Almost everyone likes peaches. Adults and children enjoy eating these fruits fresh, adding them to smoothies, desserts and pastries. How do peaches grow and what is a peach tree? What color are the flowers of different varieties of peaches? In which regions can these fluffy fruits be grown?
Look for answers to these questions in the article.
China is considered the birthplace of the peach tree. The peach, which is grown in the gardens, belongs to the genus "Almond" and the family "Pink".
Peaches and nectarines are thermophilic crops. The peach tree is not afraid of heat and drought, loves sunny and lighted areas. Peaches and nectarines are grown mainly in the southern regions. The climate allows for a rich and tasty harvest.
But breeders have now developed varieties capable of producing crops in cooler regions. What do you need to get a harvest of peaches in the Middle Lane, the Moscow Region and the Black Earth Region? It is important that the growing and care conditions are followed.
The Moscow region is a region with a temperate continental climate. In recent years, the winters near Moscow have become much milder, and the summers are warmer. These weather conditions allowed gardeners to start successfully growing certain varieties of peaches and nectarines.
When choosing seedlings for a garden in the Moscow region, you should pay attention to the ripening period of the crop. Early and mid-season varieties are suitable for this region. Late varieties of peaches will not be able to ripen until the end of the growing season.
Also, when choosing a seedling, it is important to know the level of frost resistance of a peach. Planting a peach in a garden near Moscow should be in the lightest and most protected from the wind area. The soil suitable for peach is loamy and sandy loam. It is not recommended to plant a peach tree where tomatoes, alfalfa, clover, and strawberries were grown before it.
If the soil is depleted, it must be dug up and fertilized before planting the peach.
They do not like neighborhoods with peaches and pear, apple and cherry trees. When close to a peach, they reduce yields.
In order to successfully grow peaches in the Moscow region, they must be properly looked after. In the fall, the peach trees are pruned, leaving the 4 shoots at the bottom intact. The near-trunk circle is insulated with spruce branches, foliage.
Water the peach tree daily during dry times. Up to five buckets of water are poured under one tree.
In spring, peaches are fertilized with nitrogen mixtures, in summer and autumn they are fed with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. With the right approach to caring for a peach tree, even in the Moscow region, you can grow a good and healthy crop.
In the Kursk region, peaches can be grown only of those varieties that are most suitable for a changeable climate and temperature changes.
In winter, peaches need to be sheltered and protected from frost and rodents; in warm weather, trees should be provided with sunlight, watering and nutritious feeding.
In the Black Earth regions, peaches were cultivated by gardeners in greenhouses. It is still problematic to grow thermophilic trees in open areas.
Peaches in Belarus have been successfully cultivated in recent decades. They select varieties that can withstand frost and temperature changes. However, peaches growing in Belarus bounce back rather quickly after a cool winter.
It is important that peach trees are planted in bright and elevated areas, protected from wind and drafts.
Top dressing of peach trees is carried out four times a season: in early spring before budding, before and after flowering, during the ripening of the crop. In the fall, after harvesting, diseased and damaged branches are removed from the tree, pests are treated and sheltered for the winter from frost and rodents.
How to grow peaches in Belarus:
It is quite difficult to grow peaches in Central Russia. The correct selection of the variety is the key to a good result. The most frost-resistant varieties should be chosen. For example, the gardeners of the Middle Lane are successfully cultivating the Krasnoslobodsky variety. " He is able to endure frosts down to minus 20 degrees and temperature drops.
Peach seedlings should be planted in bright areas, illuminated by the sun. The crown of the peach tree should be shaped in such a way that it looks like a bowl. Fertilizing the soil with nitrate and nitroammophos will promote the growth and formation of fruits.
For the winter, the peach tree should be covered with a canopy made of polystyrene or polystyrene, covered with snow. In the spring, with the appearance of heat, the construction of the insulation is disassembled.
