Watering and feeding the planted tomato seedlings is a mandatory procedure, which ensures further rapid high-quality growth and formation of plants, as well as a rich harvest. This must be done for tomatoes growing both in the open field and for those that have been planted in a greenhouse. For the procedure for feeding a tomato, there are quite a few ways, including the use of not only ultra-modern fertilizers, but also those that are based exclusively on folk recipes and are absolutely environmentally friendly.
It is these dressings that do not contain any artificial chemicals that gardeners often like to boast, which is quite fair. In addition, the use of folk recipes for feeding tomato seedlings allows you to get a crop that is in no way inferior to that which gardeners collect after using artificial fertilizers. Popular recipes include those based on the use of iodine, boric acid and others.
WHAT TO FEED tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers. Universal super dressing.
So what is the benefit of traditional fertilizers? The main indicator is naturalness, which indicates the use of only organic compounds and allows you to get an exceptionally environmentally friendly crop of tomatoes. One of the recipes for making a national fertilizer, which can be poured over tomatoes for rapid growth and the formation of an ovary, we want to share with you.
Let's make a reservation right away: preparing this top dressing for watering a tomato is not a difficult task. To do this, you just need to have all the components, including a barrel with a volume of 200-300 liters, filled with one third of nettles. Next, you should add a bucket of mullein and 2 shovels of ash to it, after which you need to pour 3 liters of whey into the barrel, and finally add 2 kilograms of yeast to the resulting composition. Well, 2 weeks is the period that is necessary for the fertilizer to be infused and considered ready for feeding the tomatoes.
Naturally, the resulting fertilizer cannot be used in its pure form, since plants can simply die from such a concentration. Therefore, before you start watering tomatoes, the fertilizer must be diluted. 1/10 is the proportion that is needed in order to properly fertilize the seedlings. Simply put, 1 liter of top dressing should be added to 10 liters of water. Water the tomatoes at the root. Once a week is enough for the tomatoes to start growing quickly and form the first ovaries.
Growing tomatoes is a troublesome business that requires manipulating the plant at each stage of growth. One of the most important measures is care at the time of the formation of the ovary. In order to prevent the flowers from falling off or the formation of too weak fruits, it is important to properly feed the bushes. How to do this, what preparations to choose and what to look for when growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, we will analyze in detail in the article.
Despite the extreme unpretentiousness, it is better to choose sunny and dry places for planting. It should be borne in mind that the plant will grow in this place for many years. Peonies do not like shaded and wet areas. In these places, there is a high risk of developing fungal diseases.
Loamy, slightly alkaline soils are perfect. High-quality drainage is required for the flow of fluid and oxygen to the root system. Seedlings are placed in planting holes up to 50 cm deep. Humus, superphosphates and bone meal must be added. Planted in late summer or spring before new roots appear. Bushes need to be planted at a distance of at least a meter. Plants do not deepen, the flower may die from moisture entering the growth zone.
Let's clarify that it is better to feed tomatoes with yeast after planting them in a permanent place in a greenhouse or open ground.
Such feeding is carried out only 2 times per season, otherwise there will be solid greenery, to the detriment of fruit formation. Tomatoes are fed with yeast in June, when it is necessary for the plant to gain strength and grow thick stems and good roots.
To prepare a working solution, you need to take 1 kg of baker's yeast in a briquette, dilute in 5 liters of warm water and let it brew for a day. To feed the tomatoes, 0.5 liters of this solution is added to a bucket of water and watered under the bushes. Half a liter of solution is consumed per plant. This feeding is just yeast. Many gardeners add infusions of herbs and chicken droppings to this top dressing to enrich its composition. Any top dressing is applied to wet soil, so the tomatoes must be watered first.
The result of such feeding will be visible within a week. The saying "grows by leaps and bounds" is confirmed in practice.
Another recipe for yeast feeding: put 100 g of live yeast and half a glass of sugar in a 3-liter jar. Pour warm water almost to the top and place in a warm place for fermentation. Before the end of fermentation, the jar sometimes needs to be shaken. Use the resulting "mash" for feeding tomatoes at the rate of 1 glass per 10 liters of water. They are fed with this fertilizer once at the rate of 1 liter under a bush.
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The second eggplant feeding is carried out after 2 weeks. You can use the same solutions and the same concentration. And give preference to options containing all three basic fertilizers.
Pepper is fed 2 times on the eve of the pick and after. In addition, seedlings are fed before diving with a nutritious liquid containing calcium nitrate or drugs that promote root development (Gumi, Kornevin).
