ABOUT preparing for planting seed potatoes a lot has been written, but for many gardeners this information remains inapplicable in practice. The reason is trivial - there is no place in the apartment, and there is nowhere else to cook it. He himself fought wars with his wife for the opportunity to place boxes with seed material in the house.
Maybe my solution will seem acceptable to someone. All design features of the rack and trays are visible in the photo. Since autumn, I have been placing the seed material on trays, in which it is also stored in the cellar (the trays are stacked on top of each other without a rack).
In the spring, I bring a rack into the house, insert trays and cover the entire structure with non-woven material (agrotex). From time to time I swap the upper and lower trays. The fact is that the lower ones are poorly illuminated. 10-12 days before planting, I close the rack with an opaque material. That's all the construction-related wisdom.
Such a device has a number of advantages:
• takes up very little space - in the apartment it is allocated an area of 70x45 cm, on which there are 16 trays, each of which fits a bucket of seed tubers;
• trays can be easily interchanged for uniform illumination;
• trays easily slide out for spraying and control
• there is no need to turn the tubers on the trays, they are located in one row, and the trellised bottom allows you to illuminate the tubers from below;
• non-woven material allows you to "dim" the light, which eliminates the "lignification" of the sprouts;
• an optimal microclimate is created under the nonwoven fabric. Tubers lose less weight and nutrients;
• Covering before planting with an opaque material removes the effect of inhibitors formed in tubers in the light. Seedlings appear 5-7 days after planting;
• construction in "working order" does not spoil the interior of the room;
• in trays it is convenient to transport planting material to the planting site (by car).
In addition, I use this structure to dry greens in the summer, and in the fall, before harvesting potatoes, I dry them in it. onion and garlic... Therefore, my construction is not demountable. I think it won't be difficult to make it collapsible. To assemble the shelving and trays, I used waste material - I bought a cut in the carpentry. If you purchase processed slats and paint them, the design will look much more presentable.
While walking towards this structure, more than once "stepped on a rake":
• At one time I used boxes stacked on top of each other. But in order to change the upper boxes with the lower ones, it was necessary to disassemble the entire stack. It is long and inconvenient.
• The first racks were twice as wide, but it is not very easy to work with trays, into which two buckets of tubers are loaded, especially with the top ones, and if you also have not "basketball" growth.
• Without non-woven material, the sprouts lignify in direct sunlight, which further reduces the yield.
• Under conditions of dry air in the apartment, tubers quickly become flabby and lose a lot of nutrients. Nonwoven fabric solves this problem.
Oleg Telepov, member of the Omsk club of potato growers,
r.p. Tavricheskoe, Omsk region
In practice, if you plant seeds from a store, they will germinate in most cases. But most often they die, or do not bloom for a long time, even in good conditions. How to get the long-awaited flower? First you need to take care of softening, remove the shell, and scarify. Scarification consists in a light "massage" for the semen, which is produced with very weak sandpaper. A nail file will also work. The dense shell softens and the root germinates more quickly.
Softening can be accelerated. For this, passionflower seeds need to be placed in fresh citrus juice - lemon or orange for a day. This is done after sanding. Then the seeds are planted one by one in separate peat tablets. Instead of juice, root is often recommended. Peat tablets can also be substituted. For example, a mixture is suitable:
The ratio should be in equal parts. The soil must be calcined before planting. This is done in an oven at a temperature of 200 ° C, the procedure time is 10 minutes. Sprouted seeds are planted, the depth should be no more than 2 cm.
There is another way of germination. The use of hydrogen peroxide is popular. With this method, cleanliness must be observed, and this applies not only to the plant, but also to the grower conducting the experiment. To germinate passionflower seeds in this way, you need a half-liter jar. It must be filled with purified water. When the day has passed, the floating seeds must be removed, and the sunken ones must be removed with clean tweezers and transferred to a glass, where 3% hydrogen peroxide should be poured. At a certain moment, the film bursts under the influence of peroxide, and bacteria are removed. Seeds without skin should be placed in a jar, where there should be a solution of 100 ml of water with 50 drops of peroxide. The jar must be corked and put away in a place where sunlight does not penetrate. The place should be dark and warm. So the seeds are overexposed for about 2 weeks. Do not open the lid until the period has expired. During this time, tiny roots appear, and the workpiece must be removed - again with clean tweezers. Now they are planted in an earthen composition, which was described above.
When the seedlings are planted in the ground, they must be covered with foil, and then put in a lighted place. Every day you need to arrange ventilation, at least 5 minutes, and if the soil is dry, it is sprayed with plain water. They switch to picking if the plant has at least 2 healthy leaves. For sprouts, bowls of about 9 cm are needed.
Passionflower loves warmth. She needs at least 25-26 ° С in summer, and in winter around 15 ° С, not lower. Watering is required when the soil dries out. Flowers can be fertilized. With a periodicity, complex fertilizer is added three times a season. It must be remembered that passionflower is a vine, and it needs a support. It is also important to clarify that only sprouts of the first year are suitable for flower buds. It is imperative to provide the plant with warmth regardless of the season.
Potatoes are planted in large quantities in early May, after the end of stable frosts. The planting depth depends on the type of soil and the size of the tuber. If the soil is light, loose, then potatoes can be planted to a depth of 20 cm, in heavy soil - no more than 10 cm. Large tubers are planted deeper, small ones closer to the surface. In arid areas, planting is deepened even more.
