The traditions and customs of the winter holidays are varied and unusual. Most of them have their roots in the pre-Christian era. Some ancient customs and traditions of our ancestors were gradually lost and forgotten. Until our time, only the most persistent and rooted of them have survived.
Everyone can have their own recipe for dumplings with a surprise, 150 varied filling - from cabbage to cottage cheese. In the old days, a button, beans, a coin and even a thread could be a surprise. Each item meant that this or that event would happen in the New Year. A button meant a purchase, beans meant an addition to the family, a coin meant wealth, and a thread meant travel. Nowadays, they no longer risk so much with their own teeth, so you can come up with softer surprises, for example, put hot pepper, and if you really don't want to torment guests, they write predictions on paper.
On winter holidays, kutia was prepared - a porridge made from wheat or barley or other cereals (buckwheat, rice). Rich kutia with various additives was prepared for Holy Evening, generous - for the Old New Year, hungry (on water, with the addition of honey) - for Epiphany. The more nourishing and richer she was, the better the prognosis for well-being in the family was. Nuts, raisins, honey are added to kutya for a rich taste. Also, generous kutia was considered if fried bacon (greaves) and meat were added to it.
During Christmas time (from the Nativity of Christ to Epiphany), a variety of pies and pancakes were baked. They were also treated to those who came to carol. Pancakes made with ghee with various heat were especially popular. An old recipe for serving pancakes is with yarn. To do this, they took pork ribs, sausage, bacon, which was melted first and the greaves were removed in an earthen pot. Then ribs and sausage, cut into slices, were fried in melted fat and straightened into a pot. The onions were fried, flour was added and poured over with hot water. All this was cooked to the state of sour cream and added to the pot, which, after all the manipulations, was put in the oven to languish, and grated garlic was added before serving.
On Vasilyev's evening (this is what was called in the old days on December 31), it was customary to set a generous table, the main dishes of which consisted of pork. The main course was a roasted 2-3 week old piglet. Although the pig was considered unclean animals according to popular beliefs, at the same time it was a symbol of the fertility of the earth and the fertility of livestock. The people said about the Basil's evening: God has nothing unclean - Basil will consecrate the winter !.
This is a tradition of glorifying the owners of the house. Young people went from yard to yard, as a rule, young guys, but it happened that adults also got involved in the action. Children were also not averse to caroling or generous, because for this the owners of the house presented them with money and food. In the form of poems and songs, the participants wished health and well-being to the owners and the home they came to. Carols are celebrated on Christmas Eve and strictly until midnight, generous on Old New Year's Eve, and sown the next day - January 14th.
On this day, young people dressed in suits (often they were sheepskin coats turned inside out) and masks, and if there was no mask, then they smeared their faces with soot or flour. The people believed that in the period from January 13-14 and before Epiphany, the Lord allowed the evil spirits to walk in the fields and forests in honor of the birth of his son. Therefore, people tried to dress in maxi, thus shielding themselves from impure forces and, as it were, trying to scare them themselves. Also, young guys dressed up in masks in order to scare the girls, because women are very afraid of this.
Kutya began to cook early in the morning, after soaking wheat grains overnight. And in the morning they are boiled over low heat for about an hour. The grains should be soft. Along with this, steam the raisins and chop the walnuts. The honey must be melted, and if there is a desire to add poppy seeds, then it is pre-soaked in hot water whole or ground in a mortar. All ingredients are added to the cooled kutya and seasoned with melted honey.
January 14 began with burning a sheaf of hay, which was given the name Didukh or Grandfather. To do this, they prepared a sheaf in advance, set it on fire and while the flame burned, they sang songs, danced, and also gathered in groups and walked under the windows of houses and sang in a comic form: Who will not give a cake - we will fill up the windows! When the flame was no longer burning so strongly, the young in pairs began to jump over the fire, thus purifying from all unclean things and attracting auspicious ones.
Another interesting tradition, the meaning of which is to wish health, prosperity, and fertility of the earth. It was accepted that only men, young guys, sow grain. It was believed that girls would not bring as much happiness as men. First of all, we went to the houses of our godparents. The grains that were sprinkled on the house were collected and mixed with spring grains in the spring.
Although the church does not approve of various fortune-telling, traditions have developed in such a way that the evening of December 31 was the most successful for fortune-telling. It was believed that on this evening one could find out the future. Mostly young unmarried girls were guessing. One of the most famous fortune-telling that has survived to this day is on a comb. Before going to bed, the girl had to put it under her pillow and say the following words: Bridal, costumed, come and comb my hair. Whoever dreams of her that night, for that she will marry.
