Allamanda - Allamanda cathartica


Allamanda

Allamanda is the name of a beautiful and widespread plant because it is excellent for decorating balconies, verandas and gazebos in gardens. In fact, it has very interesting features for the use that can be made of it in the furnishing of a garden, a balcony or a veranda of the house; it is a plant that, depending on the species, looks like a shrub or a climber, but in any case it is characterized by its oblong, oval leaves, of an intense and bright green (tending to dark) and for the fairly thin and elegant but also robust and leathery, that is, not at all fragile. By the way, the plant belongs to the Apocynaceae family and in nature it can reach ten or twelve meters in height, while in pot it extends up to almost two meters in height. However, it must be said that the Allamanda must be supported both in the climbing version (and it is decidedly obvious), but also in the shrubby version, as it has a main body that is not very firm and particularly malleable to atmospheric events, therefore for a strictly straight and well range should be helped perhaps by keeping it near a wall and securing it to it. As information we report that it is native to tropical areas of central and southern America.


Environment and exposure

Being the Allamanda native to tropical areas of the American continent, it is not at all accustomed to temperatures other than mild ones in the depths of its genes; for this reason these species have adapted well to life in our latitudes and in particular in Italy, but in winter they need special precautions because they can withstand temperatures that even drop down to 5 degrees centigrade, but for very limited periods and absolutely not consecutive. It goes without saying that the best use for Allamanda is as a houseplant, because in winter it can be protected from cold currents and strong atmospheric events. In summer, however, it can be safely exposed outdoors, but being careful to avoid direct sun in the central hours of the day, while full sun in the morning and in the afternoon will greatly benefit it (so you have to adjust the position to "cover it" between 11 and 15). In any case, the environment must always be very humid in summer, so it is necessary to raise the humidity with various methods, among which we remember the constant vaporization of water on the crown of the plant (in winter these are not necessary daily, however monitoring the degree of humidity).


Ground

The soil that Allamanda prefers has precise characteristics: draining, slightly acidic, rich in organic material. For the second and third requests there are specific products to buy to give the plant those acidic and organic substances that you want, while for the first request, that of drainage, there are several solutions: use as a base for the substrate of the potsherds, use of pumice stone in the soil mixture, do not over-compress the earth in the pot. All this is particularly attributable to Allamanda's intolerance towards water stagnation, which must be absolutely avoided.


Watering

There are two watering techniques for Allamanda useful for its proper growth and survival over the years, one for winter and one for summer. In the months from November to February (ie we are talking about winter, the cold months) irrigation must be sporadic, avoiding excessively wetting the earth and above all doing it beyond the needs of the plant (avoid stagnation); in summer, on the other hand, it is necessary to water regularly, abundantly and frequently, always paying attention to the hated stagnations.


Fertilization

Allamanda fertilization is to be done only between April and October, with a generic liquid fertilizer for flowering plants: It is a product that is easily found in well-stocked nurseries and florists; the dose is what you will find on the package, but slightly decreased to avoid burns. Pour it with watering every 15 - 20 days.


Flowering

To crown it all there are its beautiful flowers, or a set of five petals that give life to a trumpet shape (also known as a funnel) much appreciated for simplicity and refinement; usually the small flowers are born close together, in groups of about four, united by the final part of the stem. In reality, not in all species we can call them "little flowers", because in some of them the "trumpet" of the flower in its most open part can even reach ten centimeters in diameter, a not bad result. If we combine this scenographic presence with the colors that, depending on the selected species, vary from yellow to intense red (with shades of orange, pink, pale yellow, salmon and even almost violet), we can very well understand how much this plant is perfect for decorating your balcony or the outside of your gazebo in the garden maybe if you allow it to grow in a basket hanging high and from which elegant and consistently full branches of visible and well colored floral stumps will descend.



Allamanda - Allamanda spp. Atlas of Potted Plants - Indoor and Balcony Plants

Common name: Allamanda.
Kind: Allamanda.
Family: Apocinaceae.

Origin: tropical areas of South America.

Genre description: includes about 15 species of climbing, evergreen, delicate shrubs which, due to the high humidity required and the size they can reach, can preferably be cultivated in a veranda sheltered from the sun, greenhouse or winter garden, using stakes to support them Development. They have dark green ovate leaves, similar to those of the oleander, which grow in a spiral around the stem. The flowers are funnel-shaped, large and showy, generally yellow, but in some species also purplish-red (A. violacea) or orange (A. cathartica var. Hendersonii).

Allamanda cathartica (Berlin Botanical Garden) (photo www.agraria.org)


Allamanda cathartica

Allamanda cathartica, commonly called golden trumpet, [2] common trumpetvine, [2] and yellow allamanda, [2] is a species of flowering plant of the genus Allamanda in the family Apocynaceae. It is native to Brazil. This plant is cited in Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius.

