How to understand which fungal disease has affected the lawn


Improper lawn care can lead to fungal infections. If this happens, it is necessary to start treatment of the ornamental grass as soon as possible. But first, it is important to identify the type of problem and the cause.

Powdery mildew

When powdery mildew appears, the grass is covered with a white coating, which outwardly resembles crumbled flour. This fungal disease appears in waterlogged areas in the shade. Another reason can be sudden changes in temperature.

Most often, powdery mildew affects meadow bluegrass, so it is better to mix it with fescue in shaded areas.

Treat the herb with a miclobutanil-based product to get rid of the problem. Also, when powdery mildew appears, the use of phosphorus fertilizers and a decrease in nitrogenous additives help. For prevention, thin out the crown of trees (improves illumination) and mow the lawn so that the height of the blades of grass does not exceed 7-8 cm.

Brown spot

In another way, brown spot is called rhizoctonia. This disease begins with small spots of gray-yellow hue surrounded by a smoky ring, then the spots grow rapidly, growing up to 50 cm. If not treated, brown spot can affect most of the grass. First of all, rhizoctoniasis affects waterlogged areas that do not receive enough sunlight.

Another reason for the problem is the use of an unbalanced fertilizer.

To heal your lawn, treat it with Benomil or Chlorothalonil. After that, normalize the irrigation regime, thereby eliminating excess moisture, and adjust the applied fertilizers, reducing the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. Potassium and magnesium during this period should, on the contrary, be more than usual.

Rust

The main reasons for the development of rust are a lack of nitrogenous fertilizers and high humidity, for example, with the frequent appearance of dew. The presence of the fungus can be identified by the reddish-brown bloom that covers the tops of the blades of grass. Most of all, bluegrass and ryegrass suffer from this disease. Therefore, when planting these types of cereals, try to monitor the level of moisture and the composition of the fertilizer used. If rust does appear, treat the grass with any contact fungicide, then mow it and remove it from the lawn. Use systemic fungicides such as Triticonazole or Propiconazole as a preventive measure. Such processing should be carried out no earlier than the end of July, and before that, you can use nitrogenous fertilizers.

Fusarium

If you notice that some areas are covered with a whitish coating, it means that they were struck by fusarium. Bluegrass and fescue are most susceptible to it, but other types of cereals can be attacked by the fungus fusarium nivale. Infestation usually occurs due to high humidity or unbalanced fertilization.

After detecting the disease, mow the damaged grass, be sure to aerate and add a little nitrogen fertilizer to speed up the regrowth of healthy grass.

Prevention should be carried out in the fall, since it is during this period that the lawn becomes infected. For this, treatment is carried out with agents based on fludioxanil, for example, Fundazol or Benomil. This should be done in late October and early November, when the last mowing is completed. Knowing which factors most often lead to the development of fungal diseases, it is much easier to control the condition of the lawn and prevent problems. Therefore, when planting ornamental grass on your site, try to pay more attention to caring for it.

Red threadiness

When a red thread appears, the tips of the blades of grass begin to turn pink. If you do not prevent the development of this process, over time, the lawn will simply dry out. The disease appears at low temperatures and high humidity, so spring and autumn are considered the ideal period for its development.

Red threadiness affects all types of cereals, but fescue and ryegrass are most susceptible to it.

To heal your lawn, mow all affected areas, aerate, and increase the amount of potassium fertilized. As a preventive measure, it can be treated with Chlorothalonil, in addition, improved illumination and regular mowing will help.


Wheat rust is caused by the basidiomycete Puccinia recondita... The disease manifests itself in the form of yellow, black and brown small bubbles (pustules) on the leaves and stems of the plant, in which the spores of the fungus develop.

Initially, the pustules are covered by the epidermis.... As the disease progresses, they burst and emit a yellow or orange powder - spores that disperse to neighboring plants and infect them.

What is dangerous for wheat

Outwardly, the spores resemble rust. They interrupt the process of photosynthesis in plant tissues and lead to a decrease in the ability of wheat to produce grain.... Entering the cells of a plant, the fungus-pathogen does not kill it, but begins to take away nutrients necessary for development and growth.

Such destructive processes cannot but weaken the culture. Moreover:

  1. Damaged leaves die off prematurely, and the stems break and lodge.
  2. The root system is poorly formed, so it does not provide the plant with moisture enough.
  3. Due to the rupture of the epidermis in the affected areas, the water and respiratory balance of the plant is disturbed.
  4. The culture loses drought and frost resistance.
  5. In the ear, the development of grain is delayed - its quantity and weight are significantly reduced.

