When preparing sauces and various seasonings, mustard powder is often used as one of the ingredients. You can do it yourself by growing mustard on your site and grinding its grains. In addition to culinary purposes, the blank is also used in cosmetology, medicine and gardening. The intricacies of growing a plant and whether it is necessary to dig up the bushes sown in the fall will be discussed in this article.
Mustard belongs to the Cabbage family and has a one-year life cycle. There are several types of culture, but the following are especially popular:
The herbaceous plant in the lower part has a feathery leaf shape, the upper greens are lobed. The stem height is from 20 to 100 cm... The inflorescences are brushes that combine several small yellow flowers.
The flowering period begins in June and lasts until August. A fruit is formed from a flower in the form of a pod about 3-4 cm long. Its surface is covered with hard hairs. Rounded seeds are placed inside the fruit, from which mustard powder is made.
The rod-type root system penetrates 2-3 m deep into the soil.This factor explains culture resistance to dry weather.
Regardless of the type of mustard, the culture is an excellent honey plant.
Experts consider Asia to be the birthplace of the plant. Now it is cultivated in many countries, but the largest cultivation center is India. The fruits are collected, dried and sent to various sectors of the national economy.
Main directions - cooking and medicine... In the food industry, processed raw materials become a component for the preparation of oil, the grains are processed into powder, for seasonings or sauces.
In agriculture, the plant is sown as a green manure. Culture enriches the soil with nutrients, improves the structure, makes the soil loose. Mustard has a disinfecting effect, which is important for cleansing the soil environment from bacteria and harmful microorganisms.
Useful trace elements, essential oils, glycosides and enzymes that make up the culture are valuable not only in cooking, but also in medicine. Mustard possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, its powder is included in a mixture of masks, compresses, baths and solutions.
The processed fruits of the plant are beneficial for disorders of the digestive system, flatulence, liver and gallbladder diseases, atherosclerosis, etc.
It is believed that the mustard component in combination with other plants is used as an adjuvant in the treatment of oncology. In addition, the plant has a positive effect on work:
Waste is generated in the process of plant processing - cake... It is a brown powder. The composition of the product includes a large amount of micronutrients and essential oils.
The form of all organic microelements contained in the cake is readily available, therefore, the fertilizer gives quick results.
Benefits of using:
Experienced gardeners appreciate mustard at its true worth, annually allocating a garden bed on their site for culture. Its uniqueness lies in its universal use.
The plant can be used as a green manure. The cultivation and harvesting process is somewhat different from the general agricultural technique.
Mustard adapted to any kind of soil, grows worse only in swampy areas. After correct planting for 2-3 weeks, you can forget about seedlings, seedlings will certainly appear, even if the temperature dropped to -5 degrees at night. This will not harm the green mass.
They plan to disembark for autumn or spring (at the discretion of the owners), the seeds are laid in the soil in rows, deepening them by 1-1.5 cm. After 3-5 days, the first shoots will appear.
If sowing is scheduled for spring, you can start work after the danger of night frosts has passed, and the daily indicator will be above 10 degrees... Most often this period falls on the month of April. And autumn work should begin immediately after harvest.
To get early shoots in the spring, you need to close the seeds before winter, but there is a high probability of losing it over time. If the event is delayed, the grains thrown into the frozen ground will freeze, and in warm November, the shoots may appear ahead of schedule.
When growing mustard for fertilization, you need to cut greens before the flowering period (about 5-7 weeks old). At a later date, the stems become coarse, which complicates processing.
To obtain grains with subsequent use on the farm, you need to wait for them to ripen in the pods. After flowering, it takes about 5 weeks for the seeds to knock when shaken. This is the signal that the crop is ready for harvest.
From a square meter, about 100-120 grams of mustard seeds are obtained.
According to experts, young mustard shoots that have emerged in the fall should be dug up not worth it... Under the influence of frost, the grass will settle down, and the soil will cope with the processing of green manure by the spring. In the spring, it will be enough to walk around the site with a rake to close up the remains.
Gardeners' opinion on the need for digging are divided... Some of them believe that such a procedure is necessary to speed up the process of decomposition of raw materials.
However, before doing the work, you should familiarize yourself with why and for what purpose, as well as recommendations:
When deciding on sowing mustard as a siderat, it is worth considering that before planting crops belonging to the Cruciferous family, this cannot be done. This can contribute to the transmission of various diseases through the soil.
Siderat is sown in autumn or spring immediately after digging the ground... After that, according to the planned plan, the planting of vegetable crops is carried out.