  • Allamanda aubletiiPohl
  • Allamanda chelsoniiK. Koch nom. inval.
  • Allamanda grandiflora(Aubl.) Lam. nom. illeg.
  • Allamanda hendersoniiW. Bull ex Dombrain
  • Allamanda latifoliaC.Presl
  • Allamanda linnaeiPohl
  • Allamanda salicifoliahort.
  • Allamanda schottiiHook. nom. illeg.
  • Allamanda wardleyanaLebas
  • Allamanda williamsiiauct.
  • Echites salicifoliusWilld. ex Roem. & Schult.
  • Echites verticillatusSessé & Moc.
  • Orelia grandifloraAubl. nom. illeg.

It does not twine, nor does it have tendrils or aerial roots. It can be pruned into a shrub form. If not pruned it can sprawl to a height of 20 feet. [3]

The city of Canóvanas, Puerto Rico has adopted this species, known locally as canario amarillo, as its official flower. [4]


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1. Coppen JJ, Cobb AL. The occurrence of iridoids in Plumeria and Allamanda. Phyto Chemistry. 22: 125-128, 1983.


Allamanda - Allamanda cathartica - garden


Family • Apocynaceae

Yellow allamanda
Allamanda schottii Pohl
BUSH ALLAMANDA

Huang ying

Scientific names Common names
Allamanda brasiliensis Schott ex Pohl [Invalid] Bush allamanda (Engl.)
Allamanda cathartica Schrad. [Illegitimate] Buttercup flower (Engl.)
Magnificent allamanda B.S.Williams Dwarf golden trumpet (Engl.)
Allamanda neriifolia Hook. Golden trumpet bush (Engl.)
Allamanda schottii Pohl Golden trumpet vine (Engl.)
Yellow allamanda (Engl.)
Yellow allamanda (Engl.)
Yellow bell (Engl.)
Allamanda schottii Pohl is an accepted name. The Plant List
Allamanda cathartica Schrad. is an "illegitimate" synonym of A. schottii. Allamanda cathartica L. is an accepted name and separate species. The Plant List
In the Philippines, the "yellow flower" is source of great confusion, especially when it refers to the "yellow bell." and "kampanilya." Kampanilya is a shared common between two species of plant: (1) Thevetia peruviana, campanilla, campanero and (2) Allamanda cathartica, campanilla, kampanero, goldfen trumpet.
"Yellow bell" is a shared common name by (1) Allamanda cathartica (2) Allamanda neriifolia, and (3) Tecoma stans.
Some compilations list Allamanda cathartica and Allamanda nerifolia as synonyms others as separate species, but sharing in many of the common names.

Other vernacular names
CHINA: Huang ying.
MALAYSIA: Akar chempaka hutan, Bunga akar kuning.
THAI: Ban phara.
VIETNAMESE: D [aa] y hu [yf] nh l [as] h [ej] p (Day huynh la hep).

Botany
Yellow allamanda is a glabrous perennial shrub growing to a height of 1.5 meters, with a milky sap and sometimes scandent branches. Leaves are narrow, opposite or whorled, 2 to 5 at each node, 8 to 10 centimeters long, 2 to 3 centimeters wide. Inflorescence is paniculate. Flowers are bell-shaped with a golden yellow corolla, striped orange at the throat, up to 6 centimeters across, with a short and swollen tube, angular at the base. Fruit is a globose and prickly capsule.

Distribution
- Recently introduced.
- Ornamental cultivation.
- Propagated by stem cuttings.
- Found wild in thickets.
- Native to Brazil.

Constituents
- Study of ethanol extract from aerial parts (leaves and stems) of A. schottii yielded a mixture of Гџ-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Elution of fraction 80-106 yielded plumericin (56.3 mg), scopoletin (14.5 mg), ursolic acid (267.8 mg) and plumierede (74.3 mg). A dichlormethane fraction from roots yielded plumericin (22.1 mg), isoplumericin (18.0 mg), 1- (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) -ethano-1,2-diol (8.3 mg) and scoparone (15.2 mg). (see study below) (3)
- In a study of flavonoids in flowers of different Allamanda species, A. schottii ethyl acetate fraction yielded a rutin concentration of 24.85 В ± 0.08 mg / 100 g fresh flowers. Flowers also yielded kaempferol and quercetin. (7)

Properties
Concerns: Milky and irritant sap. Skin contact may cause dermatitis. Reports of diarrhea or vomiting with ingestion of plant parts.
• Purgative.
• Studies have shown antiproliferative, cytotoxic, anti-leishmanial properties.

Uses
Folkloric
• Reports of diarrhea and vomiting with ingestion of plant parts.
• Used as purgative and vermifuge.

