Snapdragon


Snapdragon (Antirrhinum), which is also called antirrinum, is directly related to the genus of herbaceous plants belonging to the plantain family. This genus unites about 50 species of perennial plants, including climbing plants. In the wild, these plants can be found in zones with warm climates, and most of the species are found in North America. In Russia, these flowers are called "dogs", in England "snapdragon" (biting dragon), in France "wolf's mouth", and in Ukraine "mouths". "Antirrinum" in translation from Greek means "nasal", "like a nose." In the ancient Greek myth telling about Hercules, or rather, about his first feat, it is said about how he defeated the Nemean lion, the ferocity of which everyone knew. In honor of the victory, the goddess Flora presented Hercules with a gift - it was a lovely flower called "snapdragon". From that time on, the Greeks had a tradition of giving the heroes a snapdragon. This plant has been cultivated for about five hundred years, and German specialists took up its selection only in the 19th century. During this time, they were able to create about 1 thousand varieties of snapdragons, while it is interesting that only one species was used to create various varieties, namely, antirrhinum majus.

Snapdragon features

This flower is represented by shrubs, as well as herbaceous plants, which have straight, finely grooved shoots, they are branched and painted green. Their height can vary from 15 to 100 centimeters. The bushes have a pyramidal shape. Above, the leaf plates are alternately located, and below - opposite. Their shape can be lanceolate or oval-elongated, and the color varies from dark to pale green, while the veins are colored red. Fragrant flowers are relatively large in size, they are two-lipped and have an irregular shape. There are both double flowers and simple ones (depending on the variety), they are part of the inflorescences that have the shape of an ear. Their color can be yellow, pale fawn, white, pink, red (all shades), and there are also varieties with two- and three-color flowers. The fruit is a two-celled polyspermous capsule. 1 g contains 5-8 thousand seeds. This plant begins to bloom in July, and ends after the first autumn frosts.

Often, snapdragons, which grow as a perennial in the wild, are grown by gardeners as an annual. However, if the plant is well cared for, and if conditions are favorable, the frost-resistant snapdragon can survive the winter in the open field. Moreover, next year, its flowering will be more spectacular. In garden design, such a flower is grown as a curb flower, but it can decorate both a flower bed and a green lawn (if the snapdragon is planted in groups). Terraces and balconies are also decorated with such a plant. Today, ampelous varieties of such a flower are gaining more and more popularity among flower growers, for the cultivation of which you can use hanging structures, and they will also become an excellent decoration for galleries and terraces.

SNAPDRAGON. VERY IMPORTANT SUBSTANCES OF QUALITY GROWING !!!

Growing snapdragon from seed

Sowing

Reproduction of this plant can be done by seeds, as well as vegetatively. The seeds have good germination for several years. In the event that you live in an area with a relatively mild climate, then sowing the seeds of such a flower can be done directly into open soil. The first shoots can be seen after 2.5–3 weeks, while the seedlings are not afraid of cold snaps that occur at night. In the same places where the spring is relatively cold, it is recommended to grow this plant through seedlings. It is very easy to grow snapdragons from seeds.

Seeds are sown in the first days of March. To do this, you need a bowl, the diameter of which will be at least 10 centimeters, and at the bottom it should have holes for drainage. Coarse sand should be poured at the bottom, and on top of it compost soil mixed with sand. Lightly tamp and level the surface, then moisten it a little with a spray bottle and spread the snapdragon seeds mixed with sand, sprinkle a thin layer of the same substrate on top. Water the crops with a fine spray bottle, and then cover the container with clear glass. Every day, condensation must be removed from the glass surface, while airing the seedlings and, if necessary, moistening the surface of the substrate from the sprayer. If there is moderate humidity and warmth (23 degrees) in the place where the container stands, then the first seedlings can be seen after half a month. After the first plants appear, the container must be transferred to a well-lit, but at the same time protected from direct sunlight, place (so that the plants do not stretch out). After the snapdragon begins to emerge en masse (after 3-4 days), the shelter must be removed permanently.