The main condition for starting sowing potatoes is heating the soil to at least + 10 ° C to a depth of 10 cm. Otherwise, the tubers will freeze and rot. The peculiarities of planting early potatoes include the fact that only sprouted tubers should be planted. Otherwise, all technical processes are the same as when growing medium-late and late varieties of potatoes.
The better the potato tubers are prepared for sowing, the earlier and more harmonious the harvest will be.
This can be done in the following ways:
Sprouted potatoes require very careful handling. Planting tubers with damaged sprouts will not yield a crop.
The soil for spring sowing begins to be prepared in September-October. Simultaneously with the autumn digging, fertilizers are introduced into the soil. Fresh manure is suitable, which will rot during the winter. In the spring it is brought in only rotted, otherwise the plants will "burn": when fresh, it emits a large amount of heat. To get rid of the Colorado potato beetle and its larvae, urea or ash is added to the soil. Fertilizers can also be added during planting. In this case, onion peel or ash is placed on the bottom of the hole. The main thing is not to overdo it with fertilizers, since not only their deficit, but also their excess reduces the potato yield.
In order for potatoes to grow and bear fruit well, they need loose and light soil, which contributes to the saturation of the roots with oxygen.
Stony and dense soil is completely unsuitable for him. Excessive moisture in the earth causes the development of fungal and bacterial diseases. But on sandy loams, gray forest soils, light loams and drained peat bogs, potatoes will grow well.
Clay, acidic, sandy soil and salt licks can only be used after improvement. Straw humus, sand, turf, ash, lime or manure are introduced into heavy clay soil. Rotted straw, peat, organic and mineral fertilizers of quick action are added to the sandy soil. It is best to add compost or clay flour to the soil. Sandy loam soils need to be fertilized regularly with compost and peat, as well as mineral fertilizers - often, but in small quantities. Loams during autumn processing should be fertilized with organic substances, adding manure and compost.
You can plant potatoes in seedlings and get a harvest 2 weeks earlier. At the end of March, you need to start preparing seed for planting. At the end of April, it is sown, and in mid-May, ready-made seedlings are already planted in the ground.
Growing early seedlings has its own characteristics. As sprouts appear, they will need to be sprinkled with earth all the time until the box is full. Thus, a developed root system is formed in the plant. When the seedlings rise 15 cm in height, they can be safely planted in the ground, but only in well-warmed soil.
If the seedlings are planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse, then the ripening period of the tubers will be further reduced by about two weeks.
You can get an early harvest of potatoes by growing them under film or agrofibre. When covering a plot with plantings, favorable conditions are created for the rapid growth of plants and the development of their root system.
Under the film of the potato - ideal conditions for growth
Under the film, potatoes will survive frost well and will grow much better. Tubers under cover usually ripen 2-3 weeks earlier than in unprotected soil.
How to grow early potatoes under plastic:
When growing potatoes under a film, the crop can be harvested already in the second half of May.
In the same way, potatoes are grown under agrofibre. The only difference is that agrofibre, unlike film, allows not only light to pass through, but also air, so it does not have to be opened for ventilation.
Depending on the method chosen (we will talk about them a little later), it will take from 30 to 3 days. True, you need to understand that "express methods" are not always reliable - it is rather a "magic wand" for those who, for some reason, could not prepare the tubers on time.
It will take about a month to get the tubers ready for planting. Photo the author
There is also pre-sowing treatment, which is carried out immediately before planting, using various nutrient solutions or ash.
You can germinate potatoes in a moist substrate such as sawdust or peat. This method takes less time and does not require energy consumption. For this, the tubers are placed in rigid boxes or boxes, the bottom of which is preliminarily covered with foil. Sealing is not needed, excess moisture should drain through the slots in the film. The goal is a constantly moist, non-drying substrate in which the potatoes will be located. It is best to lay them out in one layer, but if there are not enough containers, it is permissible to lay them out in two layers, sprinkling each layer with a substrate. Then the potatoes are completely covered with a moist substrate. The sprouts will form in 20 days.
Wet germination of tubers
Wet germination: conditions
Sprouting potatoes before planting allows the gardener to get an early harvest in his garden plot. In order to dig up young tubers within 40 days after planting, it is necessary to expel the seedlings.
To do this, the potatoes need to germinate in the light for two to three weeks. It is important to remember that tubers for germination must be healthy, without signs of pest damage.
After the potatoes are already green enough, sprouts wake up on them, they are transferred to pots. As a suitable soil for seedlings, ordinary peat or a mixture of garden soil, peat, humus and sand is used.
The tubers laid on the bottom of the pot must be covered with nutritious soil. Seedling care consists of watering (1-2 times a week), applying ammonium nitrate at the rate of 30 g of the product per 10 liters of water (once every two to three weeks).
You can plant seedlings after the danger of spring frosts has passed. The containers are carefully cut, young bushes are transplanted into prepared holes.
The ripening time of the crop directly depends on the potato variety.
Most gardeners grow potatoes from tubers from year to year, buying planting material from the market or choosing from their own harvest. This method is simple and allows you to get a ready-to-harvest crop in a few months. However, he also has a drawback: after 5-7 years, the crop yield drops, and it often begins to hurt. This is due to the degeneration of the tubers after repeated planting.
The gardener has two ways out of this situation: buy tubers from the first harvest on the market or grow his own planting material from seeds. The second option is considered more reliable. How to grow potatoes from seeds at home - read on.