Fruit and berry plants
Domestic apple tree (lat.Malus domestica) Is a species of fruit trees of the genus Apple-tree of the Rosaceae family, widespread and cultivated in private gardens and on an industrial scale for its fruits. Both the apple tree and its apple fruit are associated with many legends, tales, fairy tales, songs and other works of oral folk art: the apple of discord, which indirectly caused the Trojan War; the apple of knowledge, because of which people were expelled from paradise to Earth; the apple that fell on Newton's head, resulting in the law of gravitation, are the most sublime examples of the role the apple has played in the history of mankind.
And if you think in a utilitarian way, then who does not like the taste of a juicy crispy apple or aromatic apple jam, how many drinks and dishes can you make from apples! Apples are a storehouse of vitamins and other substances useful for the human body, therefore, despite the fact that apple trees have served us for millennia, they still grow in our gardens.
In this article we will tell you how to grow an apple tree from a seedling, how to plant an apple tree, what diseases and pests of an apple tree lie in wait for it in case of violation of agrotechnical conditions, which apple variety from thousands of existing ones to choose for your site, so that a blooming apple tree pleases the eye in spring, and delicious apples have graced your table for many, many years.
Read more about growing an apple tree below.
The apple tree is a tree with a spreading crown, reaching a height of two and a half to fifteen meters. The branches of the apple tree are of two types: fertile - shortened, on which flower buds are formed, and growth - elongated. Wild species are provided with thorns. The leaves of the apple tree are bare or pubescent on the underside, petiolar. White, pale pink or crimson flowers, depending on the variety, collected in sparse corymbose or semi-umbellate inflorescences, bloom in April or May and bloom for about two weeks. Cross pollination of flowers. The fruit of the apple tree, the apple, is formed from the lower ovary.
Apple trees are durable - garden ones live up to a hundred years, and wild-growing species - up to three hundred. Fruiting of an apple tree does not begin until the fourth year of life, but there are times when the apple tree begins to bear fruit both in the year of planting and at 12 years old. The productive period of the tree is 40-50 years. The apple tree is frost-hardy, withstands temperatures down to -42 ºC, in addition, apple trees are excellent honey plants.
You can plant an apple tree in spring and autumn, and we will definitely tell you how spring planting differs from autumn planting, but first you need to choose a place where your apple tree will grow and bear fruit for almost half a century. It is better to plant apple trees in open places without strong drafts, away from buildings and other trees, it is especially undesirable for a young tree to be close to old trees, the crowns of which will block the sun from the seedling, and the roots will take away food.
The soil of the apple tree is suitable for fertile, approximately the same in composition as for potatoes - not too acidic so that it does not have to be extinguished with lime, and containing the nitrogen necessary for the growth and fruiting of the apple tree.
Now let's talk about seedlings. You need to buy apple seedlings just before planting, and it is better if they have open roots - you can immediately see the state of the root system. Planting material in a pot or containers is a mystery that it is better not to mess with: sometimes a seedling languishes in a pot for more than one season, the roots have filled the entire volume, intertwined and entangled, and it is not known what started up there in these roots. And sometimes a freshly dug seedling with roots roughly chopped off with a shovel is stuffed into a container - how will it behave after transplanting?
No, it is better to buy seedlings with an open root system and dormant buds - you will immediately determine in what form the roots are, and the condition of the roots of the seedling is the main criterion for buying it. In dwarf apple trees, the root system looks like a washcloth of small thin roots sticking out in all directions, and in tall species there are several powerful vertical roots. When cut, the roots should be white, any other shade is a sign of decay or other disease.
Now pay attention to the ground part of the seedling: you should buy a one-year-old seedling with one stem-twig from a meter to two in height without side branches, or a two-year-old with two or three skeletal branches, if we are talking about a tall apple tree, or three to five, if we are talking about a dwarf ... The purchased seedling must be prepared for planting: cut off broken or diseased roots, treating the wounds and cuts with crushed coal, and straighten the root system. And we remind you again: the buds on the seedling should not be swollen.
The pit for the apple tree is prepared in advance. If planting is carried out in the spring, prepare a hole in the fall, if you are planting a tree in the fall, then dig a hole at least a month before planting so that the soil in it has time to settle. Autumn planting is carried out after the fall of leaves - at this time the tree will be actively overgrown with roots, while the ground part will already rest. Your task is not to interfere with the tree. Dig a hole 50x50 in size, determine the depth by the length of the roots of the seedling. Drive a high stake into the middle of the hole so that it eventually rises about one and a half meters above the ground. Dip the spread roots of the seedling into the hole and carefully cover it with fertile black soil so that the root collar of the seedling is flush with the surface.
Tamp the soil and water abundantly, tie the seedling to the support. If the soil that has absorbed water will sediment, add more earth. Do not put any fertilizers in the soil, as dormant buds can wake up from them, which on the eve of winter will lead to the freezing of the seedling. With the onset of stable cold weather, it will be possible to scatter complex mineral fertilizers around the seedling at a distance of 60 cm from the trunk. When the snow begins to melt, the fertilizers will dissolve and, together with the melted water, will penetrate deep into the soil, where the roots of the apple tree can absorb them.
