October 28, 2010 marked the 155th anniversary of the birth of the great breeder, biologist and geneticist Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin. Unfortunately, the name of IV Michurin has recently begun to be forgotten, and even not all gardeners really know what he did. And in one book ("Russian Scientists", publishing house "Rosmen") I even read that "... varieties of I. Michurin degenerated, there were no followers." But, dear gardeners, if something else grows from fruit and berry crops in your gardens, it is, first of all, thanks to Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin.
I. Michurin was born in the Ryazan province into a family of small landowners. Ryazan region is the land of gardeners; there were gardeners among the relatives of I. Michurin. So it is no coincidence that the future scientist's passion in gardening was manifested since childhood: “... as I remember myself, I was always and completely absorbed in only one desire to grow these or those plants,” he writes in his biography. But apart from this happiness in childhood, I. Michurin had nothing. The family was in poverty, his mother died when the boy was only four years old, and he went "from the hands" of relatives; due to the early death of his father, the dream of higher education was not realized either - his father prepared him for the course of the gymnasium in the St. Petersburg Lyceum.
In 1872 I. Michurin got a job as a clerk at the station Kozlov (now Michurinsk) of the Moscow-Ryazan railway. The work was monotonous, exhausting, one joy - the garden. He rents a city vacant lot with a small garden, collects a collection of fruit and berry plants and begins experiments to create new varieties. At the same time, he studied specialized literature in depth, while he could also use foreign sources, because although he did not finish, he still studied at the gymnasium. A small additional income for living and scientific work was brought by the watch workshop he opened.
At the end of 1887, I. Michurin transferred to the more highly paid position of a railway traveling watchmaker and signaling apparatus, and soon acquired a small plot of land outside the city. Unable to hire a horse to transport his plants, he transfers them to a new place (seven kilometers away) on his shoulders and the shoulders of two women - his wife and her sister. And that was already a feat! In addition, I. Michurin created a garden not only for commercial activities - growing and selling old, well-known varieties (which gave him the opportunity to leave the service), but also for breeding new, improved ones. And this is endless, exhausting work and an equally endless waste of money - on the purchase of plants, books, inventory. ... And the result? You have to wait for the result for years and believe, believe, believe. ... Believe in the necessity and correctness of your cause, believe in the correctness of the chosen path. But the breeding of a variety is often delayed for tens of years. For example, I. Michurin has been creating the Bere winter pear variety for 30 years, and sometimes there is not enough human life for this. In 1900, I. Michurin moved with all his green pets - for the third and last time - to the valley of the Voronezh River, to a site more suitable for experiments.
Now there is a museum-reserve of the great scientist, and next to it there is a majestic building and gardens of the Central Genetic Laboratory (TsGL), created during the life of the scientist, which has now been transformed into the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants (VNIIGiSPR) and bears the name of I. Michurin ...
Work on the railway allowed I. Michurin to get acquainted with the state of gardening in the central provinces of Russia and make sure of the deplorable state of this industry: gardening is not profitable, gardens are planted only by individual enthusiasts. In nurseries, mainly foreign varieties that are not suitable for our climate are grown (alas, we have now, unfortunately, come to this again!). The plantations contained many unproductive, low-quality fruits, semi-wild forms. I. Michurin concludes that the reason for this situation in Russian gardening is not the severity of our climate, but the scarcity and inconsistency with our conditions of the then assortment. And then the still very young Michurin conceived of updating the existing old, semi-cultural composition of fruit plants in central Russia, for which he set himself two tasks: to replenish the range of fruit and berry plants in the middle zone with varieties outstanding in their yield and quality and to move the border of growing southern crops far by north.
Conceived in his youth, I. Michurin fulfilled. Our country has received more than 300 high-quality varieties of fruit and berry crops. But it's not even a matter of the number and variety of varieties he received. After all, not so much is withheld from them in the gardens now, and, moreover, in limited quantities. As for the apple tree, these are Bellefleur-Kitaika, Slavyanka, Pepin saffron, Kitaika golden early, in a greater number - Bessemyanka Michurinskaya. Of the pear varieties in the gardens of the Chernozem zone, Bere Zimnyaya Michurina is preserved. The greatness of I. Michurin lies in the fact that at the end of the 19th century he sagaciously determined the main direction of breeding, armed scientists with a strategy and tactics for its implementation, became the founder of scientific breeding (and, by the way, not only fruit, but also other crops). For example, in my garden for more than half a century, a lily created by I. Michurin has been blooming, smelling of a violet. It was once acquired by my father from I. Michurin's Main Nursery, and I am afraid that it is the last on earth ... And his varieties became the ancestors of new, even more improved varieties, for example, Bellefleur-Kitaika gave birth to 35 varieties, Pepin saffron - 30, which , naturally, in many respects and replaced their predecessors.
But Ivan Vladimirovich did not immediately find the right ways to create varieties. He had no one to learn from, he had to develop everything himself. There were many mistakes, disappointments, hard failures, but he stubbornly continued his work. And this is already a feat of a lifetime! At the end of the 19th century, it was widely believed in Russia that the improvement of the varietal composition of gardens in the middle zone could be achieved by the massive transfer of high-quality southern varieties here and their gradual adaptation to the harsh local climate. Gardeners lost many years and a lot of money on this useless business. And this mistake, by the way, is now repeated by many of our compatriots who buy seedlings imported, for example, from Moldova.
At first, Ivan Vladimirovich also succumbed to the temptation of such acclimatization. And years of fruitless work will pass before the scientist, having analyzed the results of the experiments, concludes that the adaptability of old, already established varieties to new conditions is extremely limited, and it is impossible to acclimatize such varieties by simply transferring them with trees or grafting cuttings onto a winter-hardy stock. It turns out quite differently when sowing seeds. In this case, under the influence of new conditions, it is not the seedlings, the established varieties, that fall, but young seedlings, extremely plastic plants with a high degree of variability and adaptability. Thus, a decisive conclusion was made: acclimatization is achievable only when plants multiply by sowing seeds. And many of you, dear gardeners, are doing just that now.
