Yielding primacy in orchards to apple, cherry, plum and pear, sweet cherry does not lag behind in the selection of new varieties. Columnar trees occupy a special place.
They allow you to get a good harvest in the cramped conditions of a small garden. On an industrial scale, columnar cherries show high results in intensive farming conditions.
The history of columnar trees began in Canada in 1964. It was then that a natural mutation of the apple tree was discovered on one of the farms, which formed the basis of selection. The work on the identification and consolidation of signs has received serious results already in Europe.
Columnar cherry is a cylinder-shaped tree that only grows upward. The crown is formed by short lateral branches and does not exceed one meter in diameter. The peculiarity of lateral branches is a large number of fruit shoots and the absence of strong branching.
Columnar cherry gives a lot of advantages in growing on the site, namely:
The seedlings are available for sale in garden centers, nurseries and online stores. It is better to stop the choice on a seller with a good reputation, who guarantees the compliance of the tree with varietal characteristics. Personal inspection will avoid disappointment. A good seedling has the following characteristics:
When purchasing several cherries, choose plants of the same age for the garden.
The landing itself depends on the region. In the northern regions, autumn planting is not recommended: the seedlings will not have time to take root and will freeze out. In the southern regions and central Russia, it can be planted in autumn and spring. Autumn planting is productive in the south: the tree takes root, goes through a period of adaptation and does not get sick in the spring.
When choosing a place, please note that columnar cherries:
The complex of care measures includes watering, feeding and pruning.
Columnar cherries bear fruit abundantly, therefore, in dry summers and the first two years after planting, they need regular watering. In the first year, it is necessary to remove all ovaries in order to increase the survival rate.
The barrel must be whitewashed with chalk or lime. This will help prevent sunburn. It will help get rid of pests.
In the spring, trees are fertilized with nitrogen-containing dressings, if possible of organic origin. Potassium-phosphorus complexes are laid in autumn. Consumption should not exceed the recommendations of the specific manufacturer.
Agricultural technology assumes the absence of weeds and complete harvesting of plant residues in the fall.
Pruning columnar cherries has its own nuances:
The scheme can simplify the task of forming a columnar sweet cherry:
1st year. Pinching of lateral shoots at a distance of 10 cm from the main trunk. Removing the tip.
2nd year. The tip is pinched when it grows 30 centimeters. Lateral shoots are at the level of 20 cm from the trunk.
3rd year. The upper shoot is pinched. Lateral branches are cut at a distance of 30 cm from the main trunk.
4th year. Thin twigs shading the trunk are cut off.
5th year and subsequent. They stop the growth of the tree up: constantly cutting off the top at the level of 2.5-3 meters, depending on the variety.
6th and every three years after it, the lateral shoots are cut according to the diameter of the molded crown.
At home, columnar varieties of cherries are propagated using:
The championship among the columnar cherries belongs to the varieties Helena and Sylvia. Sem, Little Sylvia, Queen Mary and Black are a little behind. As one of the last generations in breeding, columnar cherries have medium winter hardiness and high early maturity. The yield indicators for one tree are 12-15 kg.
Ruby-red fruits of the Helena columnar cherry weigh on average 12-14 g. The variety is characterized as dessert. Juicy semi-gristly pulp is colored dark red with pink veins.
The maximum tree height is 3 m, the crown diameter is 1 m. Technical ripeness occurs on June 20-22. Fruiting for 15-25 years.
In taste, weight and appearance, the fruits of the Sylvia columnar cherry do not differ from the Helena variety. Dimensional signs are similar. However, the ripening period begins on June 12-18. The tree retains its productivity for 12-15 years.
The earliest of the varieties is Sem. Fruits, similar in appearance and taste to Sylvia and Helena cherries, ripen on June 10-12, but are smaller: 10-12 g. Trees do not differ in size. Fruiting for about 15 years. Subject to agricultural technology, more.
A reduced version of the Sylvia variety: the height of the trees does not exceed 2 m. The crown does not grow beyond half a meter in diameter. Ripening period - the end of June. Fruits in all respects correspond to the Helena variety.
The Queen Mary and Black Columnar Cherry varieties are gaining popularity among gardeners. Trees do not exceed 2-2.5 m in height and 50 cm in width.
Colon-shaped sweet cherry in the process of selection has acquired good self-pollination rates. Yields can be increased by planting several varieties of trees nearby. The universal pollinator is Sem.
The average winter hardiness of columnar cherries will allow you to get the maximum result in the southern regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The middle lane and northern regions will require insulation before the cold weather.
Selection made it possible to obtain varieties resistant to diseases, however, columnar cherries are still susceptible to:
Like any fruit tree, the columnar cherry is vulnerable to pests:
To prevent infection, it is necessary to carry out timely preventive spraying of trees with systemic insecticidal and fungicidal preparations, Bordeaux liquid.
