The sunflower plant (Helianthus) is a genus of the Asteraceae family. Under natural conditions, such a plant can be found in Central and North America, as well as in Peru. Even the Indians began to cultivate sunflower, they used it in the treatment of fever, and in order to relieve chest pains, they also used such a plant to make bread, and from its petals and pollen they made raw materials for purple-purple paint, with the help of it the aborigines they got tattoos on their bodies. The oil extracted from such a plant was used to lubricate the hair, while the flowers were used as decorations for temples and altars. Some of the species, which were decorative and oil-bearing plants, came to Spain at 16, after which they were brought to Italy and France. By the end of 16, they were already cultivated in Switzerland, Holland, Belgium, Germany and England. On the territory of Russia, this culture spread only when it was recognized by the Orthodox Church as a lean food. Today, such a plant is considered a very valuable agricultural crop, and it is grown in almost all countries.
The sunflower oilseed plant (Helianthus annuus) is an annual. The height of the bush is about 250 cm, it has a rod system of roots, which penetrates into the ground to a depth of 200 to 300 cm. The non-branching erect stem has a soft and elastic core, there are hard hairs on its surface. The upper leaf plates are sessile, alternately located, and the lower ones are oppositely located long-petiolate. Their shape is oval-heart-shaped with a pointed apex, their edge is serrated, and on the surface there is pubescence, represented by a hard nap. The length of the leaves is about 0.4 m. The flowers collected in very large baskets are surrounded by wrapping leaves. The peculiarity of the sunflower is that its buds and young baskets are able to turn after the sun, while during the day they change their orientation from east to west. However, as the bush grows and matures, the position of the basket is fixed, however, the foliage continues to turn after the sun. The length of the marginal ligulate flowers is 40–70 mm, they are sterile. There are a lot of inner flowers and they are bisexual tubular. As a rule, only 1 inflorescence grows in an oilseed sunflower, but in some cases additional shoots with small baskets are formed. Flowering lasts about 4 weeks and is observed in July – August. Cross pollination by insects and wind. The fruits are slightly compressed achenes of an oblong shape with weakly pronounced edges, their length is 0.8–1.5 cm, and their width is 0.4–0.8 cm. The leathery pericarp is covered with a husk (skin) of white, black, gray or striped color. Inside each seed is a white core, covered with a seed coat. Such a plant is considered an excellent honey plant.
Sunflower in dry 2017. My experience.
It is not recommended to grow sunflower seedlings in seedlings, since the seedlings that have appeared in the soil can withstand not very large frosts. However, if it is simply necessary to grow seedlings of such a plant, then it should be remembered that the sowing of seeds is carried out 20-25 days before the plants are transplanted into open soil. For sowing, use individual containers (for example, cut plastic bottles or pots), the height of which should be from 28 to 30 centimeters, while at their bottom there must be drainage holes. Fill the containers with nutrient soil mixed with humus, while the substrate must always be moist. It is necessary to plant 1-2 seeds in each container, burying them into the substrate by 30-40 mm, do not forget to compact the soil mixture well, because the seed should be embraced by it from all sides. The containers are covered with foil on top and transferred to a warm place.
After the seedlings appear, the containers will need to be transferred to a well-lit place. It is very simple to care for the seedlings, for this they need to be watered in a timely manner, gently loosened the surface of the substrate and systematically ventilated. When about 7 days remain before transplanting into open soil, the seedlings will need to be hardened, for this they are taken outside every day, while the duration of the procedure should be increased gradually.
Due to the fact that such a plant tolerates transplants very painfully, it is not recommended to dive seedlings. Planting seedlings in open soil is carried out in the first days of June together with a lump of earth by the transshipment method. When planting a plant, you must adhere to the following scheme: 100x100 centimeters. Planting must be done very carefully in order to avoid injury to the plant root system.
