PESTS AND DISEASES OF PLANTS
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We will only talk about the best known and most widespread families among our plants.
They are very primitive scale insects, they remain mobile in all stages of their life and are polyphagous. In this family we remember the kindIcerya (Pericerya) which are mostly hermaphrodite individuals with a female aspect that we find more frequently in citrus fruits, in some legumes and in various ornamental plants.
They are mostly hermaphrodites, they have an unmistakable characteristic appearance (see photo on the side).
They make 2-3 generations a year.
The damages caused are those typical of the species with the addition of abundant production.
There are many species that belong to this family of so-called "floury cochineals" due to the characteristic waxy dust that covers their body.
They are small in size (2-3 mm in length) and with an oval and flattened shape in the females while the males are smaller.
They are equipped with legs so they are mobile.
Many species produce ovisacs formed by numerous waxy filaments and when the females are numerous, an almost flaky carpet forms on the affected part.
Among the most common species of this family we remember the genus Planococcus which attack different types of plants such as citrus fruits, lavite, fig and numerous ornamental plants.
3) FamilyCoccidae or Lecanidae
This species can reach up to 5 mm in length and are mostly immobile, having in fact extremely small legs.
The body of the females is mostly convex. The back is covered with an integument and often covered with wax.
Males are smaller than females and have wings.
Among the most representative species we find the kindSaissetia (photo below) that we find in numerous plants such as the olive tree, citrus fruits, and numerous ornamental plants.
We also remember the kind Eulecanium (photo below) that we find in numerous plants such as ilkaki, grapevine, plum, elm, and Prunus, the Currant, in ornamental plants and in various herbaceous plants.
They are very small and mostly immobile mealybugs. The females have a flattened body and the back is protected by a more or less rounded or pear-shaped shield of silk or wax. Males have legs and often wings as well.
One of their characteristics is that they do not produce honeydew also because the droppings are used to produce the shield that protects them.
In this family there are two subfamilies among which we remember the most important subfamily ofDiaspidinaewhere we find the genres:
FIGHT AGAINST COCHINELES
In the case of infection unfortunately frequent in houseplants, the chemical fight is not recommended as often the insecticides to be used are poisonous to humans and also because they can be kept under control by arming themselves with a little patience, a cotton ball and alcohol. Soak the cotton ball in alcohol and remove them one by one, they come off easily. The plant must be kept under control and must be eliminated whenever they reappear.
In the case of infestations in gardens or in open fields, it is necessary to intervene chemically. The treatments must be performed promptly and on young subjects as adults are mostly invulnerable as they are protected by their badges.
The products to use are white oils, or white oils activated with phosphorganic, repeating the treatment on average after about 20 days to fight the different generations of insects. It should always be borne in mind, however, that the active ingredients may be different depending on the type of cochineal against which one must intervene. In fact, it is essential to identify exactly the harmful species and act on the basis of both climatic factors and the stage of development of the plant.We also take into account that white oils act by contact, suffocating insects as they envelop their body forming a sort of patina. speaks of activated white oil which means that the oil must be mixed with other insecticides to increase its effectiveness.The product is generally used at the end of winter, before the flowers form, to avoid killing beneficial insects. Or, if you need to intervene during flowering, you need to be careful to do the treatments in the evening, when the pollinating insects are no longer present.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF COCHINELES
These insects are controlled in nature both by natural factors: abundant rains that wash them away, strong sunstrokes that cause the young scale insects (neanides) not yet well protected by the shield to die and from predators / parasites such as coccinellid beetles, Hymenoptera and other microorganisms. such as some mushrooms.
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Help, I have ants in my house plants! Ants in plants are never a well-wishing sight. Eliminating them can be even more frustrating, especially if they keep coming back, but there are things you can do. Read on to find out how to get rid of ants in plant containers and keep them free from other infestations.
Ants usually don't completely attack plants. Aphids, scales or mealybugs - small insects that can harm your plant are much worse for your plant. Ants love to feed on the sweet and nutritious excrement these insects produce, so they will actually work to protect the parasites from their natural enemies. Ants in a home garden are a sign that your plant has other problems, and that they are getting worse.