Seedling

At first, the plants will grow for a long time, and during this period it is especially important to properly moisten the soil. Watering should be done in the morning so that there is enough moisture for the plants, but it would not be too much. The fact is that waterlogging can cause the development of a "black leg". If the seedling has fallen, then it should be carefully removed using tweezers, while the place where it grew should be sprinkled with crushed charcoal or used for this calcined cold river sand. After 2 true leaves are formed, it is necessary to pick the seedlings into a box or container, while they must be placed so that they are not pressed against each other. Also, for picking plants, you can use individual pots, or you can plant 3 seedlings in 1 larger pot at once. Then the plants must be placed in a well-lit, but at the same time protected from direct sunlight, place. After that, you can start hardening the seedlings. To do this, in the daytime, you need to open the window for a while, but drafts should be avoided. When the plant has 4–5 true leaves, it will need to be pinched to increase bushiness, but if the lateral shoots are growing quite quickly, then they should also be pinched.

Landing in open ground

When to plant snapdragons

Snapdragon seedlings should be planted in the last days of May and the first in June. At the same time, you should not be afraid of cold snaps at night, since these plants tolerate them quite calmly. These flowers can be planted both in a sunny area and in a shaded area, but it should be borne in mind that it must be protected from gusts of wind, and also be well drained. A suitable substrate should be light and rich in nutrients. A mixture consisting of compost, sand, and peat, which are taken in equal proportions, is best suited for growing such a flower. The acidity of the soil should be pH 6-8.

How to plant

The distance between the bushes during planting depends on the variety of snapdragons. So, between dwarf varieties there should be a distance of 15 centimeters, between undersized varieties - about 20 centimeters, between medium-sized ones - 30 centimeters, and between tall ones - from 40 to 50 centimeters. After the bush transplanted into open ground takes root, it grows rather quickly and becomes a spectacular flowering plant. It must be remembered that it is necessary to plant seedlings in a well-watered soil in advance.

Snapdragon. How best to sow, how to properly care.

Care features

Growing

Such a flower is undemanding to care for and it only needs timely watering, weeding, feeding, and it is also necessary to systematically loosen the soil surface. Watering should be done only during a drought, but remember that this procedure cannot be carried out in the evening. After watering, it will be necessary to loosen the soil surface and weed, this can be done on the same day or every other day. Experts advise, to make a garter of tall varieties to the support. After the flower begins to fade, it must be removed from the bush, as it takes away the strength of the plant. In order for such a plant to bloom for a long time, you should not allow seeds to set in it, and after the last flowers have wither, you need to cut off the flower arrow. It is necessary to cut the peduncle under the flower located at the very bottom, only in this case new arrows and flowers will grow. The first time to feed the snapdragon is after it takes root after transplanting into open soil, and for this, nitrophoska and organic fertilizers are used. The second time you need to feed the plant during budding, in this case, a nutrient solution is used, consisting of potassium sulfate, urea and superphosphate, and 1 large spoon of each substance should be taken in a bucket of water.

Diseases and pests

It happens that the bushes are affected by rust, while specks of red color appear on their surface. Also, this plant is susceptible to infection with black leg, root and gray rot, septoria. Diseased plants must be destroyed as soon as possible, then it is necessary to process the soil area where they grew with a fungicidal (antifungal) agent. For snapdragons, such pests are dangerous as: fly larvae, scale insects, caterpillars, as well as butterflies that are able to lay eggs. It should be remembered that getting rid of diseases or harmful insects is much more difficult than preventing plant infection. For prevention purposes, it is necessary to follow all recommendations for caring for snapdragons, so it is necessary to timely destroy sick and infected with harmful insects specimens; flowers should not be planted very close to each other; it is necessary to water correctly, avoiding waterlogging of the soil; watering should be done at the root, while making sure that water does not fall on the surface of the leaf plates.

After flowering

The flowering of such a plant can continue until the first frost in the fall. After the fall is established, it is necessary to cut those snapdragon bushes that are cultivated as perennials very short, so that the height of the shoots is about 5-8 centimeters. Then you need to mulch the site, sprinkling it with a layer of dried foliage or sawdust mixed with peat. In the event that your annual snapdragon grows, then after the flowers begin to fade, you should remove them, thereby avoiding self-seeding. After all the flowers on the arrow have wither, it should be cut as short as possible. This will prevent the seeds from ripening and scattering on the soil surface. After the onset of deep autumn, it is necessary to dig up the soil where the flowers grew, and burn the remnants of the snapdragon, since harmful insects can settle on them.

