The perennial tree plant Yucca is part of the Agave family. This genus unites about 40 species that are naturally found in the subtropical zone of North America. In the homeland of such a plant, it is used in various fields. From cut flowers, juice is extracted with a high sugar content. Strong fibers are made from filamentous yucca, they were used to make the first jeans, and then cotton replaced them. However, even today in the United States, yucca is added to the fabric used to make jeans, making it stronger and more durable. In addition, yucca fibers are used to make rope and paper, plus all this plant has healing properties.
Yucca is an evergreen plant with a low stem, which may have little or no branching. In some species, the stem is impossible to discern, while large spectacular leaf plates rise immediately above the soil surface, which are placed in a spiral. Large erect inflorescences reach about 200 centimeters in length, they grow from the middle of the leaf rosette and have a panicle shape. The bell-shaped drooping flowers reach about 70 mm in length, they have a white color. The fruit is a ten-centimeter box, inside of which are black seeds, reaching up to 10 mm in diameter.
When grown at home, the tree is recommended to be placed in a hall or a large room, because it can reach a height of about four meters. Such a plant looks very similar to a false palm tree. It should be borne in mind that flowering is observed only in an adult yucca, during which white flowers appear outwardly similar to bells. Such a plant is often used as a decoration for a large room, while those bushes that have several points of growth (branching trunk) are of the greatest value.
Yucca in room conditions. All about growing.
When grown indoors, yucca should be provided with very bright lighting, since it is photophilous. However, despite this, the flower should be shaded from the direct rays of the sun, especially if it stands near windows with a south orientation. It grows best on the west and east windows. If natural lighting is too scarce, then the bush must be illuminated for at least 16 hours a day with fluorescent lamps, for this they are installed at a distance of 0.3–0.6 m from the plant. In the warm season, if desired, the yucca can be moved outside, while for it you need to choose a place that will be protected from direct sunlight, as well as from rain. If in the summer it is in the room, then it should be systematically and quite often ventilated.
In the spring-summer period, make sure that the room is no colder than 20 degrees and not warmer - 25 degrees. If the tree has been exposed to direct sunlight for a long time, then it must be rearranged in a shaded place, and after it has cooled down, it is moistened with a sprayer. In the autumn-winter period, the air temperature should not be higher than 12 degrees.
If, during a warm winter, the lighting in the room is too poor, then the bases of the stems may stretch out, and the foliage will become thin, faded and lethargic. If the yucca weakens, it can cause an invasion of harmful insects, while the foliage turns yellow and flies around. If you cannot provide the plant with a temperature of 10 to 12 degrees in winter, then in the fall it is kept outside until the coldest days, and in the spring it is transferred to fresh air as early as possible. If a bush on the street is placed in a protected place, then even short-term frosts cannot harm it.
The following factors affect the frequency and abundance of watering a crop:
In the spring-summer period, watering should be abundant, it is carried out immediately after the top layer of the soil mixture dries out to a depth of about 50 mm. If the weather is hot in the summer, then watering should be more frequent, but still between them, the surface of the soil mixture should have time to dry out. If the yucca is cool, then the amount of watering is reduced, otherwise liquid will stagnate in the soil mixture, which will cause rot on the plant, and this can lead to its death.
Some yucca species when grown at home must be systematically moistened from a sprayer. To do this, use boiled water at room temperature. To maintain high air humidity, moistened pebbles or gravel can be poured into the pan. When wetting the bush, it should be protected from direct sunlight, otherwise burns may form on its surface. In order to remove dust and dirt from the foliage, the bush can sometimes be washed under a warm shower, while the surface of the substrate must be protected from liquid ingress.
In spring and summer, such a crop should be fed regularly once every 15–20 days. For this, a diluted mineral complex fertilizer is used. The plant responds well to feeding with infusion of mullein, leaf humus or horse manure. However, experienced florists recommend spraying the seamy surface of the leaf plates with a solution of a complex mineral fertilizer. If the plant is sick or it was transplanted not so long ago, then feeding should be suspended, since at this time they can only harm it.
As a rule, a yucca has only 1 trunk, but with proper pruning, it can form several trunks. To do this, you will need a young bush, which should be healthy and strong, while its height should be at least 0.3 m. In the last spring or first summer weeks, cut off the upper part of the bush, for this you need to use a very sharp tool. You need to cut off only 50-100 mm, but so that as much foliage as possible remains on the bush. Be sure to process the cuts, for this they are sprinkled with coal powder.
It is better to transplant the yucca in the spring, but it can also be done in the summer, if the need arises. At the bottom of the container, before planting, you need to make a good drainage layer; for this, use expanded clay, pebbles or broken brick. The substrate should be medium neutral with a pH of 6.0–6.5 if it contains peat. About 30 percent of the sand (of the total volume of the substrate) should be poured into the finished soil mixture.
It is recommended to transplant the yucca using the transshipment method, while trying to keep the clod intact. If rot appears on the root system, for example, due to stagnation of liquid in the substrate, then the plant must be transplanted as soon as possible, while the decayed areas are cut out. Yucca is well suited for hydroponic cultivation.