L'Otiorhynchus (commonly oziorrinco) it's a insect, of the order of Polyphagous Beetles, belonging to the family of Cuckulionids. Among the plants that host it we find some herbaceous, ornamental hedges and flowering, native and non-native forest. During the day, the adult lives hidden in pots or in the ground. As night falls, it comes out of its shelter and begins to feed on what it prefers, the youngest and most tender leaves of the plants. At the first light of the morning, return safely, until the next banquet. For this reason, the fight against this parasite is rather difficult.
Adults are dark in color, tending to black, with lighter streaks along the whole body. In what insect, has six legs, three on each side. On the head, we find two antennae and a kind of beak, the typical rostrum. The armor covering the body is leathery. The larvae they are light in color, whitish, with an ocher colored head.
The greatest damage to plants is caused, undoubtedly by the larvae, with their insatiable voracity. They penetrate the roots, digging tunnels and ruining everything they encounter. If you see a Viburnumtinus (lentage) in your garden, with small, stunted, yellowish leaves, don't ask yourself many questions. Look carefully and you will surely find traces of the presence of this annoying parasite, with its larvae. Soon, the affected plant will perish beyond recovery. Conversely, if you see small leaves with round but deep bites, you will have adults. These produce mostly aesthetic but not substantial damage to the health of the plant.
During the cold season the larvae shelter in the ground, where they escape the elements. In spring, they reach adulthood. Females, which make up most of the adult specimens, in the months of June flicker. Subsequently, they lay the new ones eggs at the foot of the plants, in order to favor the new insects. From the hatching of the eggs, new larvae will be born that will feed on the rhizome plants and will cause new damage to their hosts. On the other hand, know that in a calendar year he manages to do only one generation.
If you are not envious and mischievous, but you are a good girl, you do not imagine the envy of others, you do not perceive it and you don't understand what level of squalor and aberration envious people can reach.
Not only that, since you are a good girl and also insecure and with low self-esteem, if you think about yourself you have no idea what others might envy you.
In reality, envy feeds on the mind and soul of the envious person more than on the outside. Often the envious are regardless, out of stupidity, superficiality.
The envious are like the assholes, the perverse narcissists, the psycho (often the envious belong to these categories, but not necessarily) and they choose their victims when they perceive certain weaknesses in them.
Envy, like all feelings and emotions, belongs to them, certainly not to the person who arouses their envy.
In fact, it is enough to have achieved a minimum of success or to have a characteristic that provokes the envy of some people or of a single person, to become the chosen victims of the envious people who populate every environment.
Because an envious person who envies a person for whatever reason, will infect the envious around him by convincing them that that person should be envied (i.e. hated).
It will obviously be an easy persuasion to carry out, given that the envious are looking forward to finding new victims.
Or, often, it is not necessary to have success or positive results in some specific field: it is true that envious people envy money, beauty, good family and sentimental relationships, professional or sporting success of others, but very often they attach themselves, to envy, to something very impalpable.
A personality trait such as sympathy, even courtesy, politeness and good manners can trigger the envy of the envious.
We are not talking about serenity or personal style, elegance and emotional balance.
It is underestimated how the envious can gnaw even for those.
You can be envied - and a lot - by those who are more beautiful, rich, successful and healthier than us. Ah, unbelievable but true, it happens very often.
I am also very convinced that the envious, often among the most gossipy, mean and poor in spirit in the world, may they also be envious of those who are not envious, gossipy, mean and poor in spirit like them. And they swear it to him.
Green monsters - green with envy - can envy anything. Even what objectively cannot be envied from any point of view and position.
Just think that there are those who lead real battles made up of impropriety, rudeness and abuse of parking spaces reserved for the disabled, since they consider a parking reserved for them a privilege that is not only superfluous, but unacceptable ...