How and When to Collect Snapdragon Seeds

As a rule, for most plants, seeds are harvested only after they are fully ripe. However, the collection of snapdragon seeds must be carried out in the phase of incomplete maturity. Then they are placed in a dry, well-ventilated room for ripening. Collect the seeds in a long paper bag (like for a baguette). It is necessary to start collecting seeds only after the fruits located at the bottom of the peduncle are fully ripe. To do this, the top of the peduncle, on which there are still green fruits, must be cut off and thrown away. On the part of the flower arrow that remains, you need to put on a bag of paper, tied with a thread below the fruit. Then it remains only to cut the stem below the dressing site. Then hang the inverted bag in a dry and warm place and you just have to wait for the ripe seeds to spill out into the bag by themselves. Ripe seeds should be poured into a small cardboard box and stored in a dry place, where the air temperature will be from 3 to 5 degrees. In this case, the boxes must be protected from water ingress.

Main types and varieties

Today, experts have several classifications of this plant according to various characteristics. The most popular classification is by the height of the bush. By the size of the bush, snapdragon varieties are divided into 5 groups:

  1. Gigantic - the height of the bush is 90–130 centimeters. In this plant, the stem, located in the center, is much higher than the stems of the second order, while there are no stems of the third order. Popular varieties: "Arthur" - bush height from 90 to 95 centimeters, cherry flowers; "F1 red XL" and "F1 pink XL" - the bush reaches 1.1 meters, the flowers are red and pink (respectively).
  2. High - the height of the bush is 60–90 centimeters. They are cultivated for cutting, as well as as a vertical accent in groups or in mixborders. The central stem is much higher than the lateral ones. When cut, the flowers of this plant can stand for about 7 days or even longer. The most fragrant varieties are those whose flowers are colored in various shades of yellow. Popular varieties: "Anna German" - flowers are painted in a light pink color; "Canary" - flowers of a rich yellow color; a mixture of varieties "Madame Butterfly" - double flowers can be painted in a variety of colors.
  3. Medium (semi-tall) - a bush with a height of 40 to 60 centimeters. The varieties are versatile, they are cultivated both for cutting and as decoration for flower beds. They are distinguished by strong branching. The central stem is slightly higher in height than the lateral ones. Popular varieties: "Golden Monarch" - has a yellow color; "Ruby" - deep pink flowers; "Lipstick Silver" - painted in whitish-pink color.
  4. Low - the height of the bush is 25–40 centimeters. They are cultivated as border or flower bed plants. These varieties have a large number of flowering stems of the second and third order, while the central stem has the same height as the stems of the first order or slightly below them. Popular varieties: "Tip-top", "Hobbit", ampelous hybrid plant "Lampion".
  5. Dwarf - the height of the bush varies from 15 to 20 centimeters. The varieties are intended for carpet flower beds, ridges, borders, rock gardens. They are also grown as a potted flower. There is strong branching up to stems of the third and fourth order, while the central stem is lower or has the same height as stems of the second order. Popular varieties: "Sakura Blossom" - there is a speck on whitish-pink flowers; Candy Showers is an ampelous variety.

There is also a very popular classification of the snapdragon of Sanderson and Martin for year-round cut varieties. However, this classification is of interest only to those growers who grow snapdragons for sale.


One glance at this garden flower will be enough to understand why it is called that. Indeed, looking at the snapdragon flower, it is difficult to imagine anything other than the open mouth of a lion. This charming plant has long and firmly established itself in flower beds and flower beds, both in private estates and in urban landscapes.

Although in its essence snapdragon is a perennial plant, in our area it is most often grown as an annual. In general, the genus Snapdragon itself already has more than fifty different species, differing in size, shape, flowering time.There is even, rare for middle latitudes, ampelous species of snapdragons. Low-growing species (15-30 centimeters) are much more often preferred when growing, somewhat less often you can find medium-sized (40-50 centimeters), even less often tall (80-85 centimeters) and gigantic species more than a meter in height are very rare. Often, completely mistakenly, mimulus is also considered to be a species of this plant, but this is a completely different plant, although in its appearance it resembles a significantly enlarged snapdragon flower.