The green mass of mustard is rich in valuable trace elements, therefore, after embedding in the soil, fruit plants receive a dose of nutrients that contribute to good setting and fruiting.
Green manure has the most beneficial effect on such crops:
Siderat not only enriches the soil with nitrogen, calcium and other microelements, but also protects seedlings from winds and scorching sun rays. And after cutting, the grass serves as mulch.
Spice herbs are also used for pest prevention... Sometimes, before planting seedlings, green manure grass is mowed or plowed. Such a need arises in cases where vegetable seedlings have a weak root system, which mustard can drown out. You need to say greens before they begin to turn yellow.
One of the available types of organic feeding is mustard greens... Young shoots that have reached age 5 weeks, are saturated with useful microelements, which, when decomposed, enrich the soil with nutrients.
The cost of such a bait is penny, labor costs are scanty. The planted seeds have good germination, so it takes a minimum of time for agricultural technology, you just have to wait for the first shoots to grow, remove the greens and plow the soil.
You can fertilize the soil late in the season after harvest or early spring... It takes a little time to grow mustard, so you can sow it, for example, after early cucumbers or tomatoes. And it is better to distribute the resulting cake over the garden bed in the fall, enough time will pass for the decomposition of raw materials and the enrichment of the soil with nutrients.
If you add cake in the spring, then the planting of the current season will not be able to use fertilizer, it takes 2-3 months for the decomposition of mustard waste, but the soil will become looser.
These factors also important for normal vegetation... In addition, young green manure contains a large amount of useful minerals, they have a beneficial effect on vegetable crops.
The best option for enriching the earth with oilcake is considered autumn input when digging soil... The consumption rate depends on the type of soil and the type of crop planted, the average values are 100-800 gr. per 1 m2... To repel pests, it is recommended to add a little fertilizer to the hole.
When the cake is introduced in the spring before the start of planting, the following effect is achieved:
Mustard has been known to mankind as a seasoning for several thousand years. Plants make from seeds sauces, aromatic and healthy oils, powder, which is included in the composition of various spice mixtures and added to food.
When using mustard, an enveloping effect is noted, the microbes in the stomach have practically no chance of survival. Due to its antioxidant properties, the product is used as an adjuvant in the treatment of colds. It has a warming effect and prevents the development of fever.
With all the useful properties of mustard, you should treat it with caution, observe the measure, otherwise you can burn the mucous membrane of the esophagus of the stomach.
The healing qualities of mustard were noted in the distant times of Hippocrates. At that time, the seeds of the plant were used as expectorant and antitussive agent... Among other things, the powder was recommended to improve appetite and restoration of the digestive system.
In modern folk medicine, mustard is used to treat the following diseases:
Spice powder does a good job of relieving toothache, serves as a laxative and anti-febrile remedy.
The agrotechnics of mustard is simple, besides, the plant has green manure properties, which will help rid the soil of pathogens and larvae of various insects. Any owner will find a place even on a modest-sized plot for such a useful culture.
The ground should be wet, if the weather is dry in autumn, then the mustard should be watered. Be sure to sow mustard after potatoes and strawberries - it heals the soil very well after these crops and restores it, since potatoes take up a lot of nutrients.
In order to improve the structure of the soil and to increase the indicators of soil fertility on the site, it is recommended to carry out regular sowing of green manure plants, both in spring and in autumn, for three years. It is necessary to mow the planting of green manure and dig up the soil before the flowering phase.
The best period is the beginning of flowering of mustard, it is at this time that the maximum amount of nutrients is concentrated in the plant (then it will steadily decrease).
Some summer residents prefer to leave the mustard planting until spring. In our opinion, this is practically a waste of time.
Keep in mind that mustard is a cruciferous plant, where it was embedded in the soil, radishes, cabbage, turnips and other crucifers should not be sown. For them, after mustard, the soil will be scarce, moreover, all diseases characteristic of mustard can subsequently spread to these crops.
© Ilya Vladimirovich | 2015-08-03
The first step is to choose the time of year. Based on the recommendations of experts and experienced gardeners, the optimal period for digging green manure is considered to be summer, the beginning of autumn. In winter, the plant releases all its nutrients into the ground.
When the plant blooms - this happens approximately one month after germination, the future fertilizer can be dug up.
If there is greenery left in the selected area, it must also be buried in the ground, where earthworms will process it quickly enough.
Alternatively, you can leave the greens alone and leave them in the garden: the aboveground part of the plant will bend by itself, and the roots will decompose.