The infected plant becomes weak, feebleconsequently, the yield also decreases.

The most common and dangerous types of wheat rust include:

  • stem (linear)
  • leaf (brown).

Stem is capable of infecting up to 300 species of cultivated and wild-growing cereals... First of all, stems and internodes are affected. Later, it affects the sinuses (sheaths) of the culture, less often the leaves and parts of the spike.

Leaf rust infects winter and spring wheat and other cereals... Mostly leaves and axils of plants are affected. During the growing season of crops, several generations of fungal spores develop, which, scattering, infect an increasing number of plants, therefore they can cause massive damage to crops.

Leaf rust the greatest damage is caused by winter wheat... Crops infected in autumn do not tolerate winter well. With the onset of spring, there is a noticeable difference between rare, rusty plantings and healthy ones that have safely survived the winter period.


Symptoms of the disease

It is a dangerous fungal disease caused by the fungi Erysiphe cichoracearum and Sphaerotheca fuliginea. From diseased plants to healthy bushes, the infection is transmitted by spores. The disease is usually easy to diagnose. If you look closely at the photo of cucumber leaves affected by this disease, it will seem that someone walked along the aisle and accidentally spilled a handful of flour.

Photo. Damage to a cucumber with a disease: on the left - the initial stage, on the right - a heavily affected plant.

The mycelium of the fungus, which looks like flour, constantly multiplies and after a short time the entire leaf plate is covered with it. The further fate of the affected leaf: turn yellow, wither, die off. These are the signs of what this fungal disease looks like on cucumbers.

Since the infection most often comes from the soil, the lower leaves are affected first, especially those touching the soil surface. After a short period of time, if you do not treat powdery mildew on cucumbers, the disease rushes upward, affecting the following parts of the bush:

  • leaves
  • petioles
  • flowers
  • ovaries
  • fruit.

On the affected bushes, more than half of the harvest becomes unusable, and the surviving cucumbers become defective in appearance, lose their taste.

Description and causes of the disease

Vegetable growers know that this fungal disease usually occurs at the start of the summer season, when optimal conditions for its development are created - high humidity and low values ​​of positive temperatures.

The fungus develops better at a humidity of 50% and an air temperature of 20-27 ° C. To protect planting from an insidious disease, you need to know why this fungal disease appears on cucumbers. Below is a list of the main reasons:

  1. too much nitrogen fertilization
  2. little potassium and phosphorus in the soil
  3. wide range of temperature fluctuations
  4. inclement weather for a long time
  5. violation of irrigation regime
  6. use for cold water irrigation, especially in cool weather
  7. crop rotation is not sustained - cucumbers are grown in one place for several years
  8. thickened crops
  9. drafts and lack of light (in the greenhouse).

Symptoms should be monitored in summer at least at 3-4 day intervals.

To protect the culture from fungal attack, you need to apply appropriate measures to combat powdery mildew. The list of these measures includes prevention to prevent the spread of the disease and timely treatment with the use of chemicals and folk remedies.

What is the difference between powdery mildew and downy mildew?

Cucumbers can be affected by true MR and false (LMP) or peronosporosis. These diseases are caused by different pathogenic fungi and have some similarities and differences.

Below is a table of comparison of diseases.

Signs
Symptoms The upper part of the leaves is covered with small whitish spots, the bottom of the leaf blade is covered with a white layer of mycelium. Oily brown spots appear on the top of the leaves, a gray bloom appears on the back of the leaf plate.
Under what conditions does the fungus multiply High air humidity, sudden temperature fluctuations. Prolonged cold, inclement weather.
Sources of infection The infection spreads to the bushes from soil, water. Spores can be carried by the wind. Through not disinfected seeds, plant residues, water.

This MR spreads very quickly on greenhouse cucumbers. The causative agent of the fungus spends the winter in the soil or in plant debris. Cucumber bushes can become infected at any stage of development, but most often at the zenith of summer. The outbreaks usually arise near the entrance to the greenhouse, in waterlogged areas of open ground.

Important! Immediately after infection, it is impossible to discern the symptoms of the disease. They appear after 5 days, when the incubation period has passed.

With peronosporosis, yellow-green specks appear on the surface of the leaves, and a bluish-purple mycelium appears on the opposite side of the leaf. The incubation period of this fungus lasts 3 days. The disease affects stems and leaves without spreading to fruits. The first symptoms of the disease are found on the upper leaves, and after a week the disease covers the entire bush.

By the abundance of symptoms, one can assume the source of infection:

  • if the infection of the bushes is focal, then the infection came from the outside
  • when the disease is noted at once on all the bushes, the infection was due to not disinfected seeds.


