Agricultural technology of an orchard


How to grow a liquid apple

Bloom

In recent years in Russia, in connection with the development of private land use and land tenure, there has been a tendency for the growth of small and medium-sized businesses engaged in the agricultural sector. Most of these territories are allocated for the laying of fruit plantations and, undoubtedly, the apple tree plays a leading role in them.

Modern competitive horticulture is based on the cultivation of intensive orchards. The agrotechnology of such plantations differs significantly from the generally accepted ones cultivated on vigorous seedling stocks.


Intensive garden on rootstock 62-396,
landing pattern 4.5x1.5 m

Soil

All basic types of soils are suitable for laying an intensive apple tree garden: sod-podzolic, gray forest, chernozems, sierozem, dark chestnut and others. Special requirements are imposed on the thickness of the humus horizon.

The composition of the soil should be structural, drained, moisture-consuming, without signs of salinity (pH = 5.5-7.5), with a density of no more than 1.35-1.40 g / cm³, the content of carbonates should not exceed 12-15%. The groundwater level on the site should be no higher than 2-2.5 m from the ground surface. The site chosen for an intensive garden should be characterized by a leveled relief with a slight slope (up to 3-5 °), without depressions, hollows, closed depressions, swampiness, gleying, increased soil density or its individual layers.

In the southern regions, a wet northern or northwestern slope is chosen for the garden, in the middle lane - a southwestern or western slope, and in the northern regions - a southern and southwestern slope.

It is recommended to plant fruit trees no closer than 10-14 m from the rows of garden protection plantations. Before laying an intensive garden, they carry out pre-planting soil preparation, clear the site, carry out plantation plowing, destroy weeds and seeds with continuous herbicides (Roundup, Hurricane, etc.), apply organic fertilizers (manure, peat, compost) from 40 to 100 tons / ha and mineral fertilizers.

Blooming young intensive garden
on clone rootstocks of an apple tree

Garden varieties

Apple varieties for each region are selected according to the "State Register of Breeding Achievements Permitted for Use".

The rootstocks must be selected taking into account the selected type of garden, which also determines the arrangement of trees. For central Russia, it is recommended to use low-growing clonal rootstocks of apple trees of the MichGAU selection, which have high winter hardiness.

For semi-intensive gardens, seedlings are used on semi-dwarf (medium-sized) rootstocks 54-118; 57-545. Intensive gardens are planted on dwarf (semi-dwarf) rootstocks 62-396. For a super-intensive garden, the super-dwarf rootstock Kid Budagovsky is well suited.

When choosing the optimal tree planting scheme, it is necessary to take into account the growth strength of the rootstocks and the varieties grafted on them. The growth force of apple varieties can be found in their pomological description. For example, vigorous varieties on semi-dwarf and medium-sized rootstocks (54-118, 57-545) are usually planted according to the scheme 6-7x3.5-4 m, medium-sized 6-7x3-3.5 m, low-growing 6x3 m.On dwarf rootstocks - 4 -4.5x2-2.5; 4-4.5x2 and 4-4.5x1-1.5 m, respectively. On super dwarfs - 3x1-1.5m.

Dipping the root system of seedlings in a "chatterbox"
before boarding

Garden laying

Planting trees for intensive orchards with dense layouts is recommended by hand in the shovel furrow. The grafting site for seedlings should be at soil level. When planting, watering holes are formed around the seedlings.

When establishing low-growing orchards, use commercial first grade standard seedlings in accordance with industry standards. You can plant seedlings in autumn and spring. The most winter-hardy varieties of apple trees are often planted in the fall.

After planting, planting stakes 100-120 cm long are pierced as a support from the southern side of the tree to protect against sunburn. Trees are tied with a loose knot to prevent constriction. A prerequisite for the post-plant care of seedlings is watering with a water consumption of up to 30-40 liters per tree. A good harvest in an intensive garden is possible with the organization of drip irrigation.

In autumn, young trees must be protected from murine rodents. To do this, remove all plant residues, lay out poisoned baits, tie boles and bases of skeletal branches, in winter they trample snow around trees.

Trimming

In the spring, in the first year after planting, formative pruning of trees is carried out. The competitive branches are removed, the upper lateral branches and the central conductor are subordinated to each other. In the future, during the entire service life of an intensive garden (25-35 years), they annually carry out pruning, normalization, protective measures for the phenophases of plant development, introduce root and foliar dressings, contain aisles under tinning or black steam, near-trunk strips - under herbicidal steam, follow for irrigation, timely harvest and comply with the storage conditions for fruits.