Picking - transplanting into another container, giving the plant a larger size for nutrition and growth, sufficient lighting, the ability to better develop the root system. This process can be done in several ways:
Before placing in a new container, the central stem is rooted, the soil is moistened with a root solution (this can be another stimulator of the growth of the root system). The seedling does not penetrate, maintaining its depth before planting.
After 5-6 days, the peppers can be fed a second time using one of the suggested options or your own, for example:
If you need a little seedlings, picking is usually not carried out, sowing 2-3 seeds in a fairly large container. After the appearance of weaker shoots, they are removed by pinching.
The fruits of this plant are not only loved, but also very useful. Unfortunately, in the conditions of Bashkiria, ripe fruits are harvested for a short time and come late. Using a number of techniques, you can significantly speed up the ripening of tomato fruits.
Tomatoes are less heat demanding than cucumbers. Seeds begin to germinate at 10-12 ° C. At 20-25 ° C, seedlings appear on the 4th-5th day. Temperatures below 15 ° C suspend flowering. If it is kept at 10 ° C for a long time, the plants slow down and stop growing. Temperature minus GS leads to the death of leaves and stems. However, hardened seedlings grown in pots, after planting in the ground, are easier to tolerate the spring cold snap and even short-term frosts up to 3 ° C. Frosts in August-September (1 ° and below) cause the death of plants. For good growth and fruit formation, 18-25 ° C heat is required.
Tomatoes are relatively drought tolerant plants. Before flowering, they are not very demanding on soil moisture. During the period of bud and ovary formation, the demand for soil moisture increases, and if the weather is dry during this period, the flowers and ovaries fall off.
With a lack of moisture in the soil, the yield of fruits sharply decreases, but their ripening is significantly accelerated. If there is an abrupt change from the dry period to the wet one, then the fruits crack. High air humidity contributes to the development of fungal and bacterial diseases on leaves and fruits. Moderate humidity is most favorable for tomatoes.
Tomatoes are placed in areas that are fertile enough, but not fertilized with fresh manure. The site must be open and sunny.
At a young age, plants are in great need of phosphorus fertilizers.
When choosing a plot for tomatoes, one must take into account that this culture is affected by the same diseases as peppers, potatoes, physalis. And since the sources of diseases persist in the soil for up to 3-4 years, tomatoes cannot be planted in these areas earlier than this period.
When preparing a plot for tomatoes in the fall, it is necessary to add 3-4 kg of humus, 40-50 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium chloride per 1 m2. In the spring, the site is harrowed, and before planting, it is dug up to a depth of 20 cm and superphosphate is added (if it has not been brought in since the fall). Before cutting the soil with a rake, after the spring digging, add ammonium nitrate, 20 g per 1 m2.
You should not wait until the end of the spring frost. It is better to plant seedlings in open ground after May 20. But for this it must be well tempered. By the end of May, adult seedlings in greenhouses or boxes are very stretched, which greatly impairs their quality. When planted in an open ground, the plants quickly take root and, if kept from frost, you can get an early harvest.
When planting, a liter jar of a mixture consisting of humus, garden mixture and ash is introduced into the holes (70 g of garden mixture and one and a half glasses of wood ash per bucket of humus). The introduced mixture is thoroughly mixed with the soil, the wells are watered abundantly.
You can water the wells with a solution of mineral fertilizers (for 10 liters of water 25 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium chloride and 7 g of ammonium nitrate), spending 1-2 liters of solution for each well.
The density of placement, that is, the choice of the distance between tomato plants, greatly affects the ripening time of the fruits.
When thickened, the ripening of the fruit is faster. The distance between plants depends on the variety. Early ripening low-growing varieties can be planted at a distance of 25-30 cm between plants in a row and 60 cm between rows, and tall late-ripening varieties by about 50X60 cm or 60X70 cm.
Low seedlings are planted vertically, but deeper than they grew during the seedling period. Elongated seedlings should be planted obliquely, without burying the roots in cold soil, but spreading the stem along the slope of the planting hole. At the same time, part of the stem (up to the leaves) is covered with soil, which contributes to the formation of an additional root system, and this accelerates the growth and development of plants. After planting seedlings, the soil around the plants is compacted and mulched with humus or soil.
Tall varieties require a tie to the stakes. In this case, you first need to put the stakes in the planting holes, then plant the seedlings. After planting, the seedlings must be tied immediately, using a soft, fairly wide material (washcloth) for this, since a thin one cuts through the stem. When tying, the possibility of thickening of the stem is taken into account and therefore they are not tied too tightly, leaving room for the growth of the stem in thickness. Stakes are placed on the north side at a distance of 7-10 cm from the plants. The garter is done in three steps: the first time - after planting the seedlings, they are tied up with an eight around the first leaf. As the plants grow, they are tied over the second and third brush.