For growing peaches in Smolensk and the region, varieties are chosen that are resistant to cold temperatures. It is advisable to plant peaches in the spring, so that over the summer and autumn the tree gains strength and strengthens the root system. During planting, the tree is fertilized.
The peach is planted in a bright spot on the south side of the garden. The level of rise of groundwater must be observed. The high water level causes waterlogging of the area and rotting of the peach tree roots.
In the spring, the tree is treated for pests and diseases, spraying with a solution of laundry soap, copper sulfate and urea. In the summer, in the absence of precipitation, the peach tree is watered. In autumn, the tree is closed so that it does not suffer from frost and is not damaged by rodents.
Frost-resistant peach varieties:
How to grow a peach:
Peaches usually bloom within two weeks. If the weather conditions are unfavorable, the color will drop after 3-4 days. Peach blossoms begin in early spring, at the same time as the leaves open.
The shape of the peach flower is goblet. The diameter of the flower is about 3.5 cm. Most often, the flowers are single, but there are also paired ones. There are five petals in the flower.
The peach has flowers ranging from white to red. Decorative peaches have double flowers with bright stripes.
After planting, the peach tree begins to bear fruit in the second or third year. If the tree is weakened, the flowers and ovary, which appeared in the second year, are cut off. The ovary that appears in the third year is thinned out.
Ripening of peaches begins in June in the southern regions, in July and August elsewhere.
How to grow peaches:
If the peach tree receives enough heat, light and nutrients, the crop will yield high yields. A tree aged 5-6 years can bear up to 60 kg of fruit per season.
In Belgorod, in Krasnodar, in the Crimea, in the Rostov region, the peach blooms in early spring, in April. If the air warms up to 8 degrees Celsius, the peach will develop flowers. At this time, there are no leaves on the tree yet, so the abundant flowering looks very impressive.
In the central regions, the peach blooms in May. Peach blossoms can be damaged by repeated frosts. If there is a threat of freezing and excessive cooling of the air, fumigation of the garden should be carried out so that the smoke contributes to a rise in the air temperature. The peach variety determines the shade of the flowers. It is white, pale pink, red, hot pink.
The peach flower buds are shaped like open bells.
When the peach is in the abundant flowering stage, some of the branches are cut off from the mature tree. If this is not done, there is a risk of overloading the tree and premature exhaustion.
Peach and nectarine bloom begins in early spring, when the air temperature rises to 8 degrees and above.
Duration of flowering of peach trees is about two weeks. If the weather conditions deteriorate, the color flies around earlier.
The peach tree blooms in April-May, depending on the region of growth and variety.
Flowers bloom on the branches before the leaves. This beautiful view delights photographers and designers, and gardeners simply enjoy the peach blossom time.
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These extremely adorable flowers were a real gem in our grandmothers gardens. Our dicenter is called "Broken Heart", the French call it "Jeanette's Heart", the Germans call it "Heart Flower", and the Poles call it "Heart". The plant owes such beautiful names to the unusual shape of the flowers, similar to the heart. Today these perennials are experiencing a renaissance, seducing with their original and unusual appearance. Therefore, they are often planted in gardens or given to loved ones to express their feelings. What this flower admires and captivates for many years, how to plant a bleeding center and care in the open field - this will be discussed below.
The natural habitat of dog rose (like many members of the family) is very wide. This is practically all of Europe, Western and Central Asia, North Africa. The canina rose is easy to find in the European part of Russia.
The dog rose "chooses" the place of growth, also not being particularly picky. It is found in any not too dense forests, slopes and slopes, overgrown with grass or other shrubs, on the banks of reservoirs, along roadsides, on wastelands.
In a warm climate (Caucasus, Black Sea region), the canina rose actively grows, forming almost impenetrable thickets
Flowering times vary from region to region. In the south of the country, the shrub blooms in the second half of May. In the northern regions, the dates are shifted until early June.