Studies
Protoplumericin / Iridoid Bis-glucoside : Study isolated protoplumericin, 13-O- (Гџ-D-glucopyranosyl-p-coumaroyl) -plumieride, from the methanolic extract of A neriifolia. (1)
Anti-Proliferative / Cytostatic / Cytotoxic : Study evaluated the anti-proliferative effect of A schottii and A blanchetti ethanolic extracts on K562 leukemic cells. The root extract of A schottii showed to be the most active, showing dose-dependent cytostatic and cytotoxic effect. (3)
Anti-Rabies Virus / Leaves : In a study of South American plant extracts and fractions for antiherpetic and antirabies activities, only a methanol extract of leaves of Allamanda schottii showed anti-rabies virus activity, with a selectivity index (SI = CC50 / EC50) of 5.6. (4)
Antileishmanial / Roots, Stems and Leaves : Study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. Dichlormethanes fractions of roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values ​​between 14.0 and 2.0 Вµg / mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04 Вµg / mL against the two Leishmania species. (6)
Antimitotic Activity : Study evaluated the effects of dichlormethane fraction obtained from Allamanda schottii on sea urchin Echinometra lucunter eggs, as a multicellular model for evaluating anti-tumor activity. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of sea urchin development with IC50 for first and third cleavage and blastulae stage of 103.7 Вµg / mL, 33.1 Вµg / mL, and 10.2 Вµg / mL, respectively. The expressive anti-mitotic activity on sea urchin eggs reinforces the anti-tumor potential of A. schottii. (8)
• Cytotoxicity / Plumericin / Seasonal Influence: Study fractions evaluated obtained from leaf, stem, and roots of Allamanda schottii for cytotoxicity using several cell lines (human erythromyelobastoid leukemia cell line: K562). Ethanol and DCM fractions were evaluated in L929, HeLa, Nalm6 and K562 cell lines. Ethanol extract of stems yielded the compounds plumericin, plumieride and ursolic acid from the ethanol extracts of stems. Results showed the season of A. schottii collection and the part of the plant analyzed influenced the cytotoxicity on K562 cells. The DCM fractions from the stems and roots were responsible for the cytotoxicity on the cells tested. The cytotoxic activity may be due to the presence of plumericin or minor compounds yet unidentified. (9)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated November 2018 / September 2016


How to Care for an Allamanda Flower Vine

Related Articles

Sometimes called golden trumpet vine, common allamanda (Allamanda cathartica) is a perennial flowering vine noted for its leathery, dark green foliage and yellow, trumpet-shaped flowers. It is sometimes grown within U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 to 11, where it is used as a potted plant or landscape ornamental. Common allamanda needs little hands-on care once established in a suitably bright, sheltered site. However, it benefits greatly from occasional grooming and feeding to maintain its lush appearance and control its sometimes aggressive growth.

Install a sturdy trellis roughly 8 to 10 inches from the base of the allamanda vine to provide the appropriate support. Position the trellis on the north side of the vine, if possible, to maintain a southern exposure, which will provide an appropriately bright light level.

Train the allamanda vine against the trellis as soon as it is tall enough to reach it. Spread the vines across the trellis and twist them gently around the supports to encourage vertical and horizontal growth. Do not use ties to secure the stems because it may cause strangulation.

Spread a 2-inch-thick layer of lightweight organic mulch around the base of the allamanda vine to conserve soil moisture and discourage competitive weed growth. Leave a 2-inch gap between the mulch and the vine's trunk to allow moisture to evaporate from the soil. Replace the mulch each spring.

Water the allamanda vine twice weekly to a 1-inch depth during summer. Let the soil surface dry out completely between waterings. Decrease water by half during winter and withhold all water during periods of wet, rainy or cold weather.

Feed the allamanda vine once weekly during the growing season, from spring until late summer. Dissolve 1/2 teaspoon of general-purpose, 10-10-10 fertilizer in 1 gallon of water. Replace one weekly watering with the fertilizer solution, applying the fertilizer solution to moist soil to prevent root burn.

Prune the allamanda vine in late winter or early spring to control its size and improve its appearance. Remove up to half the stem height. Prune out any crossed branches to improve air circulation among the interior branches, which will help prevent fungal infections in the foliage. Wear gloves when working with allamanda vines.

Watch for signs of iron chlorosis such as yellow-veined foliage and a general lack of vigor. Treat chlorotic allamanda vines with a commercially prepared iron chelate foliar spray. Spray the foliage monthly during the growing season and discontinue use if blackened leaves develop.

Watch for signs of insect pests such as mites, mealybugs and scales. Symptoms include cottony matter on the twigs, damaged leaves and stem die-back. Treat insect infestations with a liberal application of insecticidal soap every seven to 10 days until the insects are gone.

Protect allamanda vines from the cold if a frost is forecast. Cover the plant with burlap and keep the soil moist to increase radiant warmth from the ground. Move container-grown allamanda vines under a porch or to a warm, bright room indoors until all frost danger has passed.


Video: Urechites lutea yellow Mandevilla, wild Allamanda yellow Dipladenia and Allamanda Cathartica


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