Michurin's discovery that a truly effective way of moving plants northward is sowing not any seeds, but those obtained from the targeted selection of winter-hardy parents and, consequently, real irrigation is possible "... only by breeding new varieties of plants from seeds."
And how many winter-hardy varieties of southerners have already been created in this way in our country! Now, for example, in the Moscow region varieties of sweet cherry, apricot and even quince bear fruit relatively well. Well, and grapes are now cultivated, one might say, everywhere, and some varieties are even practically without shelter.
Developing the doctrine of the purposeful selection of parental pairs, I. Michurin made a fateful discovery: the prospects of selection in distant hybridization - crossing of plants of different species, quite distant in relation to the relationship and the area of growth. Only thanks to the introduction of these scientific developments of I. Michurin into breeding, for example, did the gardening of Siberia and the Urals become possible. After all, interspecific hybridization made it possible to obtain a fundamentally new type of apple tree suitable for local places - ranetka and semi-culture (hybrids between the berry apple tree growing here, or simply Siberian, and European varieties), an unprecedented type of pear - hybrids between the local wild-growing pear species, simply called among the people - Ussuriika. All local varieties of stone fruit crops - cherries, plums, apricots - are also interspecific hybrids. Interspecific hybridization saved gooseberries from destruction by the spheroteca, returned the pear to the gardens of the middle zone, and even in an improved form. Most of the varieties of honeysuckle, mountain ash, stone fruit crops widespread throughout our country are also interspecific hybrids. When I once congratulated the famous raspberry breeder I. Kazakov on his wonderful varieties (primarily remontant ones), he said: “You know, they went somehow unexpectedly and immediately when I introduced interspecific hybridization”. And I could only smile and say: "As recommended by Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin."
And also remember, probably, the so-called man-made plants that have never existed in nature, growing in your gardens: Russian plum or, in other words, hybrid cherry plum (hybrids between cherry plum and various types of plum), yoshta (hybrid between currants and gooseberries), earthworm (a hybrid of strawberries and strawberries), cerapadus - children of cherry and bird cherry. And this is not a complete list.
And, probably, very few people know that I. Michurin determined the therapeutic direction in breeding, urging breeders when creating new varieties to be guided by the need to take into account their healing qualities. He even once wrote that if it were not for old age, he would have brought out the apple of health. That is why our garden is now becoming a supplier not only, as they say, of products for dessert, but also a life-saving pharmacy.
I. Michurin was the first to discover for horticulture almost all crops that are now called non-traditional - new and rare. He was the first to experience most of them in his garden. He created the first varieties and determined for each of the crops a future place in the Russian garden. It is with his light hand that chokeberries and felt cherries, lemongrass and actinidia are now growing in our plots, shepherdia and barberry are persistently asking to go to the garden, varietal mountain ash, blackthorn, bird cherry, hazel have appeared.
Ivan Vladimirovich was a great connoisseur of plants. In his garden, he collected such a collection that the Americans tried to buy it twice - in 1911 and in 1913. And they wanted, together with the land and the scientists themselves, to ferry across the ocean on a steamer. But Michurin was firm in his refusal. His plants can only live on Russian soil, his business is for Russia.
For most of his life, the scientist fought alone. Years passed, his strength was depleted, it became more and more difficult for him to work in the garden. A bleak, lonely old age and need approached. And, most likely, the work on the transformation of Russian gardening would have been interrupted if I. Michurin had not been supported by the Soviet government. On February 18, 1922, a telegram came to Tambov: “Experiments in obtaining new cultivated plants are of tremendous state importance. Urgently send a report on the experiments and work of Michurin of the Kozlovsky district for a report to the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, comrade. Lenin. Confirm the execution of the telegram. "
An unprecedented event in history happened - the work of one person became the business of the whole country. Throughout the vast country, scientific centers for gardening, breeding, and variety study were created - institutes, experimental stations, strong points. At the same time, training centers for the training of personnel were organized - from institutes and technical schools to courses for training garden workers. Already at the beginning of the 30s, the first students of I. Michurin dispersed throughout the country and in the most different climatic zones - in the mountains, in the desert, steppes and among the forests - they began to create new varieties. And they, together with I. Michurin, created the basis, thanks to which our country has no equal in varietal diversity and a large number of new cultures for the garden. And then this work was continued by the second and third generations of I. So the great gene pool of fruit and berry crops in Russia was created.
Unfortunately, this invaluable heritage has been largely lost in the last 20 years, and due to the commercialization of gardening, it is being criminally replaced by foreign material, as I. Michurin wrote a hundred years ago, material that is not suitable for our conditions. Scientific work was also curtailed, many collections perished: cottage settlements were built in their place. The remaining gardens are old, many are neglected.
Unfortunately, dear gardeners, the situation on your plots is not much better. And yet, according to my observations, you are now the main holders of our fruit and berry gene pool. Take care and increase this great national heritage of ours! And further. Read Ivan Vladimirovich. His books can still be bought from second-hand booksellers, ordered on the Internet. They are written very clearly, without a pile of scientific terms, and in terms of content, they are a storehouse of ageless knowledge for both amateur gardeners and specialists.