Flowering begins at the ends of last year's shoots. Flowers are small, drooping, regular shape, located on long pedicels, collected in a brush of 4 pieces. The petals are pale pink. The period lasts up to three weeks.
The ovary is formed at the bottom of the flower, has 4 chambers, each contains many grains. At the beginning of development, the fruits are white, gradually acquire a characteristic color, and are filled with juice.
The photo shows what a blooming cranberry looks like in a swamp.
The first mentions of a red fruit with a grainy filling date back to long before our era. A description of the pomegranate can be found in the Bible. The real name of this tree is Punica. The word is derived from the Latin punicus, which means “Carthaginian, in honor of the state of the same name, which became Tunisia. It is on this territory that this country is the birthplace of the pomegranate.
This fruit was no less common in ancient Rome. There it was called Malum Granatum - "grainy apple". The pomegranate is mentioned in the Command. And the records of Mesopotamia. Later, the fruit gained popularity and "moved" outside of its homeland. It is now cultivated in:
Although Carthage is considered the birthplace of pomegranate, the country appeared much later than people began to eat this fruit. The Phoenician state was founded in 814 BC. e. Archaeologists have discovered the fossilized fruit of this tree in Jericho. Officially, it has been there since 3000 BC. e. It is also known that in 1600 BC. e. the fruit was obligatory to be served on the table during the feasts of the pharaohs. Therefore, now it is almost impossible to say unequivocally where the plant came from.
When growing, you can face a number of problems:
Improper plant care leads to the development of diseases and the appearance of pests. Improper care includes irrigation disorders, lack or excess of nutrients, violation of the light regime.
The second problem is disease. Spraying with fungicidal mixtures, phytopreparations helps against fungal and viral diseases. Treatments with a solution of laundry soap with the addition of coal are also effective.
Insects can also be seen on the flower. In this case, it is worth treating the bush with a solution of laundry soap. If this measure does not help, the plant is treated with chemicals.
Growing room mimosa will be interesting for both an adult and a child. This beautiful plant will be a real decoration for any interior.
Nowadays, this plant is widely used for medicinal purposes. But our distant ancestors did not like and were even afraid of him. The lilac bush was considered a harbinger of death. If someone, God forbid, brought at least one branch of lilac, then there will be trouble. It was believed that soon someone in the house would be seriously ill or even die. There is no mysticism in this. The reason for this fear, as it turned out, is simple. Today, this fear of our ancestors can be easily explained. It is known that the smell of lilacs is often causes allergies and asthma attacks... Which, in turn, can lead to death.
If a person suffers from bronchial asthma, then he should avoid contact with this plant. Under no circumstances should you plant near your home. Despite this, lilacs are widely used in the treatment of human ailments. Tinctures and ointments are made from the color. Ointments effectively treat joints. Alcohol tinctures reduce heat. And they even take it internally. But with these procedures, you need to be extremely careful.
It is believed that lilacs are among the most unpretentious plants. However, we all understand that everyone needs care, without exception. We want to admire the exuberant and fragrant color, which means that we will have to give our attention and care in return. The most important thing in care is regular soil loosening... Especially when the lilac is young. Loosening contributes to good access of moisture and air to the soil. Lilacs need to be protected from frost in spring and drought in summer.
Watering this plant is necessary in the first half of summer. If the weather during this period is not rainy, watering should be abundant and deep. Up to approximately thirty liters per square meter. In the second half of summer, lilacs can be watered in case of severe drought. Excess moisture during this period can lead to re-awakening of the kidneys.
Proper nutrition is also an important condition for the full growth of lilacs. This plant needs almost all basic chemical elements. Among them are nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur, iron, iodine, fluorine, zinc, and this is not the whole list. You need to fertilize the bush when it reaches the age of two. Fertilized three times a year... The first feeding is done immediately after the snow has melted. The second and third with an interval of twenty days. The ideal material for feeding is humus or rotted manure.