Sowing sunflower seeds in open soil is carried out in the last days of April or the first in May, while the soil should warm up to 8-12 degrees. This plant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness to growing conditions, for example, seedlings are able to withstand frosts up to minus 5 degrees, and they are also not afraid of drought. But there are several rules that you must pay attention to:
Such a culture grows best in nutritious soil, while there must be some clay in the root system, and moisture must be under it. Such a plant is distinguished by its ability to adapt to other types of soil, both heavy and light. However, it must be remembered that you should not choose swampy, acidic or saline soils for growing sunflower.
Before proceeding with sowing, the site must be prepared. For this, all weeds are removed from it and dug up, while introducing a complex mineral fertilizer into the soil. Some gardeners are sure that it is not necessary to apply fertilizer to the soil immediately before sowing this crop, they believe that if other plants grow well in this soil, then sunflower can also be successfully grown in it.
Sowing 2017 Sunflower. Part 1.
Before proceeding with sowing, the seed must be calibrated, and then it is pickled, for this it is immersed in a solution of potassium manganese (1%) for 14 hours, or it is immersed in an onion-garlic infusion overnight. To prepare it, you need to combine onion husks with 100 grams of chopped garlic and a couple of liters of freshly boiled water. After 24 hours, strain the infusion through cheesecloth. Such an infusion will be able not only to exterminate all pathogenic microorganisms, but at first it will scare away rodents and harmful insects from the seed.
Sowing seeds is carried out in moistened soil, deepening them into it by 80 mm, while 2 or 3 pieces must be placed in one nest. When planting tall varieties between bushes, a distance of about 100 centimeters must be observed, and between medium-sized varieties, the distance should be about 60 centimeters. The smaller the distance between the bushes, the smaller the seeds of the new crop will be and vice versa.
Sunflower greatly depletes the soil, in this regard, after it it is recommended to grow legumes (beans, vetch, soybeans, peas and lupines), and vegetable plants are not suitable for this. Thanks to the legumes, the soil will be able to rest, and it will be saturated with nitrogen. After the legumes next year, cucumbers can be planted on this site.
In order for the sunflower seeds to be large, such a plant will need to be properly cared for. To do this, it must be systematically watered, weeded, loosened the soil surface around the bushes and between the rows, fed, and also protected, if necessary, from harmful insects and diseases.
Watering should be done when needed. Most of all, the bushes need moisture before the formation of four pairs of true leaf plates, and even during the growth of inflorescences, as well as during flowering and seed filling. When watering, it is necessary to take into account both the frequency of such a procedure and the abundance. Water should saturate the soil to the depth of the root system of the bushes. In summer, during the hot period, watering should be daily. And during a prolonged drought, watering must be carried out twice or thrice a day. The fact is that this culture is hygrophilous.
Since this plant needs a large amount of nutrients, after the formation of the third pair of true leaf plates, it needs to be fed, for this, superphosphate is used (per 1 square meter of the plot from 20 to 40 grams), dry fertilizer is scattered over the surface of the soil. Then, the granules are embedded in the ground to a depth of about 10 centimeters, then it is necessary to water the site.
After the formation of the baskets is over, the bushes need to be fed with potassium-nitrogen fertilizer, for this they use a solution consisting of 1 large spoonful of potassium sulfate and 10 liters of mullein solution (1:10). Re-feeding with the same fertilizer is carried out during seed ripening.
In some cases, blistering curvatures form on the foliage, cracks appear on the surface of the stem, and the stem itself becomes very fragile. These symptoms indicate that there is not enough boron in the soil. In this case, the bushes are sprayed over the foliage with a product containing boron.
Urea + Boron. Sunflower.
If the sunflower is improperly looked after, and also not adhered to the rules of agricultural technology of this crop, then this can lead to the fact that the plant will get sick.
Downy mildew (peronosporosis) is a fungal disease, its causative agent is the Plasmopara mushroom. The affected bush looks underdeveloped, its stems become thinner and very fragile, while the leaf plates look chlorotic and shrink, and a white bloom forms on their seamy surface. However, there is also such a form of the disease, with the defeat of which there is a shortening and thickening of the stem. During one season, a sunflower that has practically finished its development can become infected with downy mildew again. In this case, oily spots are formed on the leaf plates of the affected bush, the shape of which is irregular, a whitish bloom appears on the seamy surface, while the shoots change their color to greenish. After that, the disease also affects the basket, the development of which stops.