Columnar cherry is a great option for saving space and for an extraordinary layout of the garden plot. In addition to juicy dessert fruits at the beginning of summer, you will get a decorative tree with proper care.
There are many varieties of apple trees. Some of them are bred by breeders, and some are created by nature itself. For example, a columnar apple tree. This variety is currently actively used in horticulture. He is very loved and popular in many countries. But such an interesting apple tree is not the fruit of long-term selection, but a natural variety. Correct planting and caring for a columnar apple tree is of interest to many gardeners in our country.
This variety of apple trees has an amazing crown shape. It is not spreading, like most trees, but only grows upward and has practically no long lateral branches. Currently, this type of apple is used in large-scale gardening, from which whole plantations are grown.
Growing columnar apple trees, in principle, does not differ in anything special from growing varieties familiar to gardeners with an ordinary crown. Saplings of these apple trees, of course, are best purchased in special nurseries, which guarantee the quality of the planting material, conformity to the variety, etc. When planting a columnar apple tree in a permanent place, you should carefully treat the root system. Before planting, fertilizers are introduced into the pit - superphosphate and potash at the rate of 50-80 gr. The distance between the trees should be at least 1 meter, because despite such a compact size of the crown, the root system of the tree needs enough space for nutrition and growth.
Columnar varieties of apple trees can suffer very much from frost. And damage or freezing of the apical kidney can lead to the appearance of an additional 2-3 trunks. Perhaps this is not scary, with sufficient nutrition, these additional shoots will be able to bear fruit. But still, in severe frosts, try to protect the columnar apple trees with a smoke screen.
Columnar apple trees love abundant watering, and with a lack of moisture, ovaries will not form or the fruits will be quite small.
Try to grow a columnar-shaped apple tree on your site - it will delight you with its appearance and delicious juicy fruits.
Columnar trees are distinguished mainly by a straight vertical trunk and thin short lateral shoots, which is clearly visible in the photo, and gives originality to the plantings. The best varieties, not very different from each other, include two types:
The first thing to do is to buy seedlings of columnar cherries. Better to give preference to proven nurseries or garden centers. When choosing planting material, be sure to inspect the bud of the apical shoot. It must be alive, intact. Choose a trunk without irregularities, curvatures, with a smooth bark. Examine the root system. There should be no signs of decay on it.
Planting of a columnar sweet cherry is carried out in the spring, since it may not take root in the fall. The only regions where it is preferable to plant a tree in autumn are the southern regions. The trees root there perfectly.
When choosing a place where a tree will be planted, keep in mind that it does not like winds, it prefers light areas with loose, nutritious soil. The ideal solution would be the southern areas, where groundwater is deeply embedded.
Landing is carried out in pre-prepared holes (2-3 weeks), the diameter of the hole is made at least 0.8 meters, the depth is 0.7 meters. When planning the landing of several copies, make a distance of 1 meter between them.
To fill the hole, create a special soil mixture. It is based on humus, black soil (1: 3). Potash and phosphorus fertilizers are also added to the composition - 16 and 12 grams, respectively.
The root system of the seedling is necessarily moistened, then placed in the hole, covered with soil, a support is formed next to it. The top of the soil is tamped a little.
How is pruning of columnar cherries:
First of all, you need to choose the right seedling and the place where to plant it. So, it is necessary to carefully examine the tree for injuries. In addition, it is very important that the plant has a well-developed root system. The landing site is equally important.
Columnar cherry, like its tall sisters:
Therefore, the site for it needs an appropriate one.
1. In advance (15-20 days before planting), dig a hole with the following parameters:
2. Prepare a soil mixture of the following composition:
4. On a hill, spread and well moisten the cherry roots, and then thoroughly cover with soil, leaving the root collar 2-2.5 cm above the ground.
• For a fragile tree, it is very important to provide support.
• In warm regions, columnar cherries can be planted in autumn in cold ones - only in spring. Moreover, during the period when the threat of frost has passed. Bestsellers in the store
This culture, despite all the efforts of the breeders, is very sensitive to diseases, the appearance of a fungus and infection by viruses. Pests like aphids, caterpillars, moths also love to enjoy the fruits of the tree.
In the fight against viral, bacterial and fungal infections, you should pay attention to the drugs - "Topaz", "Signum", "Horus".
"Aktara", "Envidor", "Calypso" actively cope with the destruction of pests.
Disease prevention can be carried out by spraying with Bordeaux mixture.
Now you are convinced that planting and growing columnar cherries is not so difficult? This culture will decorate your garden and delight your family with a high harvest.