Saplings for rootstock 62-396
can bear fruit already in the nursery

Harvesting

For harvesting in the garden, it is necessary to distinguish between removable, technical and consumer ripeness of fruits. The technical ripeness of the fruits, their readiness for processing occurs a few days before the consumer. In varieties with a summer ripening period, removable, technical and consumer maturity of fruits practically coincide in terms.

Therefore, summer varieties are almost not intended for storage, and they must be consumed or processed immediately or 1-2 weeks after picking, depending on the variety, but not later. The short terms of transportation and processing force the fruits to be removed a little earlier than their full ripeness. These varieties include Melba, Dream, Candy, Red early, Medunitsa, Kitaika golden early, White filling and others. The period of their removal and consumption is from the third decade of July to mid-September, depending on the region.

Autumn varieties are harvested from the first decade of September to early October, they can be consumed and processed immediately after picking, or stored in specialized refrigerated storages at high humidity and temperatures from 0 to + 3 ° C for 3-5 months, depending on the variety. These varieties include: Antonovka ordinary, Zhigulevskoe, Autumn striped, Bessemyanka Michurinskaya, Krasivoe, Vishnevoe, Orlovskoe striped and others.

The fruits of the winter ripening period - Sinap Orlovsky, Orlik, Lobo, Skoroplodnoe winter, Bogatyr, March, Spartan and others begin to be harvested from mid-September to early October and store them, depending on the variety, until May. Do not forget that all the listed harvesting times are relative and can fluctuate in time at different intervals, depending on the conditions of the growing season.

Premature or too late harvesting of apple fruits leads to negative results. If the fruits are harvested too early, there is a significant loss of yield due to the relatively small mass of unripe fruits.

Gnawing unprotected young seedlings after winter

The presence in unripe fruits of sugars, acids, aromatic substances, vitamins, etc. decreases sharply. Due to the insufficient color of the fruits, their commercial qualities deteriorate. During storage, immature fruits often turn brown, are affected by subcutaneous spotting, lose a lot of water and shrivel.

Too late harvesting of fruits also leads to a loss of yield due to volunteers, reduces the transportability of fruits, their quality composition, juiciness, and storage capacity. In addition, with late harvesting of fruits, the period of post-harvest vegetation of trees is shortened, and this leads to a weak accumulation of reserve substances and products of photosynthesis, which in turn leads to a decrease in frost resistance and winter hardiness of the apple tree.

In most cases, the removable ripeness of the fruit is determined visually. For a more accurate determination of it, the method of iodine starch test is now widely used. For this, the fruits, cut into two parts, are immersed in a lugol solution for a few seconds and the degree of ripeness is assessed by the starch content in the fruits on a point scale. 5 points - the cut is completely colored, 4 points - small areas near the seed nests are not painted, 3 points - spots are not painted over the entire surface of the cut, 2 points - dark coloration under the skin and individual areas of the pulp, 1 point - slight coloration under the skin of the fruit, 0 points - no blue coloration.

For storage, it is customary to remove the fruits with a 3 point assessment, for transportation and subsequent sale - 1-2 points. The degree of fruit ripeness according to this method is set individually for each variety. There are other methods for determining the removal of fruits, even with the help of technical means - a refractometer and a penetrometer, which determine the electrical conductivity and density of the fruit pulp.

With the onset of removable maturity, the fruits of summer and autumn varieties must be harvested in a very short time within one week. The collection of winter varieties can be extended up to two weeks, depending on the variety.

Varieties with a tendency to drop sharply, such as Orlik, should be harvested first. In addition, when harvesting, farms often ignore the fact that the fruits of the apple tree inside the crown ripen a little later than those growing on the periphery.

Varieties prone to sunburn, subcutaneous spotting, wilting (Sinap Orlovsky, Martovskoe) must be harvested at the end of the removable maturity period.

Varieties characterized by browning of the flesh during storage are harvested at the beginning of the removable maturity period.

Drip irrigation

Top dressing

An obligatory element of agricultural technology in an autumn apple orchard is top dressing. How and what to feed fruit trees is a controversial issue.

