Ruslan grapes came to Russia from the Zaporozhye private plantations of the amateur breeder Vitaly Zagorulko. He strove to create complex resistant varieties with stable annual fruiting, high palatability and excellent transportability. The 90s of the last century brought him fruit in every sense: an enviable harvest of the hybrids he created, and the author's glory of such varieties as Laura, Talisman, Arcadia, Gift to Zaporozhye, Delight, Ruslan.
There are only about twenty original varieties of Zagorulko, but each is nurtured and polished. Complex breeding work lasted over 20 years. The enthusiastic winegrower conjured and rejected until he found the only hybrid form that satisfied all his requirements: both in self-pollination, and in form, and in terms of marketable and taste criteria. He considered and considers the following as priority indicators for his new products:
Ruslan is one of the many varieties of the breeder Vitaly Zagorulko
It was to this cohort with super- and super- qualities that one of his wonderful hybrid varieties, Ruslan, fell. Together with other cultures such as Mavr, Libya, Bazhena, Lily of the Valley, Veles, Vodogray, Sofia, he has repeatedly won or won prizes and prizes at international exhibitions organized by farms and agricultural academies of Ukraine in the period from 2008 to 2011.
The early ripening of Ruslan grapes makes it possible to grow it in the southern zone and the black earth belt of Russia.
Three cultures became Ruslan's parents: Gift to Zaporozhye, Kuban and Delight. Of course, these southern aborigines could not create a northern variety. But, nevertheless, the frost resistance of the new hybrid amazed many experienced farmers. After all, Ruslan showed endurance up to -250C. This meant that the novelty should have been extended to the northern part of Ukraine and even to the cooler latitudes of Russia. This winter hardiness and genetically inherent superearly ripeness allowed Ruslan to appear even in the gardens near Moscow.
And these are not all the amazing qualities of this grape variety. It is also worth mentioning excellent immunity to mildew, the ability to grow on small private and large farm plots, the growth of vines in the open field and in a greenhouse.
As for the bunch and the fruit itself, superiority won again. The table below shows this clearly.
Experienced gardeners note the slight cracking of Ruslan grapes in rainy years
Ruslan, like his eponymous hero from Pushkin's poem, is a strong specimen, able to stand up for himself. But this does not mean that he will not appreciate good conditions and care in the off-season and during the growing season.
Despite its soil pickiness, the culture prefers a fertilized soil composition with the addition of humus and peat. It is imperative to arrange drainage from rubble in the lower layer of the planting pit, otherwise waterlogging will create additional problems in the form of the development of fungus and mold on the leaves and fruits or in the form of watery bursting berries.
Cuttings before planting in the ground should be rooted in a nutrient aqueous solution
The holes for the rooted cuttings of Ruslan are prepared in advance, 15 days before the planting procedure. This is required in order for the soil to settle and partially compacted. The holes should be deep and spacious, since not only the aboveground, but also the underground part of the variety grows. After planting the seedlings in the fertilized pits, they are slightly dripped in, watered with settled warm water and then dripped again. This technique of double dropping will better retain moisture at the root and will not allow a crust to form on the surface of the earth.
For grapes, make spacious holes up to 80 cm deep and wide
The recommended distance between seedlings is at least 1.5 meters, and between rows for industrial cultivation - at least 3 meters. By the middle of the season, the vine will grow so that there will be no empty space, but there will be sufficient corridors for ventilation of the culture and for the passage between them during harvesting. The distance will also serve as an isolation measure in case of contamination of a neighboring vine with any unpleasant ailment.
The distance between seedlings should be at least 1.5 meters, so that after growth they do not shade each other
Planting Ruslan cuttings is most effective in the spring, although the cuttings themselves are harvested in the fall. Reproduction by layering takes place better in summer and autumn.
Caring for grapes is no more difficult than caring for a garden turnip. He needs regular watering, loosening, removing weeds and feeding, without which the ovary will be weak, and the yield is below the declared limit for the variety.
Three mineral dressings per season may well be enough if:
The first watering with the addition of nitrogen and potassium is carried out in the spring after sanitary pruning.
