If you want to harvest a rich gooseberry crop every year, remember to properly care for the shrub in the fall. At the end of the season, it is important to prune the plant, feed and some other procedures.
Gooseberries are fast-growing plants, so every autumn they need to carry out formative and sanitary pruning. Shrubs over 7 years old require annual anti-aging pruning. All broken, dried out branches affected by pests or diseases must be removed.
In addition, it is important to cut off the parts of the bush lying on the ground and low inclined parts. To stimulate the growth of the sides of the gooseberry, the long shoots of this year are shortened by a quarter. On older plants, branches with darkened bark will have to be removed, while it is important to leave a sufficient number of replacing young shoots.
From under the bushes, you need to remove all the garbage collected during the season: fallen fruits, dry leaves, branches, etc. Plant residues affected by diseases and pests must be burned off the site, and healthy leaves and fruits can be sent to the compost heap.
You also need to remove all weeds, because in winter they will be an ideal environment for the development of fungal infections and shelter for harmful insects. In addition, the grass will deplete the soil and take up nutrients from the gooseberry root system.
To prevent the spread of diseases and pests, gooseberries are treated with special preparations in the fall. Fungicides are used against fungal diseases: copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid, Fitosporin or Topaz. This treatment is carried out on bare branches after all the leaves have fallen off.
Insecticides are used against parasites: Karbofos, Bitoxibacillin or Actellic. Any of the selected preparations must be prepared according to the instructions, and the processing should be carried out both on the plants and on the ground around them.
One of the important stages of preparing gooseberries for wintering is loosening the soil. In order not to hurt the roots, cultivate the soil no deeper than 10 cm. This procedure helps to get rid of most of the spores of the fungus and parasite larvae that hide in the ground for the winter. Once on the surface, they will quickly die from the cold. Loosening will also provide free oxygen access to the gooseberry root system.
After the end of loosening, you need to replenish the reserves of nutrients in the ground. For this, any top dressing with a high content of potassium and phosphorus is suitable: compost, wood ash, superphosphate or any mineral complexes for the fall. The main thing is not to use nitrogenous fertilizers, as they will cause the growth of new shoots that will not ripen before the cold weather and will die.
After completing all procedures, mulching must be carried out. It is necessary to protect the root system of the shrub from frost, as well as to preserve the porosity of the earth. Use rotted sawdust, peat, or compost with dry leaves as mulch.
To achieve the desired effect, spread the mulch in a layer of 10-15 cm. In the spring, the remnants of the mulch are removed, and with them the insects that hibernated in a warm shelter. After that, you need to slightly loosen the soil so that it warms up faster.
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Plant young bushes in a sun-lit area, regularly prune old branches, water gooseberries, feed, loosen the soil, remove weeds, and do not forget about autumn gooseberry care. Thanks to these simple rules, you will be able to achieve excellent results - every year the bushes will be strewn with selected fruits, and common gooseberry diseases will bypass your garden.
Plant young shrubs in a sunny spot
Throughout the season, the care of gooseberry bushes does not stop. In the spring, remove all frozen and damaged branches, loosen the ground under the bush and add the first top dressing to it in the form of an aqueous solution of nitrophoska with urea. Before flowering, wood ash is poured around the gooseberry and the roots are fed with potassium sulfate and organic fertilizer "Berry" or "Breadwinner".
During the summer, weeds are weeded and loosened up the ground by ten centimeters and watered after each loosening. During a drought, it is also necessary to water the gooseberries - the care is that the plant does not have to spend energy to survive in adverse conditions. Only water at the root, otherwise there is a high probability of damage to the bushes with powdery mildew. When the first fruits begin to set, you need to feed the gooseberries for the third time, top dressing consists of nitrophoska and liquid fertilizer "Ideal".
Autumn processing of gooseberries is of particular importance, because you need to prepare the bushes in such a way that they will endure the winter well and give a good harvest next season. Let us dwell in more detail on the procedures that you will need to carry out in the autumn months.
Autumn processing of gooseberries is of particular importance, because you need to prepare the bushes in such a way that they will well endure the winter.
The scheme for pruning gooseberries in autumn differs from the spring removal of shoots. It can be carried out within a year after planting the gooseberry. Held in autumn after harvest or in early spring. Throughout the growing season, the bush loves to sprout young shoots. In late autumn, the plant is completely overgrown. There is nothing difficult in pruning gooseberries in the fall, even a beginner can handle it. Don't be afraid to cut a lot of branches.
Correct bush processing technique:
Thanks to this treatment, the bush will withstand the winter..
Gooseberries are grown on a trellis and in a standard way. Experienced gardeners claim that the most convenient harvesting process is in the classic bush creation.
This cultivation of gooseberries is explained by the formation of a tree from it with one main trunk. The method makes processing, watering, loosening and picking berries easier. The fruits are getting larger. They are illuminated by the sun's rays and are well ventilated, the risk of berry diseases is reduced. The stamp method includes 2 types: the first is to create the main plant pillar or grafting gooseberries onto a stem.
The method is achieved in more than one year.
Achala agrus is planted in a temporary place. After a year, the dry branches that have borne fruit are cut off, and young replacement shoots remain. Of all these shoots, the most powerful and strong ones stand out, the rest are cut off. After harvesting, it is they who will become the trunk heads in the future. Subsequently, the base of the bush is tied to a peg for fixation. In the third year, large fruits will already be formed. Root shoots throughout the growing season fully trimmed... On the stem of the stem, the side branches are shortened, in which 1 bud each remains.