Let's take a look at the most common diseases, these are:
To easily recognize these sores, let's take a look at their description.The mosaic is manifested in the appearance of small yellow spots on the lilac leaves. With severe damage, the leaves curl and the plant eventually dries up. Calcium spot Is a viral disease. It is transmitted by cutting and during the vaccination process. It appears in the form of various patterns on the leaves. Necrosis is a very common bacterial disease. It manifests itself in the form of wilted leaves and lilac tops. It is especially common in cold and wet years.
Verticillium wilting is a fungal disease. Leaves in the presence of this disease turn yellow and wither. The disease is very complex and incurable. Affected bushes are destroyed by burning. Late blight is evidenced dried and blackened buds... Brown spots are visible on the bark and leaves. This disease is treated by spraying with Bordeaux liquid.
Lilac as a symbol of spring with a heady scent. It personifies the awakening of nature after a long sleep. Enjoying its aroma and admiring the lush color, we firmly believe in the beginning of a new and happy stage of our life. May it be so and only so.
Growing a flowering lilac bush is not easy. We have to master the various wisdom of its cultivation.
WHAT SEEDLINGS TO BUY
A few years ago, it was almost impossible to buy varietal lilacs. Satisfied with more or less "good", taken by a layer from a neighbor. Now, in the capital and regional centers, any planting material, including lilacs, is sold not only in the short period of April planting, but also in May-June in plastic pots with a closed root system. And such plants can be planted at any time, from spring to late autumn.
However, there are not as many varieties as we would like. Basically - French selection (Charles Joly, Buffon, Madame Lemoine and others), although sometimes domestic ones appear, bred by our compatriot, breeder Leonid Alekseevich Kolesnikov (Valentina Grizodubova, Sensation, Alexey Maresiev). Each of them is good in its own way. However, the problem of choice remains, but rather not the varieties, but the seedlings themselves. The market offers seedlings propagated by grafting on lilac seedlings, or self-rooted, obtained by rooting cuttings. There are also those that are “born” in laboratory test tubes - by the tissue culture method (see Science and Life, No. 5, 2001).
And each of them has its own pros and cons. For example, self-rooted lilac is convenient because it is winter-hardy and forms small, but strongly expanding bushes in width. All the shoots that appear in such bushes are varietal, although it is also advisable to remove it. But do not throw it away, but plant it as varietal seedlings. Nevertheless, this lilac also has a significant drawback: in comparison with the grafted one, it blooms 3-4 years later.
Lilac grown by tissue culture can also be called self-rooted, only its quality is higher than it is a super-superelite, free from viruses, revitalized and rejuvenated. However, in the first two years, this lilac develops rather slowly and blooms no earlier than 5-6 years.
Grafted lilac, in addition to quickly entering the flowering period, is good because it is easy to form on a tall stem. The most durable is the one that is grafted on the wild-growing lilac. But with proper planting, lilacs on any rootstock can become a long-liver.
Lilac is unpretentious, frost-resistant and drought-resistant, but, like many garden plants, its roots cannot stand stagnant water. Even short-term flooding causes their death. Therefore, when groundwater is one and a half to two meters from the surface, it can only be planted in high flower beds.
The soil should be water and air permeable, loose, fertile, preferably loamy, slightly acidic, neutral or slightly alkaline. The place is chosen closed from the wind, sunny, although slight shading is possible.
Grafted or standard plants are planted two or two and a half meters from one another, and formed in the form of a bush - three, since over the years they occupy a considerable area.
The diameter and depth of the planting pit is 40-50 cm, on heavy clay soils - deeper, with drainage from broken brick and crushed stone and coarse sand from above. The pit is filled with a nutrient mixture from the upper fertile soil layer with humus or compost, where evenly, with stirring, add a glass of superphosphate and a half-liter jar of wood ash. The intensity of plant development, the length of the annual growth and, ultimately, the timing of flowering, and sometimes even the size and shades of the inflorescence petals, depend on how successful this mixture of soil and fertilizers is.