Now, finally, the ideas of organic farming are receiving more and more response from domestic gardeners.So, green manure plants have become very popular, allowing, without a drop of chemistry, to significantly improve the condition of the soil on the site, making it looser and more nutritious. One of these siderates is white mustard - a plant that, in addition to land and health purposes, can also be used as a culinary seasoning. Despite the undeniable benefits and ease of cultivation, the autumn sowing of mustard causes certain difficulties for inexperienced gardeners. One of the most frequently asked questions is: "I sowed mustard in the fall - what to do next?" You can find the answer to it in our article.
Sowing mustard on the site allows you to achieve several goals at once:
Mustard can be safely attributed to the category of sprinter plants: the first green bristle appears on the beds within 4-6 days after sowing. At the same time, it is absolutely not important how warm it is outside - this plant is capable of germinating with light frosts, and the hatched seedlings safely survive frosts at -5 ... -7 degrees.
Mustard seeds have enough moisture in the autumn soil. Only in case of severe drought can the crops be watered additionally.
What to do next, after you have planted mustard in the fall? It all depends on in what period of autumn it was planted. Sown immediately after harvesting potatoes in late August-early September, mustard will reach the required ripeness by mid-late October, after which it will need to be cut and embedded in the ground using a flat cutter. The green manure planted at a later date can be left to winter in the garden bed so that it decays in a natural way, and in the spring it can be embedded in the soil when preparing the beds for planting. At the same time, the soil on the site will be reliably protected from freezing, retain more nutrients and moisture.
White mustard (Sinapis alba) is grown in almost all regions of Russia. For an annual plant of the cruciferous family, only permafrost zones are not suitable. The plant is unpretentious to care for. Mustard is used as a spice in cooking and in horticulture as a green fertilizer (green manure mustard). Consider when it is necessary to sow and dig up green manure mustard, recommendations for growing.
Mustard is grown from seeds. The size of the seed is 1-1.5 mm, it is convenient to lay them out one by one into the prepared grooves during planting. The plant will grow up to 70 cm tall. The leaf plates are pinnate, the plant blooms well. After the flowering period, pods are formed with yellow seeds inside (up to 15 pieces per pod). The flowers are bisexual, pollination takes place with the help of wind, bees.
Mustard is sown to fertilize the soil. The plant enriches the earth with phosphorus and nitrogen. Digging up the area along with the growing mustard, it is immediately buried in the ground. Stems and leaves give their useful microelements to the plants growing in the beds.
The use of mustard as a siderat is very convenient and effective. Green dressing does not require much effort from gardeners: the fertilizer does not need to be transported, it is enough just to embed it in the soil. To do this, use a hoe, hoe or shovel.
You can sow a crop as fertilizer in the spring before planting garden crops on the site or in the fall after harvesting. The plant can withstand frosts up to minus 5 degrees. If you plant seeds in April, you can have time to replenish the soil before planting garden plants.
Mustard is prized as a highly digestible fertilizer. It sprouts quickly, builds up a large green mass (up to 400 kg per 1 hundred square meters).
The leaves and stems of the plant contain:
It depends on many factors, and primarily on the nature of the spring weather. In fact, the line is quite thin - from the moment when the soil melts to the arable horizon until the beginning of its active drying.
When is the right time to start digging a garden in the spring?
It depends on many factors, and primarily on the nature of the spring weather. In fact, the line is quite thin - from the moment when the soil melts to the arable horizon until the beginning of its active drying. Generally speaking, from the point of view of maintaining the maximum productivity of the humus horizon, it is not worth digging the earth in spring. This is done in the fall, with a turnover of the layer - we bring perennial weeds and wintering pests to the surface of the rhizomes: the frost will kill both. In the spring we loosen the garden with a pitchfork.
By this we "turn on" the soil - we deliver oxygen to soil microorganisms, creators of fertility, and we preserve moisture - loose soil retains it much better. Here it is already necessary to look at the composition of the soil: sandy loams and light loams dry out faster, they must be processed immediately, as soon as the ground thaws for one and a half bayonets of a shovel. Moisture-intensive peaty soils and damp clayey soils can wait a bit, and it will be easier to work.
And the dispute between "diggers" and "rippers" does not end in sight. The first focus on the destruction of weeds and pests, the second - on the preservation of the "number of storeys" of the soil horizon, which has been developing over the years and providing fertility. It seems that a compromise is reasonable here - to dig in the fall and loosen it in the spring. Try it yourself, and share your findings with our readers!