Black spot (embellisia) is a very dangerous disease that can infect both a cultivated plant and a weed, which is highly resistant to many diseases. The first symptoms of the disease can be seen during the formation of the fifth or sixth true leaf plate on the bush. On the foliage, necrotic spots of a dark color are formed, ranging in size from 0.3 to 0.5 cm, as the disease progresses, they grow and merge with each other, as a result of which spots of 40 to 50 mm in size are formed, having a yellow border. On the surface of the petioles, elongated specks of irregularly shaped dark color are formed, while in the place where the leaf petiole is attached to the stem, many cracks appear, while on the shoot itself near the petiole, black necrosis is observed. In diseased bushes, dark brown spots are also formed on the surface of the baskets.
Gray spot (phomopsis) is a very dangerous fungal disease, and it affects all parts of the bush. On the surface of the foliage, an angular necrosis of a dark brown color is formed, as from a burn, drying out and death of foliage and petioles is still observed. On the surface of the stem around the infected petiole, brown necrosis with a clear outline appear, over time they turn gray, and pycnidia form on their surface. Shoots become very fragile and relatively easily injured. The disease develops most actively in warm weather with high humidity.
The causative agent of stem phomosis is a fungus. The first symptoms of such a disease can be seen in young bushes during the formation of 6-8 true leaf plates. On the foliage, brown spots with a rich yellow bordering are formed, as the disease progresses, they become larger, as a result, they cover the entire leaf plate and even its petiole. After this, the tissue of the shoot is damaged. If the bush is affected during the flowering period, then after a short time irregular brown specks will appear on its basket, the development of seeds deteriorates, they grow half-empty, and then change their color to brown.
Ash or coal rot is a fungal disease that also affects potatoes, beets and corn.Initially, the disease affects the root collar and eventually moves up the shoot, while the flow of nutrients through it is blocked, due to which wilting and drying of the foliage and the upper part of the bush is observed, this can lead to the death of the sunflower. The disease develops most actively during a long dry and hot period.
Dry rot is widespread and is caused by fungus. In the affected bush on the front side of the basket, rotten specks of a dark brown color appear, over time they dry out and harden. If the plant is very badly affected, then the seed cells begin to easily move away from the base in layers. Seeds grow underdeveloped, flat and stuck together, they taste bitter. Most often, the development of the disease is observed during an extended dry period and after the bushes have been injured by hail.
Gray rot is also a fungal disease, its pathogens can live for a long time in the soil, on the root system, on sowing material, as well as in plant residues that remain after harvest. The disease develops most intensively in damp cool weather. On young bushes, specks of brown color are formed, on the surface of which a pale gray bloom forms after a short time. At the same time, dark streaks appear on the surface of the shoots, and the same plaque forms on them. Also, a defeat is observed in the maturing baskets, which is why oily specks form on their seamy surface, in these areas the tissue becomes soft, plaque appears on them, and then their rotting and dying off is observed. If the conditions for the development of the fungus are favorable, then this will negatively affect the crop yield.
Verticillium wilt can cause sunflower tissue to gradually fade, and this can ultimately lead to the death of the plant. This fungal disease contributes to the defeat of the vascular system of the bush. The first symptoms of the disease can be detected during the flowering of the bush, after which this disease affects the foliage, they lose the turgor between the veins, then they shrivel, and their death is observed. However, affected and dead leaves can remain on the branches for a long time. The disease also affects the vessels of the stem, which leads to a deterioration in the condition of the generative organs. So, if you cut off the stem of a diseased bush, it will become noticeable that the pulp has changed its color to brown. The disease spreads most intensively during a long dry and hot period.
Brown spot, or Alternaria is also a fungal disease that leads to damage to stems, seeds and foliage. Initially, brown necrotic points appear on the surface of the leaf plates; over time, their increase is observed, while their shape becomes irregular. In some cases, signs of such a disease can be detected only at the end of the growing season. The development of Alternaria occurs most intensively in the heat with high air humidity.