Last year, the largest increase in two-year-old seedlings (60 cm each) in my garden was caused by the introduction of a completely soluble complex fertilizer Semicvetik (90 g per large pit) into the planting pit in combination with watering the land when planting with a weak solution of potassium humate (the color of sleeping tea)
The hole is filled in advance, at least two to three weeks before planting, so that the nutrient mixture has time to settle a little. After that, a little soil is poured on it with a mound, without fertilizer, and a seedling pulled out of a pot is placed along with an earthen lump. When grafted on privet, the root collar and the site of grafting itself (it stands out with cambial influxes on the trunk) are buried 5-8 cm below the soil level, so that the lilacs gradually "move" to their own roots. Saplings, grafted on seedlings of wild-growing lilacs, are planted 3-4 cm above the root collar. Thus, the number of growing wild shoots from the buds in the lower part of the rootstock is reduced. But it is even more expedient when they are all removed, carefully cutting off when planting with a sharp razor.
Own-rooted seedlings, including tiny ones, 10-15 cm high, obtained by clonal reproduction, must be buried and mulched with breathable moist humus when planting. In this case, however, regular abundant watering is also important, especially immediately after planting.
Unlike most horticultural crops, lilacs perfectly tolerate a transplant even in the summer, only neat, with a large earthy clod, in cloudy weather and with abundant watering after transplanting. Breeder Leonid Kolesnikov successfully transplanted adult lilac bushes after their flowering (!) In the phase of complete brown shoots.
Surprisingly, unlike other plants, the leaves of the lilac transplanted in summer do not fade, the roots begin to grow rapidly, and its growth is not inhibited at all.
Although lilac is considered an unpretentious plant, its successful development and a close flowering period are entirely dependent on our constant care. For example, in a dry summer, it is constantly watered in the first two years - no less than moisture-loving cucumbers, especially in June-July. And the lilac also loves a shower: the dust from its leaves is washed off with a strong stream of water.
The best fertilizer for seedlings is potassium-phosphorus-calcium fertilizer with the presence of trace elements such as magnesium, manganese and boron. All this is in the ash from birch firewood, which also contributes to the rapid assimilation of nitrogen. Of the complex mineral fertilizers, only those that do not contain chlorine are acceptable. They are often used in foliar dressing - when spraying leaves. They noticeably activate biochemical processes in plants, in particular, increase the number of large buds in inflorescences, zinc sulfate, magnesium and boron.
How does lilac develop on "yeast" after feeding with infusions of organic matter - mullein, chicken droppings, and even better - horse manure. On sale there are compact plastic canisters with concentrated manure extracts (by the way, odorless). One liter of this extract is enough to quickly prepare a whole barrel of fertilizer solution.
FORMING AND CUTTING
Both in the grafted and in the self-rooted lilacs, all the shoots appearing at the root collar and in the near-stem circle are regularly removed with a sharp pruning shears "on the ring". After all, the growth noticeably weakens the development of the main skeletal branches, their flowering and even leads to drying out. But you can not remove these shoots, but plant them in another place.
All thickening shoots developing inside the crown are also cut out. Spreading bushes, as it were, "squeeze", removing or shortening branches that go beyond a certain contour. At the end of summer, growth points are pinched off growing shoots to avoid freezing.
It is also necessary to limit the excessively violent flowering of young 4-5-year-old plants, otherwise it will weaken them and negatively affect their further development. At the same time, barbarian cutting, and even more so the breaking of flowering branches, not only interferes with the formation of a beautiful crown, but also disrupts regular flowering, it becomes periodic - with one season missing.
The formation of a stem is usually started in the third or fourth year of the life of a tree growing with one stem. For vertical fixation, it is usually tied to a peg. A spherical crown is formed at a meter height or slightly higher. All branches located below are removed "on the ring", as well as underdeveloped and crisscrossing ones located inside the crown. The main extension shoot is shortened to ensure good development of lateral skeletal branches. However, they also have to be pinched in the summer, during intensive growth, in order to achieve the maximum compactness of the crown and the necessary branching.