The process of growing this flower is quite simple and not particularly laborious, which has a very positive effect on its popularity. Although, (I'm not afraid to repeat myself once again) - if you don't take care of the plant at all and let everything take its course, then the result will be appropriate. Therefore, even simple rules for caring for him must be known and followed.


What does a snapdragon flower look like?

Snapdragon or antirrinum is a plant that grows in height from 15 centimeters to a meter. Grow it as an annual or perennial. Shoots are straight and branched. They form dense pyramidal or cone-shaped bushes that look very graceful. The stems are painted green. Sometimes a purple bloom is present.

The shape of the leaf plate is lanceolate, oval. Foliage is more of an original background for beautiful buds than a decoration. Inflorescences captivate even experienced gardeners with their attractiveness. The flowers are very similar in shape to the face of a lion: double-lipped, rarely double. They cover the bush densely. If you press on them from the side, the bud opens like a lion's mouth. This is especially noticeable in large species. But the dwarf snapdragon looks less impressive, but also very attractive. During flowering, the culture looks festive, magnificent and elegant.

Allows the cultivation of snapdragons from seeds, especially the use of different varieties, to create interesting compositions. After all, the color palette is quite wide. There are yellow, orange, red, white and crimson specimens. Saturation is different. There are bright and catchy options, and there are gentle ones. Each bud opens for 12 days. The flowering period lasts about 3 months, usually covering the whole summer. It is also worth noting that antirrinum is a very aromatic plant, it exudes a pleasant, sweet honey smell. We also advise you to see the article: Growing tulips at home with bulbs and seeds.


Growing seedlings from seeds

Snapdragon is a thermophilic and light-loving plant. Seedlings are grown more often than seeds are immediately sown in open ground: the flower is afraid of cold weather, it takes more time to germinate the planting material. Snapdragons need good conditions to keep the seedlings healthy and strong.

Tall varieties are best grown by seedlings, dwarf, medium-sized and low species - by seeds. When choosing a method, it is important to take into account the climate in the region. With a late onset of heat, young anti-rhinums simply do not have time to stretch out enough and bloom after planting in open ground, you need to prepare strong seedlings in advance.

Landing

High-quality planting material is selected: collected on the site or bought in a flower shop. It is important to check the expiration date so that you do not purchase an expired base. Seeds for growing seedlings are placed in the ground in mid-March - early April.

  • It is not worth starting the process earlier: the sprouts will be too elongated, but it will be too cold outside for transplanting the base into the ground.
  • If the florist is engaged in seedlings later than the indicated dates, then the seedlings will not have time to grow and get stronger enough, there will not be enough time for hardening, which can lead to the death of young antirrinums.

Soil and capacity

For growing snapdragons, containers with several compartments, individual containers (plastic cups, volume about 200 ml or peat pots) or wooden boxes are used. Each option is good in its own way.

Important nuances:

  • Snapdragon soil can be purchased at agricultural stores. Suitable substrate for plants of the Plantain family. The second option is to prepare the soil yourself: combine the garden soil and sand in order to achieve friability. It is imperative to roast the base in the oven to kill fungi and pest larvae, which often remain in the garden soil.
  • the seeds are placed on the ground, lightly sprinkled with a substrate or pressed a little. It is not worth deepening the planting material by more than 0.5-1 cm: you will have to wait a long time for the emergence of seedlings
  • the soil is sprayed, covered with glass or film in order to achieve optimal moisture and rapid seed growth.

When buying containers from peat, you need to study the quality certificate: it is important that the natural component is at least 70%. Unscrupulous sellers often sell cups with a lot of paper and little peat, which negatively affects the growth and development of seedlings. Experienced flower growers advise taking peat containers only from trusted sellers in order to prevent unnecessary waste and the death of Senets.