White rot, or sclerotinosis, can affect sunflowers throughout the growing season, but the first symptoms of such a disease may be different. A characteristic feature of white rot is its very rapid development. Seedlings infected with such rot die immediately. In young bushes with developed five or six leaf plates at an air temperature of 16 to 18 degrees and with increased air humidity, a white felt bloom appears on the surface of the foliage. Over time, the dying off of the affected tissues is observed, the stems break, which leads to the death of the bushes. Wet specks of brownish color form on the seamy side of the basket, the tissue under them becomes soft. Due to the fact that the plant has a root lesion with such a disease, the amount of nutrients entering the shoots and foliage is noticeably reduced, which also becomes the cause of the imminent death of the bush.
The manifestation of the first symptoms of ascochitis can be observed throughout the entire growing season, however, the most striking signs of sunflower damage appear from the middle to the end of the summer period. On shoots, foliage and baskets, almost black spots appear, the shape of which can be irregular or round, they reach 10–20 mm in diameter. After a while, pycnidia form in the middle of the spots. This disease is also fungal.
Powdery mildew is widespread in the southern regions. Initially, a mealy white bloom forms on the foliage, over time it changes its color to a darker one, and then it completely becomes a brown dense film. The active development of the disease has an extremely negative effect on the yield of sunflower, while the amount of oil in the seeds is significantly reduced.
A fungal disease such as rust is widespread where sunflower is cultivated. In spring, on the seamy side, and in some cases on the front surface of the leaf plates, convex, orange-colored, pillow-shaped formations appear, which are called pustules, when they crack, a rusty powder is poured out of them, which is a spore of a fungus. Rust affects the foliage, as a result it dies, but if the infection is very strong, then other parts of the bush may also suffer. Sick plants gradually lose moisture, their metabolic processes are disturbed, and they also lag behind in development.
The broomstick is a single-stemmed parasite whose flowers are pale purple in color, and the fruits are in the shape of a box. The sprout of such a parasite is attached to the root of the sunflower and is embedded in it. He lives off the sunflower, which has an extremely negative effect on his yield.
Bacteriosis is a bacterial disease. Diseased tissues rot and become slimy, wither and dry out.
The causative agent of the mosaic is the tobacco curly streak virus. In the affected bush, the leaf plates change, they acquire a variegated color, then deformation and lag in growth and development are observed.
When the flowers turn green in diseased bushes, leaf chlorosis, the formation of thin secondary stems, dwarfism and sterility of flowers, which turn green, are observed. The causative agents of the disease are mycoplasma bodies carried by leafhoppers.
White Rot, Septoria and Phomopsis on sunflower. Fungicidal control methods
Harmful insects can also settle on sunflowers, for example:
Adults injure the bush during the formation of the first true leaf plates, they destroy the growth point. Most individuals are concentrated at the edges of the site.
For sunflower, the first generation of scoops is dangerous: caterpillars that live in the ground gnaw the stem in the area of the root collar.
These pests are beetles that gnaw and eat seedlings.
The most dangerous species are considered: gray, southern gray and gray beet. Such pests eat cotyledonous leaf plates, gnaw through the stems, while they injure the sprouts even when they are underground.
Such pests are gluttonous and omnivorous, their larvae eat up the leaf plate completely, while only large veins remain of it, and they also destroy the epidermis on baskets and shoots.
They feed on plant sap, sucking it out of the tissues of the bush. If achenes are affected by pests, then this becomes the cause of their death.
It affects young leaf plates, which causes them to wrinkle, yellow, and then they turn brown. If aphids live on a bush, then it has a developmental lag.
They are the larvae of the click beetle. They gnaw the sown seeds, eat the sprouts that have appeared, and also gnaw the seedlings underground. This insect can harm a sunflower only until two or three pairs of true leaf plates are formed near the bush.
The larvae of such a pest in the soil injure various crops, including sunflower. At the beginning of their development, they eat the roots of various plants.