In the fourth year of fruiting, the bush forms a powerful root system. 1 or 2 stepsons remain on the plant, which will subsequently replace the old agrus. After harvesting, the main stem is completely removed. Pruning should be regular in subsequent years. It is possible to form a bush with two or three trunks if it is powerful. Here, gardeners limit themselves to circumcision of children, who thicken it and leave only 3 replacement stepsons.
You can form a gooseberry bole on golden currants. To do this, it is necessary to graft it on two-year-old shoots of the berry by copulation or by saddle at the end of August. Gooseberries are grafted at a height of 50 cm to one meter, depending on the state of the currant branches.
The currant stock must be grown independently from cuttings. Forcing is carried out by a vertical process. Yoshta offspring are straight, even, winter-hardy, not susceptible to disease. The lateral shoots of this trunk are pinched. The permanent place of the standard gooseberry should be at a distance of one meter from other seedlings, and between the rows - 2 m.
The method is not new and has not been used for a single year by European gardeners in many countries of the world. The method is problematic in plant care, but it increases yields. Branches on the trellis bush are evenly distributed in one plane. This increases the penetration of sunlight throughout the day.
The berries ripen earlier than under normal conditions. It is convenient to pick fruits from the trellis, they reach a weight of 6-7 grams. The cultivation method provides unhindered access to berries, as well as when caring for plants. Regular pruning prevents the development of powdery mildew that attacks the tops of the stems.
Gooseberries of any variety are grown on the trellis, the most suitable tall and medium-sized species.
The structure is installed simultaneously with the planting of the bush. Metal pipes or wooden poles up to two meters are used. Parallel to the ground, a wire is stretched in three levels at a distance of 50 cm between each other. Gooseberry shoots are planted in the fall at an interval of 50 cm between the bushes. After disembarkation, all branches are cut off. Each has 3 buds.
In the spring, the strongest shoots are selected, the rest are removed at ground level. The other stems are fanned out on the trellis, tied to the lower wire, and the tops are cut off. Kidneys that are higher than 30 cm from the ground are removed. Next year, the stems grow and are tied at the next level of the trellis. Regrown shoots are removed, lateral growths of the second year are shortened by 5 leaves. The circumcision procedure is performed in the middle of summer. Such processing is feasible for five years, which gives an excellent harvest. In subsequent years, the bush must be rejuvenated.
1. When planting on gooseberry bushes, at least three strongest shoots are left before leaf fall, and the weak ones are cut to the ground. After leaf fall, the bush is cut off, leaving three to four buds on the shoots. By the next year, good shoots grow from the base of the bush (with deep planting) and from the buds left, of which 5-6 of the strongest are left.
2. Gooseberry branches bear fruit abundantly up to 6-7 years of age. Therefore, in subsequent years, three of the strongest fresh shoots are left annually, and the seven-year-olds that bear fruit are removed. Some varieties of gooseberries (for example, English yellow and Houghton) produce many strong fresh shoots every year, but these bushes should not be allowed to thicken.
3. In northern conditions, in the event of a snowless harsh winter, some varieties of gooseberries partially freeze. Therefore, it is better to cut the gooseberries in early spring, when the buds are swollen, and first of all, cut out all the frozen branches. When pruning a bush six years old and older, you need to approach more carefully. If a five to six year old gooseberry branch is healthy, with strong fruits, it should not be cut. And in order not to thicken the bush, you can cut off some of the younger, but frail branches.
4. Cut off branches with a sharp pruner as low as possible, near the ground, and in no case leave stumps in which various pests can settle.
5. If the soil is well filled with fertilizers, the first 2-3 years of caring for gooseberries can be limited only to early spring feeding.
6. The soil under the bushes is fertilized with nitrogen diluted with fermented infusion of cow manure or bird droppings in the required proportions, or a very weak solution of nitrate (15 grams per bucket of water). It is also necessary to loosen the soil and mulch it with vegetable compost or sawdust and, of course, destroy the weeds, preventing them from seeding and multiplying. It is especially important to prevent the propagation of wheatgrass. The remains of its rhizomes should be carefully selected from the soil, otherwise wheatgrass can penetrate into the middle of the gooseberry bush, from where it is extremely difficult to remove the weed.
7. When the time for abundant fruiting comes, gooseberries need good fertilization. In early spring, at the first loosening, compost (or peat faeces) with a small amount of saltpeter is introduced into the soil. When pouring berries, nitrogenous feeding is made in the form of a weak solution of nitrate. After harvesting, the plant is fed with nitrogen for good development of fruit buds.
8. In August-September, phosphorus (with phosphate rock) and potassium (with wood ash) are added to the soil. In acidic soils (and there are many of these in the northern regions), it is necessary to add dolomite flour or chalk (limestone). During the first three to five years, fertilizers are applied only under the bushes, on an area of soil twice as large as the crown of the bush. In the future, when the roots grow far away, fertilizers are scattered over the entire plot, both in the rows and in the aisles.
9. The soil on which the gooseberry grows should always be moist and loose. In dry weather, once a week, it must be watered abundantly, loosened and mulched with vegetable compost or sawdust. In our north, gooseberry branches are carefully bent to the ground for the winter and, spreading them in different directions, are fixed with wooden flyers. In winter, the snow cover will provide reliable protection from frost.