Many gardeners prefer spring planting of apple trees. During spring planting, pour some nutritious soil mixed with a half-liter can of ash on the bottom of the pit, then pour a bucket of water into the pit, stir it with the soil, lower the roots of the seedling into this chatterbox, straighten them and fill the hole with fertile soil almost to the very top ... Then pour out another bucket of water, and when it is absorbed, add as much soil on top as necessary to level the surface. The root collar of the tree should be at surface level. Mix in the last portion of the soil any complex fertilizer, for example, "Universal Ideal".
Growing apple trees is a long-term and responsible process. No matter what time of year you plant a tree, you need to start caring for it from its first spring, and we will tell you what measures are necessary to ensure that your seedling is guaranteed to turn into a strong healthy tree, which in the future will cope with any problems on its own. ... Proper planting and caring for an apple tree in the first year of life is very important, because the health and productivity of the tree depends on them for many years. After planting, shorten the stem of the apple tree by two to three buds to stimulate the growth of the side shoots.
If your seedling has already formed skeletal branches, check if they are longer than the central shoot, and if longer, then shorten them. For the first five to six weeks after planting, pour a bucket of water under the seedling weekly, unless it rains throughout the spring. Then the interval between watering is increased to two to three weeks, although in extreme heat it will be necessary to water the apple tree twice a week. The amount of water poured under the apple tree at a time is increased to two or three buckets.
And be sure to mulch the near-trunk area with compost, vermicompost, chicken droppings or rotted manure, and on top of the organic layer put a layer of dry grass or straw 5 cm thick.Under such a shelter, ideal conditions are created for the life of earthworms, which loosen and fertilize the soil to that depth where the roots of the apple tree feed. This makes the soil light and fertile, in addition, mulch inhibits the growth of weeds, and you do not have to endlessly wield a hoe.
If flowers appear on the seedling, cut them off this year and next, as flowering depletes the weak strength of the young plant. In May, make two foliar feeding of the seedling with a solution of sodium humate or Effekton: dilute a tablespoon of the preparation in ten liters of water and spray the leaves of the apple tree. One tree will take about two liters of solution.
When the rhythm of watering is established, you can switch to other things, since until the very fall, caring for a seedling will only consist of regular watering and protection from pests. As a preventive measure, so as not to resort to the use of chemicals in the event of the occupation of a young tree by harmful insects, you can attract birds to the garden. Arrange feeders and titmouses in the trees so that the birds know that there is food waiting for them. They will fly in and peck pests from your trees.
If, for any reason, pests do appear on the apple tree, there is no point in using poisonous chemicals: while the tree is small and there are few leaves on it, collect the pests with your hands and destroy them.
If the heat comes, then you can water the tree by sprinkling. This should be done in the evening: in the bright sun, a drop can cause burns.
In order to provide air access to the roots, make punctures in the soil 30-40 cm deep in several places around the apple tree at a distance of 60 cm from the trunk.
In June, two more feeding of the young apple tree should be done on the leaves with a solution of sodium humate or Effekton. In July, sprinkle a couple of glasses of ash in the circle near the trunk before the next watering.
In autumn, trees are spud up to a height of 15-20 cm, the trunk circle is mulched with humus, peat or compost, and the trunks of young trees are whitewashed with a solution of chalk. If rodents are rampant in your area in winter, for which the bark of the apple tree is a delicacy, tie the trunks of young trees with spruce branches or reeds so that the hares do not get to the bark. How to feed an apple tree before a long winter? In the first year of life, an apple tree does not need autumn feeding - it has enough organic matter in mulch.
Removing pests from mature trees is a laborious and time-consuming process, therefore it is necessary to apply preventive treatments of garden trees and shrubs from diseases and pests. This should be done in early spring, before the sap flow begins, at an air temperature of at least 5 ºC: 700 g of urea is dissolved in ten liters of water and trees are abundantly sprayed with this solution, as a result of which pests and pathogens that winter under the tree or in its bark die. Instead of urea, you can use a 3% nitrafen solution, a 5% iron solution, or a 3% solution of copper sulfate.
but before processing the apple tree, make sure her kidneys are not awakened, as if they are already swollen, the treatment could burn them. The second preventive treatment against pests (aphids, ticks and caterpillars) is carried out after flowering with a ten percent solution of karbofos, actellik or other insecticides. Trees are treated with copper-containing preparations against fungal diseases. The third, autumn prophylactic spraying of trees with a 5% urea solution is carried out after harvesting, but before the beginning of leaf fall.
Mature apple trees also need fertilization, just like young trees.
The first feeding of adult trees is done at the end of April: organic fertilizers, for example, five or six buckets of humus and half a kilogram of urea are scattered around the trunk circle as mulch.