Sunflower pests: winter scoop, wireworm, May beetle. Part 1
In order to prevent pests from settling on the sunflower and to protect it from various diseases, a number of preventive measures must be taken:
If, during the growing season, symptoms of a fungal disease are found on the bushes, then they must be treated with a solution of a fungicidal drug of systemic action, for example, Kruiser or Apron. When 4 weeks remain before harvesting, all processing should be stopped. Viral diseases cannot be cured; therefore, bushes diseased with mosaics must be dug up and destroyed.
To protect the sunflower from harmful insects, the seed must be treated with an insecticidal preparation before sowing. In this case, the seedlings will be protected from pests for 5-7 weeks. However, after this time, experts advise to carry out systematic preventive treatment of the bushes with a solution of an acaricidal or insecticidal preparation of a wide spectrum of action, for example, Akarin, Agravertin, Zalp or Aktellik. The greatest danger is posed by bedbugs and aphids, which are sucking pests. The fact is that they not only harm the bushes by sucking juice out of them, but are also considered the main carriers of dangerous viral diseases, which today are incurable.
Spraying sunflower with Vitalayt herbicide
Sunflower harvesting is carried out during its full maturity. At this time, the foliage and baskets should dry out and turn brown. The fact is that during this period the process of accumulation of oil in the seeds is completed, their kernels harden, the peel turns into a color characteristic of this variety. If you squeeze a ripe seed from the sides with your teeth, then the husk will split. After the area of plants with yellow reed flowers is no more than 15 percent, you can begin to harvest. However, in some cases, the ripening of seeds occurs during the rainy season, and then the drying of the baskets on the root occurs more slowly. And seeds with high humidity are not suitable for long-term storage. That is why, in these cases, before the rainy season begins, sunflowers are sprayed with desiccants in dry weather, which accelerate the ripening process (seeds in baskets ripen 7 days earlier). Thanks to this measure, it is possible to achieve an increase in yield, an increase in the quality of seeds, as well as a decrease in their moisture content to 9 percent or even less. However, in this case, you need to harvest the crop in 6 days, otherwise seed shedding will begin.
During the harvest, the heads are cut 20-30 mm lower along the stem, after which the seeds are extracted from them using friction, and then the debris is blown away. You do not have to cut off the heads, but by tilting them over the container, knock on them from the back with something heavy, which will allow the seeds to be knocked out of the basket. Well-ripened seeds will themselves fall out of the nests into the container. There is another way of harvesting, thanks to which it will be possible to collect all the seeds without loss, for this the heads must be cut off with 10 centimeters of the stem after only 2/3 of the seeds are ripe. Then on the baskets should be put on bags of paper or cloth, after which they are hung from the ceiling in the room for 15-20 days. Then it will be possible to quickly and easily hull the seeds from the nests, since they will ripen and dry by this time. After harvesting, the stems on the site are pulled out and destroyed, then they are plowed or dug to the depth of a shovel bayonet.
It is from the integrity of the shells of seeds that their keeping quality depends. The fact is that seeds with an injured peel are deprived of protection against the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms and therefore deteriorate quickly enough. If the seeds contain organic impurities, then they will also not be stored for too long. The fact is that such impurities, in comparison with the seeds themselves, are characterized by increased hygroscopicity.
When preparing for long-term storage, all rubbish is removed from the seeds, and then they are winnowed, as a result, their moisture content should be no more than 7 percent, and even before laying them, they must be cooled to 10 degrees. To dry the seeds, they are placed in a dry, well-ventilated area. In the event that the moisture content of the seeds is more than 12 percent, experts recommend increasing ventilation during drying. Well-dried seeds can be stored for up to 6 months. They are poured into cloth bags, which are hung from the ceiling in a dry, unheated and clean room.
How we store the sunflower harvest!
Sunflower husk classification is used commercially only. For example, varieties with black husks are oilseeds, since the seeds contain up to 50 percent oil, while varieties with striped husks are used in the production of food, for example, confectionery. Oil varieties are divided into polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and medium oleic, which depends on the quality and quantity of acids that make up the seeds. Also, hybrids and varieties, according to the duration of the growing season, are divided into early, medium-early, medium and medium-late.