Sometimes it is necessary to protect the plants from frost. To do this, they are covered with film, newspaper caps, smoke is used by burning wet garbage. Good results are obtained by late evening watering (after sunset) by sprinkling. The finely sprayed moisture should get onto the leaves.
Caring for tomatoes consists of systematic loosening to a depth of 7-12 cm, leaving a protective zone near the plants up to 8 cm. Simultaneously with loosening, the plants are spud. This improves the thermal regime of the soil, reduces plant disease and provides additional root growth.
Tomatoes are rarely watered, but abundantly soaking the soil. After planting, the first watering is done in 3-4 days, then at the beginning of flowering, the next 1-2 watering is carried out during the period of fruit filling. Frequent watering, especially in the first period after planting seedlings, leads to the formation of a superficial root system, which reduces the natural drought resistance of plants and increases the labor and time spent on watering in the subsequent period of growing tomatoes.
During the growing period, fertilizing in dry or liquid form is required. Dry fertilizers are sprinkled on wet soil, then covered with a hoe. The first feeding is carried out 10-15 days after planting the seedlings with a mullein solution (a mullein bucket for 10 buckets of water with the addition of 15 g of ammonium nitrate or 10 g of urea per 10 liters of this solution). Subsequent top dressing - 60 g of garden mixture per bucket of water or 10 g of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride and 40 g of superphosphate. Before flowering, 1 liter of solution is applied under the plant, in subsequent periods - 2 liters each.
If there is no mineral fertilizers, you can feed with a solution of mullein or bird droppings diluted with water 8-10 times. In this case, it is necessary to add half a glass of ash per plant.
If the plants have formed a powerful tops, and flowering and fruit formation has been delayed, then nitrogen fertilizers should be excluded from the dressings, the excess of which delays the setting and formation of fruits.
The composition of dressings depends not only on the condition and age of the plants, but also on the weather. In cloudy weather it is necessary to increase the dose of potash fertilizers, in sunny weather - to decrease.
Tomatoes do not tolerate fertilizers containing chlorine well, so it is better to use sulfuric acid potassium, potassium nitrate, and oven ash.
The ripening of fruits is accelerated by the addition of micronutrient fertilizers to the fertilizing - for 10 liters of the main fertilizer 1 g of boric acid, 3 g of manganese-sour potassium, 0.5 g of sulfuric acid copper and 1 g of sulphate manganese. It should be remembered that boric acid dissolves only in hot water.
Foliar dressing 1-2 times a month is also very effective. The first foliar dressing is carried out when the first flower brush opens and 5 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of potassium sulfate, 6 g of superphosphate extract, 1 g of boric acid, 1 g of manganese sulfate are consumed per 10 liters of water. With foliar dressing during the fruiting period, the dose of mineral fertilizers is left the same. ...
The superphosphate extract is prepared a day before use. The required amount of superphosphate is poured with hot water and mixed thoroughly. The settled solution is drained before use and added to other fertilizers.
To prevent the disease of tomatoes, it is advisable to spray them 2-3 times with a 0.5% solution of copper oxychloride or 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid.To prepare Bordeaux liquid, 100 g of quicklime is poured into 5 liters of water, 100 g of copper sulfate is dissolved in another glass container in 5 liters of water. Then a solution of copper sulfate is gradually poured into the lime solution with stirring.
The most dangerous for tomatoes is the fungal disease late blight, which completely destroys the crop in a few days. The disease is transmitted through seeds, soil, equipment and plant debris. Therefore, all diseased plants must be destroyed immediately. The next year, for growing tomatoes, it is necessary to find a new plot where tomatoes or potatoes have not been planted for 3-4 years. In case of mass infection of plants with late blight, suitable fruits can be collected, and the soil can be treated with a solution of copper sulfate (20 g per 10 l of water) or a 50% preparation of copper oxychloride (70 g per 10 l of water). Burn the disinfected plants outside the garden.
With late blight disease, brown spots form on the leaves, then brown blurry spots appear on the fruits. The fruit rots, the leaves dry out. More often this disease spreads during rainy summers.
The treatment of planting holes with a solution of manganese-acid potassium (2 g per 10 liters of water) at the rate of 1 liter per well contributes to the improvement of plants. It is useful to repeat this operation before Flowering, when the ovary appears, at the beginning of fruit ripening. In order to prevent effective spraying with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid 4-5 times over the summer, starting from seedling age.
There are frequent cases of tomato disease with the tobacco mosaic virus. Signs: leaves, stems and fruits are light and mosaic in color, fruits are small, hard, tasteless. Control measures are the same as against late blight. You should not throw cigarette butts, go to the area with tobacco - it is the source of the tobacco mosaic virus.