Fortunately, Abu Mazen did not read all the speech he had prepared. If he had, who knows what would have happened with all those missiles and drones ready behind him. He didn't say much, but what little he had the courage to say unleashed the ire of all the Western press. It has been harshly criticized by the most authoritative newspapers, including the New York Jewish Time, the Washington Jewish Post, The Jewish Press, The Republic of Israel, Liberation Juif, all the televisions in the world and even the greatest journalists have talked about it. existing, including Roberto, Yoram, Yoshua, Gad and many others.
Protests have come from all over the galaxies on behalf of the Jewish community. Hollywoosrael announced 350 new films on the Shoah and the Jewish Planetary Publishers Association has already said it approved 970 new books and publishing projects based on true stories, documented by 2 oral testimonies recently emerged on the Shoah. Meanwhile, one hundred thousand Jews from Andromeda have expressed their intention to request new ones compensation to Germany as they have lost faith in others because of the Nazis and no longer sleep at night.
Yahwue confirmed once again that the people of Israel are the chosen people and reminded Abu Mazen that, just for having made insinuations about the social behavior of Jews and the veracity of the Holocaust, he risks 6 years in prison during this life and another 35,000 years after his death.
We repeat, for the avoidance of doubt, we don't think of it as Abu Mazen. We sincerely believe that Jews are the most loved people on the planet. We have no doubts about the Shoah and we believe that the Palestinian president is wrong. Jews have no faults. None. Zero. They are perfect in everything.
The bad guys are always the others.
by Giorgio Lunardi
NB: as always, we appeal to the freedom of satire. We are aware that this freedom encounters great limits when it involves the chosen people and that is why we do not miss an opportunity to express our full solidarity with the Jews, with the sincere conviction that all the fault of their evils lies with the Goyim and that the Jews are all good, having NEVER, we repeat NEVER hurt anyone.
Esther Hillesum, whom we all know as Etty, was born in Holland in 1914. She was a young Dutch Jewish intellectual, who left us an unmissable Diary and many Letters, written during her stay in the Westerbork camp, from July 1942 to 7 September 1943. I am writing about Etty today, not only because it is the day of Remembrance, the day dedicated to the memory of the victims of the camps (who should always be remembered and not only today) of which Etty is part of the day when everyone has the duty to do not forget the horrors of war, of any war.
I am writing about you above all because your thought more than any other, in this historical moment, is of extraordinary relevance. His firm belief in the Good ... "There is mud, so much mud that you need to have a large dose of sun inside yourself, somewhere between the ribs"… It gives me strength, not just hope. That we will be able to resist the adverse forces, the current ghosts that roam Europe, the same ghosts that killed it. Hillesum recognized them right away, just as we should be able to do it now too. This is the power of Memory. The legacy. Etty, in the midst of National Socialist delirium and racial deportation, saw in human beings the absence of a habit of thinking, an explicit refusal to exercise thought. In December 1942, he wrote in his Diary that there is a need to search within ourselves "other organs besides reason”, Those that enable us to better understand the events in which we are immersed. “Of course, things happen that once our reason would not have believed possible. But perhaps we have other organs besides reason, organs that we did not know at the time, and that could make us understand this disconcerting reality. I believe that for every event, man has an organ that allows him to overcome it.”The heart is one of these, an organ that can make possible a new understanding of reality in its extreme, contradictory and violent aspects, to generate“ new thoughts ”and“ new insights ”.
“I want to be a thinking heart"- he said. The "reason" of the brain was and is insufficient to explain and explain what was happening. Just as the heart itself, without the mediation of the brain, is insufficient to understand the abominable acts that men are capable of performing. This is why we need to become "thinking hearts". After all, our heart is our center, and when we lose the center we remain disoriented, no longer understanding which is the right direction, or rather, the DIRECTION OF THE RIGHT. Because there is always a direction of the righteous. Zambrano said: "It is the condition of the heart as a center, as a center, that determines and gives rise to the centers that shine by illuminating, which if they refer to the so-called external reality or world are reflected in internal centers and sustain themselves on them."Without thinking with the heart, we lose the sense of existence.