Yucca home care / yucca plant
If desired, yucca can be grown from seeds. For this, freshly harvested seeds are sown in a substrate consisting of sod and leafy soil, as well as sand, which are taken in equal parts. Crops should be systematically watered, ventilated, and condensate must be removed from the surface of the shelter. The first seedlings should appear after about one month. After the seedlings grow up and get stronger, they will need to be cut into individual pots, reaching about 60 mm in diameter. Then they begin to gradually accustom them to the same care that an adult plant needs. After 12 months, the plants will need to be transferred to larger pots (20-30 mm larger in diameter than the previous ones).
Since such a plant grows very much at home, it is propagated by a piece of the trunk, if there is such a need. In the summer, several parts must be cut off from the trunk, while in length they must reach more than 20 centimeters. Sections are planted for rooting in a slightly moistened soil mixture consisting of peat and sand, while the cut should be at the bottom. Then the box is transferred outside to a shaded place. On the parent bush, all the places of the cuts are covered with garden var. The planted sections must be covered with a film on top, it will help maintain the required level of air humidity, while the air temperature should be from 20 to 24 degrees. Make sure that the soil mixture is slightly damp at all times. Rooting of the segments will occur after 4–8 weeks.
Home plants. Part 1.
For reproduction of such a plant, apical cuttings are also used. Using a very sharp tool, cut off the top of the plant, while the cuts are treated with charcoal powder. The cutting should be left in the open air for 2 hours so that the cut sites have time to dry out. Then it is planted for rooting in moistened sand or placed in a container with boiled water. When rooting cuttings in water, a piece of charcoal is placed in a container, it should protect the cuttings from bacteria. Before the roots appear, rot may appear on the lower leaf plates. If this happens, then the leaves are removed, and the water in the container is changed. After the roots grow, the cutting is planted in a pot filled with soil mixture.
In nature, this species is found in Jamaica, Central America, Bermuda, and also in the south of North America. The plant is extremely slow growing, but in height it can reach about 8 meters. The tree-like stem in adult plants is highly branching. Rosettes with fibrous foliage are formed on the tops of the branches. The length of the lanceolate leaf plates is about 50 centimeters, they are dark green with a spike at the top and with a serrated edge. In an adult bush, flowering is observed in the summer, at which time a paniculate inflorescence is formed, reaching half a meter in length. It grows out of a rosette and includes many bell-shaped flowers in its composition, reaching 30 mm in diameter, they are painted in a whitish-cream shade with a purple tint.
In nature, this bushy, slow-growing plant is found in California, Mexico and Arizona. Its stem is short, and rigid and fibrous leaf plates are collected in rosettes, which reach about 100 cm in diameter.The leathery greenish-gray foliage of a lanceolate shape is about 100 cm long, has a thorn at the top, and teeth along the edge. The inflorescence of this species is practically the same as that of the aloe-leaf yucca, only it is longer (about 200 cm), and the flowers of the same color have a pleasant smell and are 5 mm larger. When flowering ends, the rosette dies off, and many shoots form at the base of the plant.
This tree, with a thick trunk, can reach a height of about 300 cm, its crown is highly branched. There are a large number of leathery to the touch thin (up to 10 mm wide) and long sheet plates, which can be convex or flat. There is a sharp spike at the top of the plate, and small teeth grow on the yellow edge. The leaf itself is decorated with stripes. On a long peduncle, a panicle is formed, consisting of white flowers.
Either tree yucca (Yucca arborescens) or giant yucca. In nature, the species can be found in southeastern California, and also in Arizona, mainly in dry parts. The height of a tree can reach up to 9 meters, and its trunk diameter reaches 50 centimeters. In the upper part, the trunk is strongly branched.Densely growing hard and short foliage (length about 0.3 m) in the middle part reaches about 15 mm in width, on the surface it has a groove, and at the top of the thorn, the edge is finely toothed. At the top, the leaf is brown. The short peduncle consists of yellowish flowers.
Or high yucca (Yucca elata). The height of such a tree is about 7 meters. It forms a lot of densely spaced sheet plates of a linear shape, their length is about 0.6 meters, and at the widest point their width is only 10 mm. The plate narrows to the base, its top is pointed, there are small grooves. The narrow white edges of the foliage are covered with a large number of fine threads. The length of the inflorescence is about 2 meters, at the top of it there are flowers collected in a panicle.
This plant comes from the east of North America. Its stem is practically absent. The root system goes into the deep layers of the soil. Such a plant is capable of growing strongly due to root suckers. It can withstand a short-term temperature drop down to minus 20 degrees. The leaf plates pointed at the top have a greenish-bluish color, along the edge they are densely pubescent with thin curly white threads. The foliage is about 0.7 m long and up to 40 mm wide. To get viable seeds, the plant must be artificially pollinated. On a two-meter peduncle, a lot of drooping eight-centimeter flowers of a yellowish-white color are formed. After flowering, the fruit is formed - a rounded box.
The trunk of such a plant is short (height is about half a meter), in some cases it is highly branching. At its top, rigid fibrous sheet plates are assembled into a rosette. The grayish-green drooping foliage, leathery to the touch, has a lanceolate shape and is about 100 cm long, has a thorn at the top, and a jagged edge.