Tomato roots can suffer from lack of air on dense soils and with frequent watering.
In all cases, the best control measure is prevention.
Falling flowers from the first brushes, falling off of fruit ovaries indicate a lack of moisture and nutrients in the soil. Reduces shedding of flowers and ovaries by spraying blossoming flowers with a solution of boric acid (1 g per 1 liter of water). It is better to spray in dry weather in the evening, but if it rains, the spraying is repeated.
In order to accelerate the ripening of fruits, it is necessary to leave such an amount of ovary on the plant so that the fruits have time to form and ripen in a short, not too warm summer. For this purpose, the lateral shoots growing on the main stem from the leaf axils, the so-called "stepchildren", are removed from plants that have already begun to grow. Depending on local conditions, variety, planting method, plants are formed into one, two or three stems.
In the first case, all lateral shoots are removed on the main stem. If the plant is formed into two stems, then in addition to the main one, a lateral shoot is left under the first flower brush. In the warm summer, one more, the strongest stepson of those located below is left. Stepson plants regularly, not allowing lateral shoots to grow more than 4-5 cm. Stepchildren should be removed as soon as they can be grasped with fingers. Not later than August 5-10, pinch the tops of the shoots above the second and third fruiting brush, leaving one or two leaves. At the same time, all flowers that appear too late are cut off.
The lower dry and yellow leaves are cut off, and slingshots are placed under the brush, turning the fruits towards the sun. So they turn red faster and do not rot. You can partially remove the leaves that cover the fruit from the sun. In general, each leaf is needed by the plant, so you need to be careful when removing the leaves.
It is noticed that the formed fruits ripen quickly when the plant receives less moisture and nutrients. It is better to remove the brown fruits immediately, let them ripen in a dark place - this will not affect their taste, but it will accelerate the growth of those remaining on the bush.
You can not be late with the final harvesting of the fruits, they must be removed until the temperature at night is not lower than 5, 8 ° C. At a lower temperature, the fruits turn black and quickly rot when ripe.
The harvested fruits are sorted depending on the purpose and condition: for fresh use, ripening, long-term storage, whole-fruit canning, boiling tomato puree, making juice and pickling. To keep the fruits fresh for 2-2.5 months or more, you need to put perfectly healthy fruits with the stalks upward in small boxes with lattice lids. Pour dry peat or small shavings on the bottom of the box or between the fruits with a layer of no more than 1.5 cm. If the listed materials are not available, each fruit must be wrapped in newsprint before placing it in the box. The best storage temperature in this case is 12 ° C.
Ripening is carried out in a well-ventilated room at 20-25 ° C. At a temperature of 12 ° C, ripening significantly slows down, at 10 ° and below, many fruits rot. To accelerate ripening, several pieces of red are put in boxes with green fruits. Ripe fruits emit ethylene gas, which accelerates fruit ripening. In order to prolong the consumption of fresh fruits, the boxes are looked through daily and red fruits are selected from them.
With abundant and simultaneous formation of fruits on the plant, they must be ripened on the bushes, which are pulled out and hung by the roots on verandas, in sheds, on specially stretched ropes or nails driven into the walls. You should not hang the bushes tightly - there should be air access to the fruits.
The following varieties of tomatoes are zoned in the republic - Siberian early ripening, Talalikhin-186, Solnechny, Danna. However, it is possible to successfully grow such varieties as Early-83, Peremoga, Kolkhozny-34, Gift, Novinka Pridnestrovie. These are all early and mid-season varieties of high taste. Varieties Gigant, De-Barao, Raspberry, often found in individual gardens, have large fruits of excellent taste, but they are all late-ripening.
You can understand that plants lack a specific element by their appearance. Nitrogen deficiency manifests itself as pallor and yellowness of the leaves, stunting. If leaves begin to curl on the bushes and top rot develops, this is how a lack of potassium manifests itself, the use of a fertilizer based on potassium salt will correct the situation. The appearance of a purple hue on the stems and leaves indicates a phosphorus deficiency, in this case, feeding with a superphosphate solution will help.
It is recommended to fertilize with humates 3 weeks before the first harvest. Preparations based on humic acids prevent the shedding of the ovary, accelerate the ripening of fruits, and reduce the nitrate levels in vegetables. Contains humic acids in Potassium Humate, Sodium Humate and Hera for Tomatoes. For feeding during flowering and growth, the drug "Humisol" on the basis of biohumus has proven itself well.
Do not neglect a variety of dressings if you want to get a full harvest of tomatoes in a greenhouse. Only the alternation of various fertilizers will help unleash the full potential of the variety and give it the opportunity to present you with high-quality tasty fruits.