Mineral dressing is the most important part of the complex care of grapes
The second and third feeding is carried out during the period of budding and ripening of fruits. It can be both root and foliar spraying of foliage with potassium-phosphate mixtures or industrial complex fertilizers. It is important to remember that in order to avoid poisoning with residues of agricultural mixtures on the fruits, spraying should be applied at least two weeks before picking the berries.
The variety is declared highly resistant to fungal diseases with mildew and powdery mildew, manifested in the form of oily brown-yellow spots on the foliage, fungal pubescence on the leaves and fruits, and the smell of rotting fish. Diseases are very dangerous for grapes - with a bad development of events, you can lose from 50 to 90% of the harvest. In this case, the infection quickly passes from one vine to another. The plant begins to turn yellow quickly, the berries dry and fall off.
Pubescence on leaves and fruits is one of the signs of the appearance of mildew
Prevention against mildew is the most important part of caring for grapes of any variety, no matter how high resistance to the disease is declared. The main rules of this preventive work are the following points:
It must be remembered that there are many fungicidal preparations. In order not to give rise to addiction in grapes to one of their types, it is desirable to alternate from season to season, or from top dressing to top dressing.
The most gentle methods of protection against fungal ailments include spraying with infusions of highly aromatic or pungent herbs: nettle, chamomile, pepper, garlic, onion and others. Wood ash, periodically poured under bushes, is also a good prophylactic agent.
Before laying the cutting in the hole, it must be inspected for the presence of parasites on it. One of the most dangerous for grapes is phylloxera, or grape aphid. A small yellow-green pest eats leaves, shoots, and roots. In the winter cold, its larvae successfully settle on the roots, piercing them with the proboscis and thus violating their integrity. When the earth warms up, the parasites crawl to the surface, where they begin their destructive cycle.
Phylloxera larvae are attached not only to the leaves, but also to the roots.
The damage of a cuttings taken from such an affected plant can be seen with the naked eye. There will be unnatural bumps or bumps on it. The infected material must be immediately sent to the fire, and at the same time the diseased vine from which the cutting was prepared. The land from the destroyed zone will also have to be treated with pesticides, and for ten years to avoid planting grapes on it.
But what if phylloxera is found on the plantation during the high season? There is only one way out - to carry out multiple processing of grapes with dichloroethane. But due to the fact that the chemical is a very toxic poison, 20 ml of which is enough to cause fatal poisoning, the treatment of grape fields with dichloroethane should be carried out only by a certified team of agricultural or chemical specialists.
In small private vineyards, you can independently apply such well-known pesticides as Actellik, Kinmiks, Fozalon, Fufanon.
Pruning grapes is a kind of ritual that must be carried out every autumn, regardless of the age of the grape bush. Over the summer, the vine grows and thickens so that it is absolutely impossible to let it go in the winter in this form. An uncircumcised vine does not overwinter well, and next year, if it does not die, it will give such a slow development that the fruit can not be expected. And the benefits of pruning are enormous.
Autumn pruning is carried out in order to form a bush and increase yields.
Before the main pruning, an inspection of the bush is carried out, identifying dried shoots and removing the remaining foliage. Vines are formed from the first year of life. All shoots that have grown over the season are removed on it, except for two stems, on which three buds are left. The next year, 3-4 eyes are reserved on the shoots.
In the third year, two sleeves are formed, which in the next season will run on both sides of the central trunk. To do this, the regrown lashes are shortened to 50 cm with the number of eyes no more than 4. All lower shoots are removed. In the fourth year, the sleeves are maintained in this status, but all annual shoots on their lower part are cut off. All work is done with a garden pruner and a delimber.
A fully formed bush is obtained by the fourth year of the life of the vine.
Shelter vines for the winter is done according to the rules of the climatic zone in which the grapes are grown. If shelter is not required, then the branches are carefully pinned to the support.
Ruslan grapes are a real highlight in the garden, literally and figuratively. Unpretentious, with excellent keeping quality, disease resistance and early ripening, it can become the highlight of the program on the site, without bringing much trouble to the owners. It happens that it is more difficult to grow and preserve sugar turnips than Ruslan grapes, especially if that turnip is genetically huge.
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