Seedling content

When growing a snapdragon, it is important to adhere to certain parameters:

  • temperature. The best option is indicators from +20 to +23 degrees. In a cold room, you can not wait for the germination of seeds, which often rot. In hot weather, the substrate dries up, which also negatively affects the germination of planting material.
  • watering. The soil in pots or a container should always be moist, but in moderation, otherwise the development of fungus is possible. You can spray the soil or add the liquid little by little
  • humidity. The first time, until shoots appear (about 10 days) and for another one to two weeks, the seedlings should be under film or glass. Do not allow the substrate to dry out in peat pots or a container (wooden box). As the soil dries up, spraying or moderate watering is carried out. It is important to ventilate the mini-greenhouse in time to avoid rotting seeds and seedlings.
  • illumination. A suitable place for boxes and pots is a windowsill on the east or west side. In the north, the seedlings do not have enough light, and it is often too hot on the south window. If necessary, the containers with the senses are rearranged on a table or stand next to the window or again moved to the window sill. It is important that young shoots receive enough light, but not be negatively influenced by the direct sun: the soil quickly dries up, the senets wither
  • airing. After the emergence of seedlings (approximately 7-10 days after sowing the seeds), procedures are carried out to prevent moisture stagnation. Air the mini-greenhouse (open the edge of the film or move the glass) at first for 5-10 minutes, gradually increase the airing time to half an hour. The grown seedlings are left open for 1-2 hours
  • hardening. Seven to ten days before the seedlings of the snapdragon are planted in the ground, seedlings are prepared. The containers are exposed to fresh air or a balcony at first for half an hour, then the "air baths" time is increased. By the time of transplanting, the garden or on the flowerbed of the snapdragon should be outdoors at night.
  • dive of seedlings. If the plants were in a common container or box, then after the appearance of two true leaves, snapdragons are planted in an individual container. It is important that the depth of the containers is at least 8 cm.Proceed with caution, otherwise the roots can be damaged
  • topping. Many growers pinch the top to stimulate the growth of side shoots. The procedure is carried out when the stem reaches 10 cm.

Moving to open ground

The timing of the movement of grown seedlings into open ground depends not only on the weather, but also on the state of young "dogs". Fragile, not hardened sprouts should not be rooted in a flower bed or in a garden if the plants have not adapted to the environmental conditions before transplanting. Proper hardening reduces the risk of problems with growth and flowering, planting is pleasing to the eye.

The approximate period for planting a young snapdragon in a garden, on a flower bed or lawn is the second half of May, preferably after the 20th to 25th. By this period, in most regions of the Middle Belt, factors that negatively affect seedlings disappear.

The planting of seedlings of perennial snapdragons is allowed with a combination of factors:

  • return frosts have stopped
  • the air temperature does not drop below +20 degrees
  • the soil has warmed up
  • the florist prepared the soil with high quality, applied fertilizers, checked for weeds that sprout with the first rays of the sun.

How to proceed:

  • dig up and loosen the soil
  • dig holes, the size of which corresponds to the volume of the root system
  • maintain the interval between adjacent pits: for dwarf and medium-sized varieties - about 10 cm, for tall varieties - about 40 cm
  • water each hole a little, add a handful of chopped peat as fertilizer. If the plants were in peat cups, then additional feeding is not required
  • carefully move the young snapdragon into the holes, sprinkle with soil up to the root collar and slightly higher, tamp the soil a little, water lightly
  • if it is hot outside, then to preserve moisture it is useful to mulch the soil near flowers with peat or sawdust (layer - about 1–2 cm)
  • take care of the plant according to the rules. The recommendations are described further in the section “Outdoor care”. Agrotechnical measures are simple, but you need to remember the basic rules: moderate soil moisture, bright place, mulching, weed control.


Antirrinum pests and diseases

Sometimes, red spots form on adult snapdragon bushes, which are a symptom of a disease such as rust.

In addition to him, the bushes can be affected by gray rot, black leg or septoria. All these diseases are serious, capable of leading the plant to death. Therefore, all diseased representatives of the flora are destroyed (burned), and the soil on which the plants were planted is treated with special preparations of fungicides.

Caterpillars, scale insects, aphids can harm antirrinum. Bushes are periodically inspected for the detection of harmful insects. As soon as the pests are found, it is necessary to disinfect.

These parasites themselves cause significant harm to the antirrinum, and lay eggs. Drugs like drugs will come to the rescue: Aktara, Antitlya, Aktellik, Karbofos, etc.


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