Irina Isaeva, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Moscow www.sad.ru
Photo courtesy of the author
Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin and the Tambov Region MBOU Secondary School No. 18 named after E. D. Potapov Completed by student 9 "v" Ryapasova Alina Supervisor: teacher of computer science Zatsepina E.M. Michurinsk-Naukograd RF
Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin (October 15 (27), 1855, a small estate Vershina near the village of Dolgoe Pronsky district of the Ryazan province - June 7, 1935, the city of Michurinsk, Tambov region) - Russian biologist and breeder, author of many varieties of fruit and berry crops, Doctor of Biology, Honored Worker science and technology, honorary member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1935), academician of VASKhNIL (1935). He was awarded the Order of St. Anna, 3rd degree (1913), Lenin (1931) and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. Three lifetime editions of collected works. I. V. Michurin
6-8 kilometers northeast of the ancient Russian town of Pronsk, Ryazan Region, in the valley of the Proni River, among forests and copses, there is a group of villages: Dolgoe-Michurovka, Yumashevo, Alabino, Birkinovka. In the middle of the 19th century, a large family of the Michurin noblemen lived here, who owned small (30-50 dessiatines) plots of land. Here, in the forest dacha "Vershina", near the village of Dolgoe-Michurovka, on October 28 (15), 1855, Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin was born. Michurin's father, Vladimir Ivanovich, having received a home education, served for some time at the Tula Arms Factory as a receiver of weapons. Having married against the will of his parents to a girl of the "common class", he soon retired with the rank of provincial secretary and settled permanently in his small estate "Vershina", where he was very enthusiastic about gardening and beekeeping. The village of Dolgoe-Michurovka, near which the Michurins estate was located
In the autumn-winter season, Vladimir Ivanovich was usually engaged in teaching peasant children to read and write at his home. Such was the situation in which Michurin spent his childhood and adolescence. When the boy was 4 years old, his mother, Maria Petrovna, who was in poor health, fell ill with a fever and died at the age of thirty-three. Deprived of his mother's supervision, the boy was drawn to his father - to the garden, to the apiary, to crops, plantings and vaccinations.Love and an inquisitive attitude to living, ever-developing nature awakened in him early, which sharply distinguished little Michurin from his peers. Little Michurin was distinguished by his extraordinary observation and desire for knowledge. The young naturalist knew every bush in the vicinity of "Vershina", he was the first to bring the news about the beginning of the awakening of the plant loved by the inhabitants of the estate, about the blooming of a flower, the ripening of berries, the appearance of mushrooms. After Michurin graduated from the Pronsk district school, on June 19, 1872, the father prepares his son at the gymnasium course for admission to the St. Petersburg Lyceum. But just at the time when young Michurin dreamed of higher education, but his father unexpectedly fell seriously ill. Then it was discovered that the estate was mortgaged, re-mortgaged and should be used to pay debts. There was complete ruin. Michurin at the age of five in a Cossack costume Studied at the Pronsk district school and the Ryazan gymnasium
In a rare document that has come down to us — a small diary dated 1869 — we find the notes of a thirteen-year-old Michurin studying "the experience of meteorological predictions over 100 years from 1868 to 1968". This "experience", written out, apparently, from some calendar of those times, already speaks volumes. In the firm, completely clear handwriting, in the sketches of the constellations and planets with which the teenager Michurin accompanies his extracts, one can already feel an irresistible desire to study the natural sciences. Studying at home, and then at the Pronsk district school, he devotes all his leisure time, all his vacation time to working in the garden. Even in childhood, he perfectly masters various methods of grafting plants at the age of eight, he masterfully produces budding, copulation, ablating. At the school Michurin stood out for his diligence and abilities.
The development of the teenager Michurin's inclinations to plant growing was undoubtedly influenced by his father and aunt, Tatyana Ivanovna, who were passionate gardeners, of course, and the rich natural conditions of the "Top". Given to Vladimir Ivanovich, according to the section with brothers and sisters, "Top" was a small, fifty long-lengths, forest-steppe dacha, washed from the southeast by the Vyazovka river and surrounded by high green hills. Michurin's craving for nature was so strong that on Saturdays, when he could go home for two nights without waiting for a carriage from the "Vershina", he would go home on foot, even during floods.
His aunt, Tatyana Ivanovna, ready to sacrifice everything for him, barely existed herself. His uncle, Lev Ivanovich, only helped Michurin get into the Ryazan provincial gymnasium, otherwise he was indifferent to his sick brother and nephew. However, having entered the gymnasium, Michurin did not study there for long and he was soon expelled "for disrespect" to his superiors: while greeting the school director on the street, the gymnasium student Michurin did not manage to take off his hats in front of him due to severe frost and ear disease. At the end of the same 1872 IV Michurin got a job as a commercial clerk in the commodity office of the Kozlov station of the Ryazan-Ural railway with a monthly salary of 12 rubles. In 1874 g.
Michurin holds the position of a commodity cashier, and then one of the assistants to the head of the same station. However, the service on the railway did not stifle in him an all-consuming desire to devote his life to his beloved since childhood business .. While still in the position of assistant to the station chief, Ivan Vladimirovich met Alexandra Vasilyevna Petrushina, the daughter of a distillery worker, whom he soon married. Soon, children were born: son Nikolai and daughter Maria. Michurin's wife, an energetic woman who was not afraid of hard work, her sister, Anastasia Vasilievna, and later daughter Maria Ivanovna and niece of A.S. Platenkin's wife (married to Tikhonov) formed a new Michurin family. I. V. Michurin's wife Alexandra Vasilievna
They were excellent helpers of the great natural scientist and meekly shared with him exhausting work and all the hardships of life. The financial situation of Ivan Vladimirovich and Alexandra Vasilievna at that time was the most deplorable. With the loss of Michurin's job as assistant to the station chief, the young spouses were in dire need, close to poverty. But it was precisely here that Michurin's iron restraint manifested itself. Since childhood, dreaming of gardening, he takes the path of struggle for its implementation. Even when he was an assistant to the head of the station, Ivan Vladimirovich studied the structure of telegraph and signal devices, station clocks, and now, in order to at least slightly increase his earnings, he opened a watch workshop in the city, near his apartment.