All of us, each of us, have to resist. Resist, resist, resist! "We have to fight them daily, like insects, those small numerous worries about tomorrow, because they drain our energies. " And if you understand Esther's thought, it is not paradoxical that she managed to love even her enemies, as humans, in the midst of war: "We still have so much to do with ourselves, that we shouldn't even get to the point of hating our so-called enemies.". His vision of the world is not an apology for goodness, nor is it mystical and religious as we have often been led to believe, but the firm belief that love is the true final solution. "I believe that something positive can be gained from life in all circumstances."Oh sure, Etty had God in her, she talked with him, she prayed to him, but her God had nothing of the transcendent, external God, as the one understood by the Jewish tradition, hers was an intimate," personal "God. "When I pray, I never pray for myself, I always pray for others, or dialogue in a crazy, childish or very serious way with the deepest part of me, which for convenience I call 'God'". Etty finds, with a profound act of digging and searching, a Inner God, what every human being keeps deep within himself, the spark that animates life. "I no longer believe that we can improve anything in the outside world without first having done our part within ourselves."
As Gandhi said, be the change you want to see in the world. His spirituality, his hunger for good, rested on a strength that had its origin in having pacified the torment itself. "Every time I showed myself ready to accept them, the tests turned into beauty". In 1939 the Westerbork camp, where the Dutch government, in agreement with the country's main Jewish organization, decides to bring together Jewish, German or stateless refugees living in the Netherlands, thinking about their future repatriation. On May 10, 1940, the Germans break into the Netherlands, and Rauter becomes Supreme Head of the SS and Police. Between May and June 1942, the Nuremberg Laws came into effect in the Netherlands, depriving Jews of most of their civil rights. The Jewish Councils are constituted, bodies that act as intermediaries with the authorities, with the task of representing the Jewish community, but in reality obliged to implement the decisions taken against themselves by the SS. On June 29, Etty learns from British radio that 700,000 Jews have already been killed in Germany and the occupied countries. In July 1942, Westerbork, established as a "gathering camp" for Jews to be repatriated, became a "Public Security Transit Camp" under German command. In practice, a deportation camp that sorts out the Jewish prisoners on their way to Auschwitz.
Etty could escape, she could leave. But it stayed. And he didn't do it because he underestimated the danger of dying. July 3, 1942: "Well, I accept this new certainty: they want our total annihilation. Now I know. I will no longer bother with my fears, I will not be embittered if others do not understand what is at stake for us Jews [...]. " He doesn't leave because that's his way of resisting. Not being annihilated means not dying. To resist is to exist. "My 'doing' will consist in 'being'.”
Do not move by yourself but rather go deeper and deeper. "We must become as simple and speechless once again as the wheat that grows, or the rain that falls. It just has to be". Hillesum, first worked as a typist at the Jewish Council, Shoah then, on July 30, 1942, began to collaborate in the Department of Social Aid for people in transit. A position that does not fail to annoy his friends, some of whom were in the resistance. In the same days, Anne Frank, a few kilometers away, begins to write her diary in her hiding place. Etty knows what's going to happen and has a chance to save herself but she won't.
For the inner need to remain faithful to herself and her people, witness and chronicler of human dignity in an increasingly dehumanized world. "Some people will also have to survive to later become the chroniclers of this time. I too would like to be a little reporter in the future. [..] And if I survive, I'll write satires about my companions, or short, hilarious stories". She did not survive. Like Anne Frank. But his memory yes. Faced with the unspeakability of what was happening, Etty refused to personally join the political opposition to Nazism, because she felt that her task was another: it was non-violence. It had to safeguard a nucleus of life and love from which one could start over "from scratch" in post-war Europe. "A future peace can only be truly such if it is first found by everyone in himself - if every man has freed himself from hatred against his neighbor, of any race or people, if he has overcome this hatred and transformed it in something different, perhaps in the long run in love if it is not asking too much ”.
