With the arrival of spring and the beginning of planting, gardeners often hear about standard raspberries or a raspberry tree. This miracle is offered to us by merchants in the bazaar, street or in the online store, luring with photographs of beautiful juicy berries and the promise to collect an unprecedented harvest. Everything would be fine, the price is not exorbitant and you can buy, try, and what if ... However, before you buy a raspberry seedling, you need to find out what it is and what you can expect from it in the future.
Standard raspberries were bred relatively recently - in the 90s of the last century. Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor V.V. As a result of selection, Kichina obtained raspberry varieties with a thick elastic stem that does not require support or a garter to the trellis. On these seedlings, double pruning of raspberries is especially successful. As a result of this molding, a strong raspberry bush is obtained, resembling a tree in shape.
The standard shape of the bush is obtained as a result of correct pruning
The essence of pruning: at the end of May or June, the young shoot is shortened to a height of 50–70 cm. After such pinching, lateral shoots will begin to form and grow rapidly. In early spring of next year, all side shoots are shortened. From the axils of the leaves, shoots of the third order will appear, which will have time to grow and set fruits.
The shaping of the stem takes place in two steps
As a result of this trimming:
In addition, the standard form of raspberries winters better and are less affected by diseases and pests. Often sellers add excellent taste to all the pluses of standard raspberries - you should not pay attention to this. The taste and size of the berries depend on the variety and agricultural technology, and the pruning option increases the yield and can only slightly improve the quality indicators.
In order for the purchased stock raspberry bush to be really standard and to please with a good harvest for many years, the gardener needs to work a little. Everything is important here - proper planting, care during the growing season and, of course, formation. All varieties of standard raspberries are summer, that is, they have a two-year cycle. Fruiting occurs on last year's shoots, which are cut out after harvest. In a word, everything is like an ordinary raspberry, but every year you need to form a stem. However, this procedure is simple and rather pleasant for many gardeners.
Pruning raspberries is one of the most enjoyable activities in the garden
For planting standard raspberry varieties, sunny areas protected from the north wind are suitable. The occurrence of groundwater is not higher than 1.5 meters. It is important that the area set aside for the raspberry tree is not flooded by melt and rainwater - raspberries do not like waterlogging. To obtain a good harvest, the soil is very important - a fertile, breathable soil of neutral acidity.
An open sunny area is an ideal place for planting standard raspberries
Step-by-step landing instructions:
Raspberries can be mulched with different materials, including straw
Caring for standard raspberries is simple. During the summer, it is necessary to remove weeds and periodically loosen the soil under the plants. Mulch with a layer of 5–7 cm will eliminate the need to weed, loosen, and you will have to water the mulched bushes much less often.
Standard raspberries, like any other, are very demanding on soil fertility, so one should not forget about top dressing. In the spring, you can feed the bushes with a solution of Nitrofoski or Nitroammofoski - 20 g per bucket of water. Until mid-summer, they are fed with green fertilizer - infusion of weeds or liquid mullein in a proportion of 1 liter per 10 liters of water. FROM
About the second half of July, organic matter is not applied, since all organic fertilizers contain nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of shoots, and this is no longer needed. Shoots must mature before winter to withstand frost. Therefore, at the end of August or at the beginning of September, raspberries are fed with mineral fertilizers marked Autumn or a solution of Superphosphate 20 g and potassium salt 10 g per bucket of water.
Standard raspberries are propagated by cuttings, shoots and rooting of pieces of roots. The easiest way to get a new plant is from the undergrowth. To do this, a daughter plant is dug up and planted in a prepared place in the garden.
Rooting offspring is the easiest way to propagate standard raspberries
To root the root cuttings, it is necessary to dig in a raspberry bush and select sections of roots with 1-2 buds. The roots are planted in a light, loose substrate on a planting bed. Before the emergence of shoots, the bed is shaded from the sun and kept moist. For the winter, the sprouts are covered with agrofibre. The next spring, the seedling is planted in a permanent place.
Root cuttings are cut from the dug up raspberry roots
When propagated by green cuttings, young offspring 7–8 cm long are cut out. The sections are dusted with Kornevin or Heteroauxin, after which the cuttings are planted in a mixture of soil and sand, taken in equal amounts. Rooting will take place in about a month, during which time the cuttings need to be kept warm and humid. To create suitable conditions, it is necessary to build a greenhouse in a shady place in the garden and cover it with foil.
It is important that the sun does not fall on the film - otherwise the cuttings will burn out, well, do not forget to air every day. When the cuttings take root and start growing, the film can be removed. For the winter, it is advisable to cover young seedlings with agrofibre, and plant them in a prepared place in the garden next spring. This method of propagation is used when it is necessary to obtain a lot of seedlings.