The modest clerk and watchmaker prepared intensively for his future career as a natural scientist. And when a rare leisure came, he used it to study the geographical distribution of fruit plants, to study botany, to get acquainted with the catalogs of the best fruit companies in the world. Having no land, no means, no time, Michurin, nevertheless, already then knew the assortment of fruit plants in the most important nurseries of the world. Michurin studied especially deeply the state of domestic gardening, its assortment, and its needs. But the deeper, the more detailed Michurin studied our Russian gardening, the more he became convinced of its extreme backwardness, the stronger the desire grew in him to devote himself to the cause of its progressive improvement. Monument to Michurin in the city of Michurinsk Tambov region
It is characteristic that in Russia, up to 1915 (when the department for fruit growing was first established in Petrovskaya, now the Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev), there was not a single higher educational institution that would train qualified specialists in gardening. ... Both the theory and practice of Russian gardening at that time needed a revolutionary transformation. This mission was boldly undertaken by the lone researcher I. V. Michurin. Already in these years (1875-1877) Ivan Vladimirovich pondered the question of improving and replenishing the assortment of fruit plants in central and northern Russia. Moscow Agricultural Academy. K. A. Timiryazeva.
For setting up experiments IV Michurin rented for 3 rubles. a month an empty city manor with an area of 130 sq. fathoms with a small part of the neglected garden. On this piece of land, a wonderful business of improving plants began. Michurin concluded that: “Using plants as they are in nature can be of little benefit. They need to be improved, rebuilt, endowed with useful qualities, destroyed their negative properties. " As a result of tireless searches, Ivan Vladimirovich collected a huge collection of more than 600 species of various fruit and berry plants, which densely populated the area he leased. The terrible tightness on the site threatened the termination of work and the death of some of the plants, and there was no money to purchase a new site.
But at the beginning of autumn Michurin moved to an apartment in the Lebedevs' house, on Moskovskaya Street. The house had an estate with a garden. According to Michurin's contemporary I.A.Gorbunov, two years later Ivan Vladimirovich acquired this house with the help of the bank, along with the estate, but lack of funds and large debts forced him to immediately mortgage the land and the house for a period of 18 years.
On this estate, the first Michurin varieties were bred: raspberry Commerce (a seedling of Colossal Schaefer), cherries: Griot pear-shaped, small-leaved, semi-dwarf. The entire collection of plants from the Gorbunov estate was transferred here. But after a few years, this estate also turned out to be so overflowing with plants that there was no way to carry out experimental work on it. In the early autumn of 1887 Michurin learned that the priest of the suburban settlement of Panskoye, Yastrebov, was selling a plot of land seven kilometers from the city near the settlement of Turmasovo, near the Kruch, on the banks of the Lesnoy Voronezh River. Having examined this site, Michurin was very pleased with it, although of the 12 acres of the site, only half could go into business, since the other half was under the river and a cliff. And on May 26, 1888, the coveted purchase of land finally took place.
Ivan Vladimirovich transferred to the acquired plot the most valuable seedlings, which were in the city nursery, and laid a commercial nursery - in the future, the only source of funds for conducting experimental business. All this was done by the personal labor of Michurin and his family members. They did not even have the opportunity to hire a cart to transport plants from the city site and carried them for 7 km on their shoulders. Under such conditions, there was nothing to think about building a dwelling on a new site, and the whole family lived for two seasons in a hut. Five years have passed. On the site of the neglected wasteland, slender ridges of hybrid seedlings of apple trees, pears, plums, sweet cherries, cherries, berry trees were immediately interspersed with apricots, peaches, grapes, a mulberry tree, an olive, and yellow cigarette tobacco that first appeared in Kozlov. In the very center of the site, a small house was built, immersed in greenery.
It was a low, small, barn-like structure. Michurin and his family lived here. After the terrible devastation inflicted on the southern and Western European varieties by our "Russian winter", Ivan Vladimirovich is finally convinced of the unsuccessfulness of the method he tried to acclimatize old varieties by grafting and decides to continue his work on breeding varieties of fruit and berry plants in the most correct way, by artificial crossing and directed education of hybrids. Michurin's long-term struggle for the creation of a new, improved assortment, for the promotion of fruit growing to the north, a bold search for the most effective methods of breeding new varieties that are resistant to a harsh climate and combine this endurance with high qualities of fruits, led him, after a series of disappointments and mistakes, to the correct assessment plant hybridization. In those years, this was a bold innovation. cattery I.V. Michurin
He is developing the question of distant hybridization. This idea of crossing representatives of different species and even genera originated in Michurin in the early 90s of the last century. And, if the question of hybridization as a method of breeding new varieties, in itself at that time caused almost universal mistrust and denial, then distant crossing was a bold challenge to modern Michurin science and especially to those of its representatives who rejected Darwin. By crossing plants, Ivan Vladimirovich obtained the most successful combination of positive traits in a hybrid precisely in those cases when the parents of this hybrid were geographically distant in their habitat and comparatively distant in relation to plant forms. Such hybrids were easier than others to adapt to the harsh conditions of central Russia, where Ivan Vladimirovich lived and worked. Fascinated by the prospects that opened up before him, Michurin made broad plans for hybridization work. IV Michurin with his assistants in the nursery.
In 1893-1896, when the Michurin nursery already had thousands of hybrid seedlings of plum, sweet cherry, apricot and grapes, Ivan Vladimirovich came to a new idea that led to great and important consequences in his work. He discovers that the nursery soil, which is a powerful black soil, is too oily and "spoils" the hybrids, making them less cold-resistant. For Michurin, this meant the elimination of the Turmasovsky plot, the ruthless destruction of all hybrids dubious in their cold resistance and the search for a new, more suitable plot of land. I had to start almost all the work on creating the nursery anew. With all Michurin's meager budget, it was necessary, at the expense of new hardships, to find funds to start a new stage of his research work.