Etty, in love with life. Etty, who renounces her privileges to follow the deportees to the camps, because it is her responsibility to devote herself to others and ease the pain of the less fortunate. Etty, who gets on the train singing. Etty, a very uncomfortable woman. To others, to herself. He asked and asked himself too many questions. He confronted himself, he challenged himself, he contradicted himself, he searched deeply. Passionate and insatiable with life and love full of imagination and ardor, ironic, tender, cruelly sincere, constantly in love. Of one, of two men at the same time. Of a tree. By Rilke. Of a mysterious God who was able to forgive indifference to the pain of the world. Of life. His life. But also that of others, coming to choose abortion as an act of compassion.
It is for the love of the Other that she goes to work as a volunteer in Westerbork, where people are herded like beasts before leaving for Auschwitz. He shares the suffering of others to the point of realizing that his pain is nothing compared to the pain of all humanity. "Who am I to agree to save myself and abandon my people?And when he speaks of "his people" he does not speak of the Jews. It is not like someone who, when he speaks of “his people”, speaks of those who live or are born (and even this is not always enough) within their own borders. No, Hillesum saw no boundaries between people with "my people" referring to the human population in his own entirety. In Westerbork he helped many women, doing everything to keep their dignity until the end. "You can be deprived of anything, but dignity must never be taken away". In his first letter he writes: "True female emancipation has yet to begin, then. Perhaps the woman, as a human being, has not yet been born."What could be called survival strategies, that is, finding oneself blind to the inevitability of one's destiny but being able to evade its material boundaries and not lose one's identity, for Esther Hillesum were the very fabric of her being in the world. Writing was too. A question of inalienability with which comes the complete assumption of responsibility. "You have to be more and more sparing of words, insignificant, to find those words you need.”
He will decide precisely in the name of this responsibility not to shirk his destiny. "The only rule you have is yourself, I always repeat it. And the only responsibility you can take on in life is your own. But you have to take it on fully"." The Diary and the Letters are evidence of his 'existential resistance' to Nazism. She who read Dostoyevsky, Pushkin, Saint Augustine. Demonstrates great writing skills: he describes in detail the life of the camp, the overcrowding, the shacks, the hospital, the horrible hygienic conditions, the lost intimacy, the mud, the ever-present fear, the separations between mothers and children, with a very rare expressive and poetic ability. Etty focuses on people's feelings, emotions, reactions. "My pen does not have those grandiose accents that would serve to render an even vague idea of these deportations”…“even if you continued for pages and pages, you would not have an idea of shuffling feet, stumbling steps, falls, need for help, childish questions.”
“Yet I can not find the vitamin absurdto". For you what matters in life are not the facts but only what you become thanks to the facts. During the day or even in the evening, despite being exhausted, she looks for a hidden corner of the field to be able to continue writing her own memories and leave her testimony: "The rot that exists in others is also in us. And I don't see any other solution, I really don't see any other solution, other than that of gathering in ourselves and tearing away our rot. I no longer believe that we can improve something in the outside world without first having done our part within us ". In his Diary he notes in a few lines one of the great lessons that he would have delivered to the twentieth century: "We must have the courage to abandon everything, every norm and conventional foothold, we must dare to take the great leap into the cosmos, and then, then, life becomes infinitely rich and abundant, even in its deepest pains.”Etty, a rare poetess, died in Auchwitz on November 30, 1943. She left us alone. But I can't miss her like a void. Because I really see her leave us singing. She who said: “and now that I no longer want to possess anything and that I am free, now I possess everything and my inner wealth is immense“.
An interiority so precious as to remain speechless and moved. It's hard not to fall in love with it. She who possessed love. She who really managed to become a thinking heart. To go deep inside and choose to live there. When she left, she knew she wasn't coming back. She handed her letters to a friend and got rid of all the material things she had. The backpack can hold little, better a book than a sweater: "I don't carry portraits of loved ones, but on the large walls of my inner self I want to hang the images of the many faces and gestures that I have collected, and those will always remain with me [...] and in some corner of the backpack I will be able to fit the Stundenbuch ? * [...] And if I can't survive, then it will show who I am by how I die. It is no longer a question of keeping out of a certain situation, whatever the cost, but of how to behave and continue to live in any situation.”