Green raspberry cuttings root easily in water - the main thing is that there is little water, otherwise the shoots will suffocate
Krepysh is a thornless variety of medium-ripening standard raspberries. Bright red berries of a blunt-conical shape often reach a weight of 12 g, although the average weight is 7-9 g. The pulp is juicy, but dense with small seeds. The berries are sweet, with a pleasant taste and aroma - ideal for all types of processing and fresh consumption. The variety is very productive - under good climatic conditions and proper care, you can get 4 kg of fruits from a bush and this is not the limit. The berries do not crumble and tolerate transportation well. Ripening begins in early July and ends in early August. The variety has good winter hardiness - it can withstand temperatures down to -30aboutC, as well as resistance to diseases and pests. The strong man forms little root growth and does not creep over the site.
The Krepysh variety lives up to its name - it stands firmly on its feet and does not lose berries
Tarusa - has strong, powerful shoots that are easy to form and do not require support. The height of the bush depends on pruning and maintenance and can be from 1.5 to 2 meters. The round-shaped berries are large, fragrant, with an excellent taste, reach a weight of 12-14 g. The pulp is dense, juicy, with small drupes. The fruits are distinguished by good transportability. The variety is resistant to diseases and pests, does not form unnecessary shoots, winters well without shelter.
Large bright berries of Tarusa will be appreciated not only by the owners of the hryvnia
Gold is a large-fruited dessert variety of standard raspberries. Golden-yellow berries of excellent taste with imperceptible seeds often reach a weight of 16 g. The variety's yield is high and does not depend on weather surprises. A tall, powerful bush branches well and reaches a height of 2 m.Withstands winter temperature drops to -30aboutFROM.
Bright yellow berries of excellent taste are offered by the Gold variety
Tale - according to network sources, this high-yielding summer variety with a height of 1.5 to 2 m is most likely a clone of the Tarusa variety, it is not registered in the State Register of Breeding Achievements. Stems are thick, erect without thorns, do not give extra growth and do not need support. The berries are dense, aromatic, with an excellent sweet taste. The fruits are not subject to decay, are easily transported and retain their shape for a long time. From mid-July to mid-August, up to 5 kg of berries can be harvested from one Skazka bush.
Skazka berries have excellent taste and perfect conical shape.
All varieties of standard raspberries were created by Russian breeders, taking into account our climatic features. Therefore, they can be grown both in the southern regions and in Central Russia, in the Moscow region, the Volga region, in the Urals and in other regions.
Experienced gardeners are advised to purchase standard raspberry seedlings in local fruit nurseries. Plants grown in these climates are more likely to take root and bear fruit in your garden. In addition, when buying a seedling in a specific place, you can always return there with questions, if suddenly a miracle grows instead of standard raspberries. For the same reason, it makes no sense for the nursery workers to cheat.
Standard raspberries in my garden are a fruitful element of landscape design. I thought for a long time how to separate the garden from the garden, and for some reason I considered only ornamental shrubs as a hedge. But then I came across an announcement from a local nursery about the sale of Tarusa and Krepysh stock raspberry seedlings, and the decision was made in their favor. I bought two seedlings of each variety, planted them according to all the rules, in one row and at a distance of 1 m from each other. All the seedlings took root, and then she planted them with offspring. Although these varieties do not give a lot of growth, in three years I got a row of raspberries about 20 meters. The height of the bushes is on average 1.5 meters. Raspberries are not crowded in the shadow of the fence, but are planted in a row in the center of the site, the bushes are formed, they look beautiful and there are quite a lot of berries. Harvesting is a joy - the approach to the bushes from both sides is free. It is easy to care for such a berry - pruning, feeding, spraying and watering are not complicated by anything. In general, it turned out beautifully, functional and very convenient - everyone is happy.
Standard raspberry is not a raspberry tree and not a stem as such. Using double pruning of the bush, this shape can be given to any variety of raspberries. The standard variety is distinguished only by a thick, strong shoot, which is easily formed and does not require tying to a trellis.
Hobbies play an important role in my life - floriculture, gardening, traditional medicine, pets. I love nature and all living things very much, so I read many articles on various phenomena and laws of life, everything that brings harmony.
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We are all accustomed to the fact that raspberries are a shrub that gives a fairly strong growth over several years and forms real thickets without proper care. Therefore, common varieties are usually grown in a trellis method. Selection does not stand still and now standard raspberry is extremely popular among gardeners. The main feature of this species is that it has thicker, stronger and branched shoots. In this regard, you can often find the name "raspberry tree". In fact, this is the same bush, but only after regular pinching, it gradually begins to resemble a small tree. However, if you do not follow special agricultural techniques, you will get all the same thickets that will bear very little fruit. Do not fall for the tricks of unscrupulous sellers, there is no raspberry tree. But there are standard varieties, and with enough effort, you will get a good result from them.