An enthusiastic scientist perceives the experience of past years as irrefutable proof of the enormous influence exerted by climatic and soil conditions on the formation of a new plant organism, a new variety and its qualities. Ivan Vladimirovich decides to change the location of his green laboratory, to break with the Turmasovsky area. After a long search, he finally finds, in the vicinity of Koz, in the valley of the Lesnoy Voronezh River, a piece of abandoned land with an area of 12 acres. Selling the land in 1899 and breaking his little house, Michurin and his family moved to the Donskoye settlement for the winter, and in the summer of 1900, while the house was being built, he spent in a hastily put together barn. To the great chagrin of Ivan Vladimirovich, the transfer of the nursery to a new location ended in the loss of a significant part of the remarkable collection of the original forms of hybrids. But, despite this, he made an important conclusion: "When raising seedlings under a harsh regime, lean soil, although a smaller number of them were with cultural qualities, they were quite resistant to frost."
Thus, Michurin finally found what he had been looking for for many years. In the future, it was this site that became the main department of the Central Genetic Laboratory named after him. And he himself worked here until the end of his life. By 1905 Michurin had already bred a number of outstanding apple varieties: Antonovka one and a half pound, Kandil-Kitayka, Renet bergamot, Paradox, Northern autumn pear saffron: Bere winter Michurin Bere victory, Bergamot Novik, Sugar plum surrogate: Renclaud white Tern sweet grapes: North and Northern Black, etc. But official science stubbornly refused to recognize Michurin. The year 1915 brought him great misfortune, which almost completely destroyed all hopes for further research work. In early spring, the raging river overflowed its banks and flooded the nursery.
The subsequent severe frosts and a rapid decline in water buried the entire school of two-year-olds under ice debris. At the same time, many valuable hybrids also died. The first blow was followed by a second, even more terrible. In the summer, a cholera epidemic raged in Kozlov, from which Michurin's wife, Alexandra Vasilievna, died. On November 18, 1918, the People's Commissariat of Agriculture took over Michurin's nursery and approved him as head, with the right to invite an assistant and the necessary staff at his discretion for a broader setting of the case. In 1920 Michurin invited I.S.Gorshkov, who was working at that time in Kozlov as a district gardening specialist, to work as a senior assistant, who began expanding the base for Ivan Vladimirovich's experimental work.
In January 1921, he organized a branch of the nursery on the lands of the former Trinity Monastery, located five kilometers from the estate and nursery of IV Michurin. By this time, Ivan Vladimirovich had bred over 150 new hybrid varieties, among which there were: apple trees 45 varieties of pears — 20 cherries — 13 plums (among them three varieties of Renklods) —15 cherries — 6 gooseberries —1 strawberries — 1 actinidia — 5 rowan berries — 3 walnuts - 3 apricots - 9 almonds - 2 quinces - 2 grapes - 8 currants - 6 raspberries - 4 blackberries - 4 mulberries (that same tree) - 2 nuts (hazelnuts) - 1 tomatoes - 1 lily - 1 white acacia - 1. In 1921, at the county exhibition organized by the land department, Michurin's achievements and his apples, winter pears, plums, and grapes were widely demonstrated for the first time.
In connection with the general growth of the material base and the number of scientific workers, the nursery has dramatically increased the scale of research activities. The number of combinations in crosses reached 800, and the number of crosses - up to 100 thousand. Both branches of the nursery already had vast areas with 30 thousand new hybrids: apple, pear, cherry, cherry, plum, peach, apricot, cherry plum, grape, walnut, hazelnut, chestnut, mulberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, currant, strawberry and other plants bred by Michurin and his assistants. In 1928, the nursery was renamed into a selection and genetic station for fruit and berry crops. I. V. Michurin.
By this time, the station already represented the largest center for scientific fruit growing.In the fall of 1929, Michurin's long-standing dream came true - the country's first technical school for the selection of fruit and berry crops was opened in Kozlov. He was named after Michurin. The first volume of Michurin's works "Results of half a century of work" was published, covering the methodology of his breeding work. At the end of February 1935, IV Michurin's health deteriorated sharply. Doctors discovered he had cancer of the lesser curvature of the stomach, but despite his serious condition, I.V. Michurin did not stop working until the last day of his life. He died on June 7, 1935 at the age of 80.
Famous people associated with the Tambov land The names of many outstanding figures of Russian culture and science are associated with the Tambov province. In with. Knitted Kirsanovsky Uyezd spent his youth, and then the poet of the Pushkin era, E. A. Baratynsky (1800-1844), repeatedly returned to his native nest. In with. Mezinets of the Kozlovsky district was born the author of the famous opera "Askold's Grave" A. N. Verstovsky (1799-1862). In the 70s of the XIX century, P. I. Tchaikovsky visited the village of Usovo, Kirsanovsky district. The work of another outstanding Russian composer S.V. Rachmaninov is associated with the village of Ivanovka in the Tambov district.
From 1890 to 1917, he regularly came for the summer to his wife's estate, working on many famous musical works. The natives of the region were the inventor of the incandescent light bulb Alexander Lodygin, the famous Indologist Ivan Minaev, the historian and ethnographer Boris Chicherin, the self-taught breeder Ivan Michurin, Soviet theater actors and cinema, People's Artist of the USSR (1960) Annenkov, Nikolai Alexandrovich (1899-1999), People's Artist of the USSR (1975) Zeldin, Vladimir Mikhailovich (born 1915), performer of Russian folk songs and ditties, People's Artist of the USSR (1981) Mordasova, Maria Nikolaevna (1915-1997), soloist of the Song and Dance Ensemble of Sov. Army them. A. V. Aleksandrova, People's Artist of the USSR (1967) Sergeev, Alexei Tikhonovich (1919-1998). In the Tambov Music School in 1912-1915. studied Vasily Agapkin - the author of the march "Farewell to the Slav," he served in Tambov in 1920-1922. Orchestras under the direction of Agapkin played at historical parades in 1941 and 1945. One of the organizers of the Tambov uprising against the communist regime is Antonov, Alexander Stepanovich.
"We cannot wait for favors from nature, it is our task to take them from her!"