Some scientists and naturalists advise using only potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. They believe that nitrogen stimulates the growth of shoots in autumn and contributes to their non-ripening, thereby reducing winter hardiness. Experiments conducted by scientists at VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin, showed that the most effective terms for applying nitrogen fertilization in an intensive apple orchard are autumn and spring.

Fertilizing with nitrogen at this particular time contributes to an increase in apple yield up to 50%. The optimal dose is 30 kg of active ingredient per hectare (or 100 kg of ammonium nitrate per hectare).

Evgeny Sirotkin,
candidate of agricultural sciences,

Roman Isaev,
candidate of agricultural sciences

Photo by authors


How to plan a garden and summer cottage

Site planning is considered the most important stage in its arrangement. The planning of a summer cottage and garden plot directly begins with a preliminary study of the soil where garden and horticultural crops are to be grown, and climatic conditions that affect the number of fruits. If the soil is excessively clayey or with admixtures of sand, then you need to additionally add peat to it, feed it with chernozem, other substances and fertilizers, on which the proper nutrition of the roots will directly depend.

In the climate, the fundamental factor that negatively affects the fruiting process is:

  • excess moisture
  • frosty winters
  • spring frosts.

Therefore, it is important to select trees and crops that are most suitable for a particular region.

Important aspects are the layout of the garden and the correct selection of trees. Trees of local selection are considered the most resistant to frost. They perfectly adapt to any climatic conditions and give good results, if not annually, then after a year. The most hardy trees are cherries, pears, apples and plums. Apricots and peaches are considered the least resistant to frost and high humidity.

Cherry does not tolerate closely located groundwater at all, and if reclamation is not carried out in time, then literally in a few years it will dry out.


Decorative vegetable garden

Its main feature is a combination of beauty and utility, the ability to combine utilitarian and decorative cultures.

When choosing a place for the beds, focus on sunny, calm places. Analyze your real crop needs and clearly define the area to be planted. In order for the garden zone to bring aesthetic pleasure, it is necessary at the design stage to determine the features of its design, the necessary parameters. Landing rules compositions for the garden little, except for the materials used, differs from the rules for arranging flower beds.

We will help you to objectively assess the possibilities of the site, take into account all the nuances, so that you get not only abundantly fruitful, but also a beautiful area of ​​the orchard and vegetable garden!


Landscaping and regular planning

Below are examples of garden planning for lovers of order and clarity of forms and for those who like it when plants in an orchard are also planted according to the scheme, but create the impression of natural zones.

Landscaping assumes the arrangement of trees and other crops in a free order, close to natural. In such a garden, in addition to fruit crops, decorative ones are also widely used.

An example of a free garden layout - vegetable beds on the left and above, fruit trees are planted in groups in the center and on the right

With regular planning, trees and shrubs, as well as vegetables in the garden, are planted in strict rows at the same distance. The landing pattern also has a strict geometric shape - a square for sections whose length and width are almost equal, and a rectangle for sections whose length is much greater than the width.

An example of a regular layout of a garden with a vegetable garden - clear geometry, the site is divided into regular squares, rectangles, plants are planted in rows


Fruit garden laying

Hello dear friends!

The future fate and your peace of mind will depend on how correctly the laying of the orchard will be carried out. It is better to do everything right from the beginning, so that later you do not have to carry out certain work in uncomfortable conditions.

Consider the main stages of laying a new orchard.

A well-lit area is allocated for an amateur garden and a plan is drawn up which crops and where will be planted. The planned area is thoroughly cleaned of leaf fall, debris, third-party shoots, weeds and their rhizomes. Simultaneously with plowing, a mineral-compost composition of fertilizers is introduced into the soil, the area is sprinkled with wood ash and sulfur, then harrowed.

The next stage is the division of the garden into northern, northeastern, northwestern, southern and central parts. It is advisable to divide all parts of the garden together with a small path. Along the perimeter, without preliminary preparation, it is possible to plant crops of low and useful deciduous species, for example, cultivated hazel - hazelnuts or varietal sea buckthorn. These multi-stemmed shrubs, in addition to their nutritional and medicinal value, will become a protective barrier from strong winds and a good shield for snow retention inside the garden.