Diseases and pests of indoor plants

Indoor plants are susceptible to various diseases. These diseases are the result of exposure to unfavorable environmental conditions, as well as the result of inadequate care. These can be: excessive humidity or dryness of the air, too high or too low temperature, lack of fertilizing or excess, the quality of the earthen mixture does not correspond to the required one, the capacity is not suitable, etc. Most of the diseases are not spread to other plants. Sometimes the problem is associated with the fact that retail outlets sell greenhouse plants, which are sometimes difficult to adapt to the conditions of modern apartments, as a result of which they may develop poorly or shed their leaves, indicating that the conditions for this plant are not entirely suitable. If such a precedent takes place, then the plant must be removed from the pot and the roots must be examined. If the root system is damaged, the plant will have to say goodbye, otherwise, it must be transplanted and experimentally established what is the reason. Perhaps this plant has little light or lacks nutrients. The object can be fed and moved to a brighter place. If the plant before this stood in a lighted place, then it should be moved to partial shade or in the shade.

In any case, it is necessary to check how effective drainage is, and whether there is any at all. In its absence, you need to transplant the plant according to all the rules. Many indoor plants do not tolerate or do not tolerate temperature fluctuations, as well as the presence of drafts. This is an important factor to consider when keeping indoor ornamental plants or flowers.

Overdried air, especially in winter, when the heating season begins, can cause significant damage to plants. It can cause the appearance of thrips and spider mites, if preventive measures are not taken.

Watering plants is carried out with water at room temperature and only soft (rain or thawed) and only settled.


3 Powdery mildew

In the period from mid-summer to autumn, a white cobweb, loose bloom resembling cotton wool may appear on the lawn grass. After a while, the plaque, thickening, acquires a brown color and completely blackens. If you notice similar symptoms on your lawn, be aware that the grass has been infected with powdery mildew (this problem is especially relevant for bluegrass). If you don't take action, the plants will dry out and your lawn will noticeably thin out.

The causative agent of this lawn disease begins to develop from May, development occurs most intensively when dry and wet weather changes, and during high humidity at an average temperature of up to +20 degrees. Spores of the fungus spend the winter on diseased plant stems.

In order to prevent damage to the lawn by powdery mildew, apply phosphorus and potash fertilizers to the soil in autumn, and complex fertilizers in the spring, at the same time combing the lawn with a fan rake. If a powdery coating appears, treat areas with fungicides, reducing watering and reducing nitrogen fertilization.

Lawn brushing video


Honeysuckle viral diseases honeysuckle and their treatment, photo of symptoms

Viral diseases of honeysuckle are much less common fungal, and their treatment is reduced to limiting the spread (preventive treatment of healthy and removal of affected ones), and protection of unaffected plants.

The best way to protect honeysuckle, as well as other shrubs from the spread of viruses, is to choose resistant varieties. Some of them have natural resistance, and do not require additional protection measures: common honeysuckle, Tatarskaya, Maak, Korolkova.

Mosaic virus of rezuha (lat.Arabis mosaic virus)

The main reason for the defeat is poor-quality planting material. The virus leads to excessive bushiness of the plant. The internodes are shortened and a large number of lateral shoots appear. The leaves remain underdeveloped, and the bush gradually dies.

Mosaic rash virus leads to excessive bushiness of honeysuckle and disrupts development

Affected shoots should be regularly removed and destroyed. The fact that you need to know when growing honeysuckle is that viral diseases do not have drug treatment.

Leaf mottling (lat.Caprifolium mottle virus)

The virus is carried by various types of nematodes (roundworms). The main symptom: speckled or streaky brown spots form on the leaves, the whole plant gradually turns yellow.

Honeysuckle leaf mottling is carried by nematodes

Sick bushes are dug up and destroyed.In autumn, the standard pruning of dried shoots and branches of the surviving plants is carried out.


Brown spot of petunias (Latin Phyllosticta petuniae Sp.)

A characteristic sign of the disease is the appearance on the front side of the leaves of dark brown spots of a round shape, which from time to time changes to an elongated, oblong, with clearly visible concentric zones of color. The light areas of the leaf become covered with fungus and begin to secrete spores. The diseased plant gradually dries up and withers.

Brown spotting of petunia appears as small spots that grow over time.

The cause of infection is excessive humidity. Therefore, watering should be moderate, and rainwater and runoff should be drained or diverted.

Prevention and treatment of petunias, diseases and control of them

Immediately after the discovery of brown spot, diseased leaves must be removed, fallen leaves must be collected and burned away from the front garden.