“We cannot wait for favors from nature to take them from her - our task. But it is necessary to treat nature with respect and care and, if possible, preserve it in its original form. "
Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin (1855 - 1935) - domestic scientist-breeder (one of the pioneers of this field), partly a geneticist. Member of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL), Honorary Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Biological and Agricultural Sciences, Honored Worker of Science and Technology.
And all this despite the fact that Michurin did not even receive a specialized education in his specialty. And by profession, Ivan Vladimirovich began to study since childhood, when he helped his father with work in the garden. Gardening for the Michurins was a family matter, they had a large collection of agricultural books, a whole library.
At the age of four, the boy lost his mother. A few years later, his father fell seriously ill. The boy's aunt, who was also very fond of gardening, took over the guardianship.
While his studies in science did not bring income, Ivan Vladimirovich earned his living by repairing watches.
In 1872 Michurin moved to the city of Kozlov, which would later be named after him. Now Kozlov is Science city Michurinsk... And it is the only city in Russia that was renamed during the lifetime of the person in whose honor they are renamed.
In 1875, Ivan Vladimirovich rents the estate. And there he organizes a nursery. In fact, this is the first laboratory of the scientist. There he begins his experiments, he makes the necessary instruments. He moved the nursery several times.
In 1918 the nursery was nationalized, and Ivan Vladimirovich was appointed its head.
Michurin discovered that the varieties of fruit crops existing at that time "Out of date"they suffered from disease and low yields. Imported southern varieties did not take root. Ivan Vladimirovich realized the need to develop new varieties.
Being an inveterate smoker, he developed a new variety of tobacco for himself, which, if properly processed, according to the scientist, was less harmful than its “brethren”.
Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin made a huge contribution to breeding. His name thundered not only in our country, but also abroad. The scientist was even offered to immigrate to the United States and buy his collection of plants. He refused, remaining faithful to his fatherland.
Like most scholars, the scholar had disagreements with the church. Once a priest visited his nursery, who later said that Michurin's experiments had a bad effect on the thoughts of the Orthodox, that he had turned the garden of God into a house of tolerance. The priest even demanded that Michurin stop his experiments on crossing. Naturally, the scientist did not obey him.
VASKHNIL established gold medal named after Ivan Vladimirovich Michurinawarded for work in the field of breeding.
Named in honor of Michurin biological species: Aronia Michurina (Aronia mitschur i nii).
The nursery began to be called Central Genetic Laboratory named after I.V. Michurina.
The pseudoscientific doctrine Michurin agrobiology also bears the name Michurin. But Ivan Vladimirovich has no direct relation to her. The main figure and founder of Michurin agrobiology is the Soviet scientist, or rather the pseudoscientist Trofim Denisovich Lysenko, who will be discussed in the next article.
Irina Sergeevna Isaeva
October 28, 2010 marked the 155th anniversary of the birth of an outstanding biologist, breeder-geneticist Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin. To our great regret, in recent years Michurin's name has somehow begun to be forgotten: young people hardly know him, the older generation vaguely remembers him, although, as they say, “they went to school”. And even from gardeners I often hear: "Well, what did he do there, Michurin, if he only ruined Antonovka"... But really, to my question: "How did he manage it?" - I never received an answer, and I could not get it, because it is absurd. But to the question of what this great scientist and citizen of Russia did, I want to answer.
Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin began his scientific and practical activity in the second half of the 19th century. Working in Kozlov (Tambov region) on the railway, he had the opportunity to get acquainted with the state of gardening in the central provinces of Russia and became convinced of the deplorable state of this industry: gardening here was far from profitable, and gardens were planted only by individual enthusiasts. The reason for this is I.V. Michurin saw not even in the severity of our climate, but in the scarcity of the then assortment of fruit crops and the small size of the orchards. And then the still very young Michurin boldly conceived of renewing the existing old, semi-cultural composition of fruit plants in central Russia, for which he set himself two tasks: "To replenish the assortment of fruit and berry plants of the middle zone with varieties outstanding in terms of yield and quality and move the border of growth of southern crops far to the north".
His first experiments with fruit plants I.V. Michurin began as a twenty-year-old youth (in 1875), renting a vacant lot with a small garden in Kozlov. The source of his livelihood and scientific work was the watch workshop he opened. In 1888, he acquires a small plot of land outside the city and, not being able to hire a horse to transport his plants, he transfers them to a new place (seven kilometers away) on his shoulders and the shoulders of his family members. And that was already a feat! In addition, I.V. Michurin created the garden not for commercial activities: for growing and selling old, well-known varieties, but for breeding new, improved ones. And this is endless, exhausting work and an equally endless waste of money - on the purchase of plants, books, inventory ... And the result? You have to wait for the result for years and believe, believe, believe ... Believe in the necessity and correctness of your cause, believe in the correctness of the chosen path. But the breeding of the variety is often delayed for tens of years (for example, IV Michurin created the pear variety Bere winter for 36 years), sometimes there is not enough human life.
In 1900 I.V. Michurin moved with all his green pets - for the third and last time - to the valley of the Voronezh River, to a site more suitable for experiments. Now here is the I.V. Michurin, and next to it is the majestic building and gardens of the Central Genetic Laboratory (TsGL), created during the life of the scientist, which is now transformed into the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants (VNIIGiSPR) and bears the name of I.V. Michurin.
I.V. Michurin fulfilled his plans in his youth. Our country has received more than 300 high-quality varieties of fruit and berry crops. But it's not even a matter of the number and variety of varieties he received. After all, not so much is withheld from them in the gardens now, and, moreover, in limited quantities. As for the apple tree, these are Bellefleur-Kitaika, Slavyanka, Pepin saffron, Kitaika golden early, in large numbers - Bessemyanka Michurinskaya. Of the pear varieties in the orchards of the Chernozem zone, Bere Zimnaya Michurina is preserved. The greatness of I.V. Michurin is that at the end of the 19th century he perspicaciously determined the main direction of breeding, armed scientists with a strategy and tactics for its implementation, became the founder of scientific breeding (and, by the way, not only fruit, but also other crops). And its varieties became the ancestors of new, even more improved varieties (for example, Bellefleur-Chinese gave birth to 35 varieties, Pepin saffron - 30), which, naturally, largely replaced their predecessors.