Cut off not only the standard lilac, but also free-growing bushes, removing all small branches in the lower part of the skeletal branches, as well as shrunken, broken and ugly growing ones.
REPRODUCTION BY GREEN CUTTINGS
In June, it's time to start green cuttings - rooting short-cut shoots from the branches of the current growth. Rooting is carried out in a film, well-lit greenhouse or in a greenhouse at a temperature of 22-28 ° C and high, 85 percent, air humidity. The cuttings are planted in coarse-grained river sand or in its mixture with construction perlite (1: 1), they are often sprayed with water and shaded from the sun's rays. It is easier to do this in low flat boxes covered with glass.
Not all varieties of lilac take root well. According to their ability to form roots, they are divided into three groups: the smallest - with high rooting rate (85-100%): varieties Nadezhda, Morning Moskvy, Sholokhov, Hugo de Vries, Buffon, Paul Arnault with medium rooting rate (50-85%): Hortensia , Krasnaya Moskva, Marshal Zhukov, Marshal Foch, Congo, Princess Clementine, Excellence with weak rooting (1-49%): Alyonushka, Olympiada Kolesnikova, Ludwig Shpet, Madame Lemoine. And, finally, alas, the most numerous group that is not able to take root at all: all other domestic and foreign varieties, in particular the Beauty of Moscow, Poincaré.
Any cuttings must be rooted skillfully, using a variety of "tricks". For example, it is known that cuttings from young, up to 6-8 years old, bushes root much better, and they are cut not in the daytime, but early in the morning or in the evening, in no case allowing them to wither. For this, cuttings cut with a clean sharp knife are wrapped in a damp cloth and planted as soon as possible. In addition, it was noticed that in late periods, at the end of June, not the middle or lower part of the green shoot, but its top, with a pair of internodes, takes root much better.
To increase rooting, sometimes the part of the shoot where cutting is supposed to be completely isolated from the light. Moreover, they carry out isolation (this technique is called etiolation) right on the bush. For this purpose, two to three weeks before the expected period of cuttings with black insulating tape, without tension, wrap the lower part of the shoots that have just awakened and are starting to grow in a ring. After a day or two, similar black marks are placed higher, retreating two or three internodes. Periodically, the rings are corrected, and sometimes they are bandaged. Two to three weeks later, when the bandaged areas of the overgrown branches turn white, the insulation is unwound and transverse sections of the cuttings are made under the etiolated areas. It is from them that the roots will develop in the future.
Another "trick" that can be used, however, in the next season, noticeably increases the efficiency of etiolation. In late April - early May, branches with swollen buds are loosely covered with a black polyethylene bag or carefully wrapped with any other light-insulating material, for example, foil. Three weeks later, when etiolated whitish shoots are formed, the coating is removed and rings of black tape are immediately applied.
Promotes root formation of green cuttings and a simpler procedure - their preliminary treatment in an aqueous solution of biologically active stimulants. The best known is heteroauxin (indoleacetic acid). Two tablets of this drug (0.2 g) are dissolved in a liter of warm water and the cuttings are immersed in it for 14-16 hours, covering them with a jar or polyethylene on top with a new bag. According to LV Runkova, head of the physiology laboratory of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, root formation is doubly accelerated by treatment of cuttings with an aqueous solution of heteroauxin with the addition of Zircon (0.5 mg - 5 ampoules - per liter of water).
After rooting, the cuttings begin to gradually accustom to the outside air, and then transplanted into loose fertile soil. A flowering plant is formed from them in four to five years.
An old, weakened lilac bush with crushed flowers can be rejuvenated. First of all, old trunks with peeling bark are carefully cut out. Every year, during the dormant period, the branches of the old growth are shortened by one third. Rotted manure and a little bone meal are introduced into the root zone of the bush.