The best varieties of such a culture include the following:
13 varieties of blooming sunflower 2017.
Sunflower seeds contain the following substances:
In addition to these substances, the seeds contain carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, zinc and calcium.
ANNUAL SUNFLOWER || Useful properties and application
The seeds of such a plant can cause certain harm to human health. For example, the strong husk that covers the seeds can injure the enamel of the teeth. Grains have a high calorie content, in this regard, they cannot be eaten in large quantities by those who want to get rid of extra pounds. In addition, as a rule, fried sunflower seeds are used for food, and they do not contain practically any useful substances. Also, eating seeds has a negative effect on voice data: in this case, a greasy film appears in the throat, which interferes not only with singing, but also speaking. As you know, sunflower has powerful long roots that can absorb both useful and harmful substances (poisons and toxins). In this regard, when purchasing seeds for food, you need to make sure that the sunflower was grown in an ecologically safe area, and before frying the seeds, dirt and dust were removed from them.
For garden cultivation use salpiglossis notched, the straight stems of which can reach a meter in height. The surface of the shoots is sticky to the touch and covered with short bristly hairs. The leaves located near the base of the shoots are larger and oblong, and the leaf blades of the upper tier are narrow and sessile. The multi-colored buds open about 5 cm in diameter during flowering. The petals are lined with a marble pattern in the form of golden or brown veins. Flowering begins in early summer and lasts for 3-4 months. The shiny cups look like small bells. In place of wilted buds, oval-shaped seed pods are formed. The seeds can retain their germination property for 5 years. For our climatic latitudes, both annual and biennial varieties are suitable.
Doronicum seeds can be sown directly into open ground in spring or autumn, but the seedling method of growing is considered the most effective and reliable. To obtain high-quality seedlings, it is recommended to use seeds harvested in the coming season, although they retain good germination for two years after collection.
Sowing of seeds begins not earlier than the second half of April. The most suitable seeding container would be a cell tray. Each cell must be filled with prepared moist soil mixture and buried in 2-3 seeds. The substrate should consist of equal proportions of coarse river sand and peat. It is recommended to cover the entire container with plastic wrap or glass.
The covered planting boxes should be kept in a warm and bright room with diffused lighting without direct sunlight. After about 1-2 weeks, the first shoots should appear, after which it is necessary to immediately remove the glass or film from the tray.
Young plants require moist soil, so it should be regularly moistened with a fine spray bottle. The substrate should not dry out. Condensation accumulating on the cover must be removed at all times with a paper or light cloth. For the full development of seedlings, do not forget about airing the crops.
After the emergence of seedlings, the level of illumination of the room must be increased, while continuing to protect young crops from direct sunlight. If there is a lack of natural light, you can use fluorescent lamps or other sources. The devices should be placed above the plants at a height of at least 25 cm. Conventional lamps cannot be used for these purposes, since they negatively affect the doronicum seedlings when overheated.
Pruning of weak plants is carried out when they reach a height of more than 4 cm. Now only one, the strongest and strongest specimen should remain in each cell. The rest of the seedlings are recommended to be carefully cut to the level of the soil. To stimulate tillering, when three or four full-fledged leaves appear, pinching the top is carried out.
Hardening procedures begin approximately 2 weeks before planting in open ground. Every day, planting trays with seedlings should be taken out into the open air and left for several hours, not forgetting to build protection from cold drafts, sharp gusts of wind and natural precipitation. The duration of the walk should be increased daily.
Viscaria can be propagated by cuttings, but most often new plants are obtained using seeds. They can be harvested from existing plants after they have faded, or purchased from the store. Sowing is carried out in spring in warm weather, or seedlings are preliminarily grown. Perennial frost-resistant varieties can be sown in the ground in the fall, in this case they will be stratified in a natural way, but it is advisable to cover the bed with the crops with sawdust. You can plant these seeds next to other wintering plants, which can serve as additional protection for them.