Portrait of I.V. Michurin. Artist A.M. Gerasimov
But not immediately I.V. Michurin found the right ways to create varieties. He had no one to learn from, he had to develop everything himself. There were many mistakes, disappointments, hard failures, but he stubbornly continued his work. And this is already a feat of a lifetime!
At the end of the 19th century, it was widely believed in Russia that the improvement of the varietal composition of the gardens of the middle zone could be carried out by the massive transfer of high-quality southern varieties here and their gradual adaptation to the harsh local climate. Gardeners lost many years and a lot of money on this useless business. And this mistake, by the way, is still being repeated by many of our compatriots.
At first he succumbed to the temptation of such acclimatization and I.V. Michurin. And years of fruitless work will pass before the scientist, having analyzed the results of the experiments, concludes that the adaptability of old, already established varieties to new conditions is extremely limited, and it is impossible to acclimatize such varieties by simply transferring them with trees or grafting cuttings onto a winter-hardy stock. It turns out quite differently when sowing seeds. In this case, it is not the seedlings, the established varieties, that fall under the influence of the new conditions, but young seedlings, extremely plastic plants with a high degree of variability and adaptability. So the decisive conclusion was reached: "Acclimatization is achievable only by reproduction of plants by sowing seeds"... And, by the way, many of you, dear gardeners, are doing just that now.
Truly the finest hour for breeders (and therefore for all of us, gardeners) was the discovery of I.V. Michurin that a really effective way of moving plants to the north is not sowing any seeds, but those obtained from the purposeful selection of winter-hardy parents and, therefore, truly oseeding is possible "Only by breeding new varieties of plants from seeds".
And how many sufficiently winter-hardy varieties of southerners have already been created in our country in this way! Only, for example, in the Moscow region varieties of sweet cherry, apricot and even quince bear fruit relatively well. Well, and grapes are now cultivated, one might say, everywhere, and some varieties are even practically without shelter.
Meeting I.V. Michurin with students of the TSKhA, 1924
Developing the doctrine of the purposeful selection of parental couples, I.V. Michurin made a fateful discovery: the prospects of selection in distant hybridization - crossing of plants of different species, quite distant in kinship and area of growth. Only thanks to the introduction of these scientific developments into breeding I.V. Michurin, for example, became possible gardening in Siberia and the Urals. After all, interspecific hybridization made it possible to obtain a fundamentally new type of apple tree suitable for local places - ranetka and semi-culture (hybrids between the berry apple tree growing here, or simply Siberian, and European varieties), an unprecedented type of pear - hybrids between the local wild-growing pear species, simply called popularly - Ussuriika and European varieties. All local varieties of stone fruit crops - cherries, plums, apricots - are also interspecific hybrids. Interspecific hybridization saved gooseberries from destruction by the spheroteca, returned the pear to the gardens of the middle zone, and even in an improved form. Most of the varieties of honeysuckle, mountain ash, stone fruit crops widespread throughout our country are also interspecific hybrids. When I once congratulated the famous raspberry breeder Ivan Vasilyevich Kazakov on his wonderful varieties (and above all remontant ones), he said: "You know, they went somehow unexpectedly and immediately, when I introduced interspecific hybridization."... And all I had to do was smile and say: “As recommended by I.V. Michurin ".
And also remember, probably, the so-called man-made plants that have never existed in nature, growing in your gardens: Russian plum or, in other words, hybrid cherry plum (hybrids between cherry plum and various types of plum), yoshta (hybrid between currants and kryzhov-nick ), earthworm (a hybrid of earthworms and strawberries), cerapadus - children of cherry and bird cherry. And this is not a complete list.
And, probably, few people know that I.V. Michurin also defined the medical direction in breeding, urging breeders when creating new varieties to be guided by the need to take into account their healing qualities. He even once wrote that if he had an adamant age, he would have brought out the apple of health. That is why our garden is now becoming a supplier not only, as they say, "Products for dessert, but also a life-saving pharmacy".
I.V. Michurin was the first to discover for gardening almost all crops that are now called non-traditional - new and rare. He was the first to experience most of them in his garden. He created the first varieties and determined for each of the crops a future place in the Russian garden. It is with his light hand that chokeberries and felt cherries, lemongrass and actinidia are now growing in our gardens, shepherdia and barberry are persistently asking to go to the garden, varietal mountain ash, blackthorn, bird cherry, hazel have appeared.
Monument to I.V. Michurin,
I.V. Michurin was a great connoisseur of plants. In his garden, he collected such a collection that the Americans tried to buy it twice (in 1911 and 1913) - together with the land and the scientist himself, to transport it across the ocean on a steamer. But I.V. Michurin was firm in his refusal.His plants can only live on Russian soil, his business is for Russia.
For most of his life I.V. Michurin fought alone. Years passed, strength was depleted, it became more and more difficult for him to work in the garden. A bleak, lonely old age and need was approaching. And, most likely, the work on transforming Russian gardening would have been interrupted if I.V. Michurin was not supported by the Soviet government. On February 18, 1922, a telegram came to Tambov: “Experiments on obtaining new cultivated plants are of tremendous state importance. Urgently send a report on the experiments and work of Michurin of the Kozlovsky district for a report to the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, comrade. Lenin. Confirm the execution of the telegram. "
An unprecedented event in history happened - the work of one person became the business of the whole country. Throughout the vast country, scientific centers for gardening, breeding, and variety-study were created - institutes, experimental stations, strongholds. At the same time, training centers for the training of personnel were organized - from institutes and technical schools to courses for training garden workers. Already at the beginning of the 30s, the first students of I.V. Michurin dispersed throughout the country and in the most different climatic zones - in the mountains, in the desert, in the steppes and among the forests - they began to create new varieties. And they, together with I.V. Michurin, created the basis thanks to which our country has no equal in varietal diversity and the number of cultures new to the garden. And then this work will be continued by the second and third generation of I.V. Michurin. This will create the Great gene pool of fruit and berry crops in Russia.