Or another option for fortune-telling: place a piece of bread, a ring and a hook in a bowl with various small objects and cover with a towel, each girl takes out one at a time and returns it back to the bowl. If you come across a ring, the husband will be handsome, if the piece of bread is rich, and if the hook is poor.
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Hello everyone! This holiday appeared with us due to the fact that the chronology system has changed. It is difficult to call him independent.
But traditionally it is celebrated in states in which Christmas falls on January 7 (Julian calendar). Accordingly, First, we will celebrate 2021 with you, and we will start celebrating the old New Year a few weeks later.
On Vasilyev's day, the ceremonial of boiling porridge was very important. This was a real act that was performed in every family on the night of January 13-14. All roles were assigned in advance. The head of the family brought water from the river, and the hostess prepared cereals. When the porridge was interfered, they uttered slander and spells. The cooked porridge was carefully examined. Porridge was a success - expect happiness and prosperity. The escaped porridge promised misfortune and misfortune.
Favorite tradition for the holiday is "going home." Guests were seated in a place of honor and treated to pies and meat dishes. Pork was an obligatory treat, since Saint Basil was considered the patron saint of pigs, a “pig shed”. Boiled pork legs and pork heads were placed on the table. During the meal, they said: "On Vasily the Great - a pork head on the table!", "A pig and a boar for Vasilyev's evening."
Each locality and even an individual family could offer something of their own, special in the celebration of the New Year. But numerous traditions were distinguished by friendliness, warmth of communication, and universal joy. Everyone was in high spirits. Everyone had fun from the heart, talked with family and friends, friends.
At night, young people with noise and songs walked around the houses of neighbors, in the sitting hut they organized their own, youth holiday with fortune-telling, rituals, and refreshments.
In addition to the countries that were previously part of the USSR, the Old New Year is celebrated by residents:
Different countries have their own peculiarities about how the celebration should take place.
In Greece, on the Old New Year, it is forbidden to raise your voice and quarrel. It's bad if the dishes break, so everyone tries to handle it carefully. If you are invited to a celebration, you need to take a stone with you. It symbolizes the wealth that the owners want to acquire next year.
In Romania, there must be pies on the table. But with an interesting filling in the form of coins, hot pepper, garlic or rings.
In Switzerland, this holiday is dedicated to the veneration of St. Sylvester. Residents dress in funny fancy dress, reminiscent of botanical gardens or houses, calling themselves Sylvester Claus.
In Montenegro, a couple is always prepared - a national dish made from corn dough.
Russian customs largely overlap with Ukrainian or Belarusian, and therefore are considered common.
We will tell you about the old New Year's holiday, which is celebrated on the night of January 13-14.
This story will be useful for children, but we think adults will also like it.
"The old New Year is coming soon!" - said the grandmother, looking at the calendar. “How is it - both old and new at the same time? Is it possible?" - Sasha and Alyonka even stopped playing in surprise. "Oh, this is a long story," smiled the grandmother. "And I will tell you now."
On the night of January 13-14, the Old New Year is celebrated in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro and certain regions of Switzerland. This unusual holiday appeared due to a change in chronology.
Different peoples had several calendars. One of them was called Julian and the other Gregorian. And every nation believed that its calendar was the best. Therefore, for a long time the New Year in our countries did not coincide with the New Year in Western Europe. There was such confusion!
In 1918, the new government ordered to get rid of this confusion. The Gregorian calendar was introduced. All holidays now had to be celebrated two weeks earlier. But the Church refused this. This is how the old New Year appeared - the New Year according to the old calendar.
The evening of January 13 is called Generous. The whole family was to gather for a festive dinner. The fast was already over, so there were all kinds of dishes and sweets on the table. The kutia was unchanged. But she was also called generous. Kutia was placed in the red corner, performed the same actions as on Christmas.
Before dinner began, the mother asked the children to leave the house. Opposite her father she was placing a large pile of fragrant pies. This pile was like a snowdrift! The owner was not even noticeable behind her. When the children came in, they asked:
- Can't you see me? - asked the father from behind the pie mountain.
- Well, God forbid, - said the father, - so that you do not always see me like that!
After that, everyone got pies.
We went to visit that evening. Walking around the house, they wished happiness and prosperity of the economy. They asked that the year be generous to the family - they were generous. Boys and girls went separately. The generous men sang merrily. The adults also joked and gave sweets to the generous.
The doors were not closed on the night of January 14: sprinklers were waiting. This day is also called Vasily's Day. It used to be the first day of the new year. At dawn, boys and boys went from house to house. They congratulated the owners on the holiday and "sowed": they scattered grain (wheat, rye, barley, peas) in the rooms, wishing well-being. The life of the people has always been associated with the land and the cultivation of bread. So now, according to ancient custom, they wish a good harvest in the new year.