Such an evergreen plant reaches a height of about 200 cm, and is native to the western United States. Its stem is short. Meter rosettes consist of densely packed leathery fibrous foliage. Lanceolate bluish-green leaf plates with a white edge are about 0.6 m long. The edge can also be gray with peeling fibers. In adult plants, in summer, a panicle-shaped inflorescence grows from the rosette, reaching a height of up to 100 cm. It consists of many bell-shaped flowers of a creamy white hue.
Originally from the southeastern United States. In nature, the species is a spherical bush or a low tree (about 2 m). The tree-like stem can be weakly branching or single. Leathery to the touch, lanceolate bluish-green leaf plates are up to 0.6 m long, they have a sharp thorn at the top, and the edge is sparsely toothed. In adult plants, in the summer, a panicle-shaped inflorescence grows from the outlet, reaching a height of about 250 cm. Many five-centimeter hanging flowers of a cream with a purple tint are formed on it.
The fact is that this plant looks like an elephant's leg. Over time, it becomes a not very tall tree or upright bush and has a height of about 10 meters. Its stem is tree-like, strongly branching. At the tops of the branches, leaf rosettes are located, consisting of rigid fibrous plates. Greenish leathery to the touch lanceolate leaf plates are 50–100 cm long, their edge is serrated, and there is a sharp thorn at the top. In summer, adult plants form an inflorescence about 100 cm long, which consists of many five-centimeter flowers.
Native to Mexico and the southern United States. The weakly branching tree-like stem is characterized by slow growth, in height it can reach about 5 meters. Leathery to the touch, bluish-green lanceolate leaf plates are collected in a dense rosette, they are straight or slightly curved, pointed at the top, their length is more than 100 cm, and their width is up to 7 centimeters. In summer, in adult bushes, an inflorescence about 100 cm long appears from the outlet; it consists of many hanging bell-shaped flowers of white color with a purple tint.
Or large-fruited yucca (Yucca macrocarpa). The species grows on sandy ground in southern Arizona. A weakly branched or straight trunk reaches a height of about 4 meters. Hard light-gray straight sheet plates are about 50 cm long and up to 4 cm wide. The plate narrows slightly at the base, and its edge is covered with thin threads. The branches and peduncle are bent, and the loose inflorescence has a panicle shape.
Or yucca filamentary (Yucca filifera). The height of the tree is about 10 meters, its upper part is strongly branching. Densely growing dark green leafy plates, leathery to the touch, have a length of about 30 centimeters, and a width of up to 3 centimeters, their edge is covered with threads. During flowering, a branched, hanging two-meter inflorescence is formed, which consists of a large number of cream-colored flowers.
YUKKA! Pruning, grafting, planting in a Zeoflora capsule!
Yucca is unpretentious; a bright room is required for its maintenance. The yellowing of the leaves and their pallor are most often explained by a lack of lighting. The optimal daylight hours are about 16 hours, regardless of the season. In the cold season, it is better to illuminate the yucca with fluorescent lamps.
The temperature is needed moderate - from 15 to 25 ° C in summer, in winter it is recommended to provide the yucca with a cool content at + 3-5 ° C, but it will not die in a room. From the beginning of autumn, it is important to protect the plant from drafts, which can cause soft areas on the stem and leaves.
Sudden changes in temperature and humidity, as well as changes in conditions of detention, for example, when moving, can lead to peeling of the bark and shedding of leaves. However, with the further correct maintenance, this will not interfere with the normal growth of the plant.
If the smell of rotting comes from the bark, the leaves droop and become soft, then the temperature regime has been violated and an urgent need to carry out restorative procedures. In this case, you should transplant into fresh soil, remove the damaged parts of the root, dry the sections and treat them with charcoal.
As noted above, about thirty varieties of yucca are known, some of which are grown as indoor plants. The most popular are:
Yucca (home care and transplantation will be described in detail later) is a perennial plant that differs from other members of the family in high endurance and good health. Breeding it does not cause any particular problems, so even novice growers will be able to cope with everything. With a little effort, you can grow an incredibly beautiful exotic plant that will diversify the interior and make it more cozy and attractive.
Yucca grows very slowly and rarely, if ever, needs pruning. Although they grow at a minimal rate, they become very large in both height and width, so you should be prepared for this when growing yucca indoors. If the plant grows too large, you can reduce the frequency of replanting by leaving three or four years between each replanting.
If the yucca is already taller than you would like, the only option is to trim off some of the height. To do this, you will need to saw off the main trunk, reducing it to a size that suits you. A little unattractive stump will remain, but over time, new shoots will grow from it. Do this with caution, in some cases pruning the yucca is an injury that the plant cannot recover from.
In addition to diseases, garden yucca can be damaged by insects. If the bushes have good immunity, then they are not afraid of pests. Damaged plants become targets for insects.
Proper care is what is needed for the normal development of the bushes. If all activities are carried out in a timely manner, then the yucca will not hurt, and will soon delight the summer resident with stunning flowering. The flower bed will be transformed before our eyes, it will become a cozy corner on the site.