Almost every year the number of varieties increases, and any gardener will find exactly what he likes. We will only mention the most famous of them.
Tarusa... High-yielding and mid-late raspberry variety. Powerful stems grow up to 2 meters in height. They do not have thorns and are covered with a waxy coating. A winter-hardy variety, tolerates a drop in temperature to -30 ° C. In addition, the Tarusa variety is disease resistant. Berries weigh up to 15 g, bright crimson, elongated.
Story... Standard raspberry of this variety has a very high yield (more than 12 kg per bush). She is also quite resistant to cold weather and various diseases. The berries are large, weighing up to 20 g, dense, easy to transport.
Sturdy... In addition to good taste and yield, the variety gives very good growth and forms a powerful root system, which allows it to be used by those who sell seedlings.
Galaxy... High-yielding variety (up to 20 kg per bush), large berries with excellent taste, strong, well tolerated transportation.
Often, gardeners call the standard raspberry "raspberry tree". However, breeders argue that raspberries did not have a life form "tree" and still does not. In the nineties of the last century, V.V.Kichina, a professor at the Breeding and Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery, created standard raspberry varieties with hard, non-sticking stems.
In 1993, the Tarusa stock raspberry was officially registered. The raspberry tree gained popularity among gardeners in record time. The concept of "stem" means that from the very root to the crown, the basis of a particular berry culture is a powerful thickened shoot, one might say, a tree trunk. Such a culture grows up to two meters in height, becoming spreading over time.
Standard raspberries require some features when planting. Since the plant turns out to be quite spreading, it requires more living space, which means that raspberry bushes should be planted much less often.
It is recommended to grow standard raspberries in rows, leaving a distance of 70 centimeters between the bushes, and 1.8-2 meters between the rows. This planting will provide excellent lighting and ventilation for the raspberry trees.
Before planting, it is required to apply mineral and organic fertilizers to the soil. Plants can be planted both in spring and autumn. A raspberry tree can grow in one place for up to 15 years.
Standard raspberries, having a high yield, need competent execution of the necessary agrotechnical techniques. Caring for the bushes consists in strict adherence to the rules of the technology for growing this berry crop. The list of these rules includes the following points:
With the help of spring treatment of raspberries with special preparations for preventive purposes, it is possible to prevent the development of such dangerous diseases as gray rot, leaf spot, anthracnose, septoria and rust on the bushes. In addition to the preparations described above, you can use a 3% Bordeaux mixture. Repeated preventive treatment with it is carried out in the middle of autumn.
To obtain a bountiful harvest of standard raspberries in the summer, watering should be carried out once a week. Under each adult bush, it is necessary to pour up to 10 liters of water (according to other information - 5 liters of water). Watering is especially important during flowering and ripening of berries. For standard raspberry varieties, the drip irrigation system has proven itself well. Do not forget about feeding. It is held in the spring. It is recommended to apply mineral and organic fertilizers under raspberry bushes. At the same time, if in the spring it is better to give preference to organic dressings, then in the autumn - to mineral ones. Some experts recommend adding manure or humus in October, as a preparation for the plant in the winter. At this time, 5-6 kg of top dressing should be applied per square meter. It is best to carry out such feeding in the form of mulching.
It is especially important to apply fertilizers during the stage of active growth and fruiting. Usually this period falls on the beginning of July.
In late April or early May, the soil between the plants should be well loosened and mulched. Also, the list of necessary agrotechnical measures should include pruning. Despite the fact that these are tree-like varieties, pruning must still be carried out here. It is worth noting that the pruning procedure for standard-type raspberries is practically no different from ordinary varieties. It is carried out for the following purposes:
The double pruning method is suitable for these varieties. With her, you need to leave only one shoot for replacement. It should be cut by 10-15 cm. The procedure is carried out in late May or early June. It is necessary to cut the stem when it reaches one meter in height. As a result, at the end of summer, a small raspberry bush will form, which outwardly will resemble a tree with 5-6 side branches. In this form, the bush remains for the winter.
The second pruning is carried out in the spring, when the leaves have already blossomed on the shoots. It is usually held in mid-May. The side branches should be shortened by 5-12 cm.
As you can see, caring for a stock type raspberry is not very difficult. But its high-quality implementation will be the key to a tasty, abundant and beautiful harvest. As a result, with a minimum expenditure of time and effort, you will receive excellent fruiting of your raspberry tree.