To correctly mark the garden, you need a measuring tape, stakes and a planting board. It is advisable to break it down by three people: two people pull the tape, and the third drives in the stakes where the trees will be planted. To keep the rows fairly straight and the trees planted exactly in the center, use a planting board.After, as the work on marking the garden is completed, and the fruit crops and favorite berry bushes are selected, you need to proceed directly to planting.

It is recommended to plant seedlings in autumn (until October) or in spring (before flowering). First, pits are made for planting: the top layer of soil is folded from the bottom layer separately and a little of the top soil mixed with organic fertilizers is poured into the pit. (See the article "Planting apple seedlings")

It is better to buy seedlings in agricultural nurseries and the choice of planting material must be taken responsibly. (See the article "Purchase of fruit tree seedlings"). The seedlings should have a well-developed root portion, intact bark, no broken branches and intact, healthy buds. After the seedlings were dug up in the nursery, their roots should be treated with a special compound - a mixture of clay with manure and wrapped with cling film. Or pack the roots in a wet cloth: this will prevent them from drying out and provide a weekly preservation of the seedling in case of a delay in planting.

The planting process is as follows: they close up in the pit stake and place the landing board so that the stake is in the middle of the notch. The seedling is lowered into a hole on a mound of the upper earth, the root branches are straightened and covered with soil, slightly shaking the tree for its dense shrinkage. On the surface of the earth, irrigation furrows are made with a curb height of 15 cm. The average volume of primary irrigation is 2 buckets for each tree.

The main care is normal and consists of weeding the grass, removing overgrowth and loosening the soil around the entire trunk. Weeds and shoots are laid around the butt for mulch and natural decomposition - this will serve as a good fertilizer in the fall. (See the article "Caring for young apple trees".

In the fall, you need to take care of a young garden. The trunks of the trees at the base are wrapped with white fiberglass, which saves the trees from rodents. The root system is insulated from freezing with fallen leaves, wood chips or straw. In winter, they throw snow in a heap around the trunk and trample it down.

With the warmth of the spring, a lot of work will appear in the garden: foliage harvesting, loosening, sanitary pruning, urea application, fungicide spraying and other, appropriate measures.

Fruit crops and berry bushes planted nearby should be biologically “good” neighbors. Then they have a beneficial effect on each other, are well pollinated by bees and protect from pests. "Bad" neighborhood will oppress crops, which will negatively affect the resistance of young trees to pathogenic fungal diseases, growth and yield qualities.

Hope the article Fruit garden laying will be useful to you. See you!


We fertilize the garden and vegetable garden with humus

Humus is rotted ("burnt out") manure. When fresh, it is harmful to introduce it into the soil. Previously, it must be turned into humus. It is necessary to introduce humus for various crops in different quantities and at different times.

Autumn introduction

Humus can be applied to the soil in spring and autumn. If the soil in the garden is depleted, humus is scattered throughout the garden after the autumn harvest and cleaning of the site. 6-8 kg of humus are consumed per 1 m². Two weeks later, an autumn digging of the soil is carried out.

It is better to apply humus for early-ripening vegetables in autumn, for late-ripening vegetables - in spring, since they have a long growing season.

Strawberries are fertilized with humus in the fall, after the completion of fruiting and jigging of the mustache. It is good to mulch a layer of humus on strawberries on top with straw or sawdust.

Spring introduction

Cucumbers are very fond of humus. Under these crops, humus is introduced in the spring, before the spring digging of the soil. It is laid shallowly. Dig up the soil by 15 centimeters.

Be sure to apply humus to all planting pits before planting young fruit trees and rose bushes. For tree seedlings - 1.5-2 kg per hole. For roses - 1-1.5 kg for one bush.

When planting seedlings, humus is introduced into the holes in an amount of 0.5 kg per hole.

Under raspberries, humus is laid out from spring to mid-summer with a layer of 5 centimeters. Do not close up.

Summer application

You can stir humus with water and water the plants with this solution during the growing season. Proportions - 1 kg of humus per 10 liters of water.

Mature trees are fertilized with humus in a near-trunk circle within a radius of 80 cm. One tree will need at least 4 kg of humus. It is recommended to apply humus under trees in spring or summer, no later than August, otherwise they will not tolerate winter well.


Watch the video: Arcadia Terra


Previous Article

Old things and their second life in the country: we make crafts from unnecessary trash

Next Article

Indoor plant transplant video - preparation, transplant, care after