For treatment and prophylactic purposes, plants are treated with copper-containing preparations twice a week with a break of 10 days. The best preparations for the treatment of petunias from brown spot: Oxycom, copper oxychloride, Kartotsid.

Diseases of petunias and the fight against them video

If your plant suddenly begins to wilt, you need to act quickly to help it fight off the infection. The most common petunia diseases and their treatment with a photo of infection symptoms, which we discussed in the article, will help determine why the flower is not feeling well, and will tell you how to protect other crops from the spread of the disease.


↑ Treatment of rust by chemical means

To treat an orchard that is affected by rust, they begin in the fall, when all the leaves on the trees have fallen. Diseased pears should be treated with fungicides. Branches with signs of rust fungus are cut completely. Even those shoots that are slightly damaged by the disease are cut off. Places of cuts are treated with a fungicidal agent, then the cuts are covered with garden varnish or melted wax. All fallen leaves and cut branches are collected and burned.

Important! Tools used to prune branches should be treated with disinfectant before and after pruning.

Spring treatment of an orchard against fungi is also considered effective. It is carried out in three stages: before the opening of the buds, immediately before the blooming of the flowers on the trees and at the end of flowering.

Chemicals that are used to treat pear rust are divided into 2 groups: drugs of the new generation and the old model, which have been used for decades for anti-pathogenic treatments. All products are made on the basis of sulfur, which stops the growth and development of mycelium, and prevents spore formation.

The means proven over the years include Bordeaux liquid, copper and iron vitriol, colloidal sulfur. Their effectiveness in fighting rust is average. It is worth using these drugs when the tree is slightly infected with a fungus or in the process of preventive spraying.

Copper and preparations with iron are used with extreme caution, since a high concentration of these elements is toxic to trees.

Modern drugs fight rust fungus with substances that are capable of blocking the spread of fungal mycelium at the cell level in the middle of the tissue structure of the tree. The drugs of the new sample include: "Skor", "Horus", "Raek", "Revus", "Baylon".

Important! The features of the use of each of these drugs are indicated on the packaging and must be taken into account when using. Only then will spraying the tree be effective!

Most chemicals are ineffective when the pathogen has entered the sporulation phase. Also, rust fungi have learned to adapt to long-term exposure to the same means. Therefore, it is necessary to alternate the preparations, using them no more than twice during the growing season.

Modern antifungal developments have a wide spectrum of action. The drugs destroy both rust and other pathogens that provoke, for example, powdery mildew or scab.

↑ Folk remedies

In autumn, after leaf fall, gardeners spray pears with a urea solution: dissolving 350 g of urea in 5 liters of water. The treatment also helps against other fungal diseases.

Important! Spraying is carried out only after sunset or on a cloudy day, so as not to provoke sunburn on the foliage and bark.

Summer residents successfully fight rust with the help of this composition:

  • 1 tbsp. l. baking soda
  • 1 tsp detergent in liquid form
  • 1 tablet of crushed aspirin
  • 1 tbsp. l. olei
  • 4.5 liters of water.

The resulting mixture (each time a new one) is sprayed every week on sick pears. It is especially recommended to use a solution when rust appears during the ripening period of pears.

Important! Infected trees cannot be fertilized with nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen is replaced by potassium and phosphorus.

After flowering, the pear is treated with marigold infusion. Crushed flowers, leaves and stems are poured with the same volume of warm liquid. Insist for two days, then add laundry soap to the mixture: 30–40 grams of grated soap per 10 liters of water.

↑ Prevention measures

There is no need to wait for leaves with red or red spots to appear on the pear. Rust prevention begins at the planting stage of the orchard. Then every year from spring to late autumn, the trees are sprayed. Preventive measures will help save pears and other trees in the garden from rust:

  • The right choice of pear varieties.
  • Planting a tree at the maximum distance from the juniper bush growing on the site. When the first signs of rust appear on the bush, all affected branches are immediately cut off from it and burned.
  • They constantly monitor the condition of the trees, regularly inspect the leaves. The bark is examined to look for cracks, sores, and other damage.
  • Timely cut and thin out the crowns.
  • In spring and autumn, prophylactic fungicidal treatment is carried out.
  • Trees are treated with a biological product phytosporin-M. Sprayed 4 times per season.
  • A hedge is planted around the perimeter of the garden to trap the moving spores of the fungus.
  • Folk methods of protecting the garden from rust are used: trees are sprayed with an infusion of horsetail, marigold or ash.

Pear rust is very common. How to treat it, each gardener decides for himself. Only prevention and spraying can save the pear and all fruit plantings in the garden from a dangerous and difficult to treat disease.



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