg / ha before heading after (37-51 days of active vegetation)
The total application rate for the season is 4 kg / ha.
Prepare the mother liquor in water with a temperature of +25 degrees Celsius.
For more information on the use of Nutrivant Universal, see the video:
1. The fertilizer is stored in a cool dry place where children and pets do not have access.
2. There should be no heating devices near the container with the nitrophosphate. In the room where the substance is stored, welding cannot be carried out: when heated, the fertilizer decomposes, releasing poisonous gases.
3. It is necessary to work with nitrophos with gloves. People with allergic reactions should wear a respirator and safety glasses when fertilizing potatoes.