Unfortunately, this invaluable heritage in the last 20 years has been largely lost and, due to the commercialization of gardening, is being criminally replaced by foreign ones, as I.V. Michurin, material unsuitable for our conditions. Scientific work was also curtailed, many collections were lost under the construction of cottage settlements. The remaining gardens are old, many are neglected. Unfortunately, dear gardeners, not much is better on your plots. And yet, according to my observations, you are now the main holders of our fruit and berry gene pool. Take care and increase this great national heritage of ours! And further. Read Ivan Vladimirovich. His books can still be bought from second-hand booksellers, ordered on the Internet. They are written very clearly, without a pile of scientific terms, and in terms of content, they are a storehouse of ageless knowledge for both amateur gardeners and specialists.
I.S. Isaev at I.V. Michurin.
House-Museum of I.V. Michurina
Keeper of the House-Museum I.V. Michurin in Michurinsk L. Volokitina
Irina Sergeevna Isaeva,
Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
photos by I.S. Isaeva and from the book of N.I. Savelieva
"All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics
and selection of fruit plants. I.V. Michurin "
The use of photographs is permitted by I.S. Isaeva
the author of the book, director of the institute, academician N.I. Saveliev
in the prime of creativity
Daughter and helper
I.V. Michurin with the famous Russian botanist, academician B. Keller
I.V. Michurin and American professor
I.V. Michurin with Academician N.I. Vavilov
I.V. Michurin for carrying out cytological studies
I.V. Michurin with a delegation from Mongolia (early 30s)
The best monument stone
The best wreath for you -
The day when blooming gardens
We will decorate North and East
7 comments on the post "Michurin Ivan Vladimirovich"
Thank you very much, Irina Sergeevna, for
Your blog! I have always been interested in Michurin's work, but recently I have met few publications on this topic. Our society now resembles the character of the Krylov fable under an oak tree. The attitude of the Soviet government to Michurin's work, and the current one to his legacy, very clearly shows the goals and desire to do something for Russia. Yours faithfully! V. Yakovlev
Valery, thank you for your letter about understanding the significance of Michurin's works. I write about this all the time, let at least someone know about it, maybe not everything will be forgotten. AND THE POWER DOESN'T CARE AT ALL THIS. Medvedev came to Michurinsk with the gardeners did not meet, he examined some kind of elevator. Read the letter “TODAY I HAVE MADE THE MOTHERLAND STRONGER” in the section “WE WILL BE WRITING”.
Using the method of distant hybridization, I managed to create winter-hardy, large-fruited, highly productive varieties of strawberries, with excellent taste for Yakutia, from the crossing of local wild-growing cenopopulations of oriental strawberries and winter-hardy varieties of garden (pineapple) strawberries. Gold medal of VDNKh (2016) variety Vladyka Zosima. Idolize
IV Michurina, they said everything very precisely.
I really liked this article about I.V. Michurin.
Irina Sergeevna, hello. Thank you for the excellent article about Michurin, I will definitely use it in the work of the school library
Dear Irina Sergeevna! For many years I have been working on material about P.G. Yarkov - a collector and propagandist of Russian songs, an exemplary peasant. I have unconfirmed information about his acquaintance with IV Michurin, which could have taken place in 1923 at an agricultural exhibition. In any case, Yarkov handed out Michurin's apple trees to the members of his choir. Have you met this surname somewhere? Yarkov is an extraordinary and very bright personality. I am writing a book about him. I would be grateful for your answer.
Thanks for the article, people like Michurin cause admiration and surprise! What a talented person!
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The People's Commissariat of Agriculture accepts the nursery under state jurisdiction and approves Michurin as head. He retains the right to recruit staff at his own discretion. A lifetime pension is assigned. Lenin himself begins to take care of Michurin, MI Kalinin goes to visit him. The scientist is treated kindly by the authorities, he is declared the country's chief breeder. And not in vain: by the end of his life he will breed more than 200 varieties! The land is attributed to Michurin's nursery, his achievements are marked with the highest awards, including two orders. In 1934, the breeder was awarded the degree of Doctor of Science, and then elected an honorary member of two Academies of Sciences at once.
The brilliant scientist left a great legacy to his followers. And many of his advice and observations are still in demand by amateur gardeners. We have published the most relevant ones on this page.
"Plants do not die from frost if they thaw slowly."
“I have noticed for a long time that if the soil under the plants, after thorough loosening, is covered in spring and summer, and especially in dry years, with leaves, straw, moss or other denser materials, then as a result, the covered plants develop almost twice as fast and better in comparison with naked ones. "
“Rust on roses is completely destroyed by a product recently discovered by me, consisting of the juice of weeds growing everywhere, sow thistle. Rust develops as a result of infection of the plant with a parasitic fungus. which is destroyed by two or three times smearing with sow thistle milk juice, obtained in the form of a drop when cutting the trunk of the plant. "
“You should not dig and loosen old apple and pear trees close to the trunk, because in this place the tree has only one thick roots, which do not take food directly from the soil, but serve only as a conduit for food taken by the smallest branches of the roots located in a circle about two quarters from the trunk, spreading out in a dense network under the entire crown. It is this ring of earth under the entire crown that needs to be loosened and covered with manure. "
"Watering in the first year after planting in dry time should be done once a week, more frequent watering is not only useless, but also harmful."
“Full acclimatization is possible only by sowing, and not by transferring plants, cuttings, cuttings, etc. All attempts of this kind for the most part do not achieve the goal: it happens - such a variety will last a year or two, and sometimes even several years, but then, in the end, he dies. " The opinion that even "grafting a delicate variety on a cold-resistant stock can give it the property of endurance is also mistaken."