The second feeding is carried out before the flowering of apple trees, and if it is hot, then it is better to apply fertilizers in liquid form. For example: 800 g of potassium sulfate, a kilogram of superphosphate and a bottle of concentrated liquid Effekton fertilizer are added to a 200-liter barrel of water. The solution is thoroughly mixed and infused for a week. Consumption - 40-50 liters per tree. First, the apple trees are watered with water, and then liquid fertilizing is applied in a circle, stepping back from the trunk by 60 cm. After fertilizing, it is necessary to water the apple trees again.
The third dressing is applied during the period of fruit loading. In a two-hundred-liter barrel, 20 g of sodium humate and a kilogram of nitrophosphate are diluted with water, thoroughly stir and water the pre-moistened soil, stepping back from the trunk all the same 60 cm. Consumption of the solution is three buckets for each tree.
The fourth feeding is carried out in the fall, when all the apples have already been harvested. Since autumn is the rainy season, top dressing is applied dry: 300 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate are poured under each apple tree. If autumn is dry, it is better to dissolve fertilizers and apply on wet soil.
In addition to root dressings, it makes sense to apply for adult apple trees and foliar. Urea solution is used as fertilizer (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water). The urea solution moistens not only the leaves, but also the trunk and all the skeletal branches of the tree. The first spraying is done before flowering, and two more after flowering, with an interval of 20 days.This top dressing not only feeds the apple tree, it destroys pests in the near-trunk circle, on the leaves and bark of the tree.
Good results are obtained by foliar feeding with Kemira, since this complex composition contains the necessary microelements for the apple tree: zinc, manganese, copper, boron, magnesium, molybdenum and others. Enough two dressings with an interval of two weeks during the pouring of the fruit.
For the first five years, the trunks of young apple trees are whitened in the fall with a solution of chalk and the trunks are tied with spruce branches or reeds, protecting them from hungry rodents. In older trees, the trunks and skeletal branches are covered with a lime solution consisting of 10 liters of water, in which 3 kg of fresh lime, a kilogram of clay, 500 g of copper sulfate and 100 g of heated wood glue are dissolved. If you are afraid that rodents can get to adult trees, tie them with reeds or spruce branches.
You need to protect trees until their bark is so coarse that hares, mice and rats will not be afraid of it. All trees are spud up to a height of 15-20 cm, and the trunk circles are mulched with manure, which in no case should come into contact with the tree trunk. Trample down snow or soil more often during the winter.
Caring for an apple tree involves the formation of the crown of a tree, work on which is carried out annually. The correct formation of the apple tree stimulates earlier ripening of the tree to fruiting, large yields, long life and good winter hardiness. Trees are pruned in spring and autumn. Apple trees are not pruned in summer, because at this time the sap inside the plant circulates with maximum force. The first pruning of an apple tree seedling is carried out in early spring, before the start of sap flow, a year after planting.
Young thin branches are cut with pruning shears, those that are thicker have to be cut down. Pruning tools must be sharp, or you risk loosening the bark and wood, and the wound will take longer to heal. Cuts of branches are treated with garden varnish, having previously disinfected them with a solution of copper sulfate and lime in a ratio of 1:10, however, you should know that an old, dry branch of an apple tree is processed with varnish immediately, and a young one only after a day.
After you shortened the main shoot during planting, the young apple tree is not cut for two or three years, only dry and broken shoots are removed. Then, when the apple tree is overgrown with a sufficient number of branches, they are shortened by an average of two-thirds of the length, while the buds on the remaining branches should not look deep into the crown. Leave those branches whose buds are on the outside, remove the rest so that they do not thicken the crown.
In the spring, the gardener's task is to prepare the trees for the growing season. The apple tree in the spring needs sanitary and formative pruning: it is necessary to thin out the crown in order to saturate it with sunlight and air, cut off the ends of branches frozen over the winter, remove diseased and broken shoots. In addition, spring pruning is good because at this time all wounds on the tree heal faster.
Remove branches growing into the crown as well as branches running parallel to the growing branch. Pruning branches are subject to touching or intertwined, and if you need to choose between them, preference is given to the younger one. All knots on the trunk or at the base of branches, as well as broken or cracked branches must be removed.
The crown of the apple tree is formed until the age of five, and if you did everything correctly, then by this time half of the branches on the tree will be mature and ready to start bearing. A five-year-old apple tree with a well-formed crown no longer needs props.
The apple tree in August is still full of circulating juice, but in September, October and November it can already be pruned, if severe frosts are not predicted in the near future. Autumn pruning of young apple trees consists in a slight shortening of the shoots that have grown over the summer. For trees over five years old, to stimulate active fruiting, medium pruning is done, shortening strong shoots by a third of the length.
With a weak annual growth, strong pruning is needed. A strong growth is an increase in the length of branches per season up to 70-100 cm, an average growth - up to 30-70 cm, a weak growth - less than 30 cm. Pruning an apple tree in autumn also involves the removal of all dry, too weak, broken shoots growing inside the crown. as well as those that extend from the skeletal branch or from the trunk at an acute angle.
If you need to remove the whole branch, cut it first to the first bud from the trunk, and then saw off the remaining stump from the base towards the top with a fine-toothed saw - not vice versa, but treat the resulting cut with garden pitch. Try to choose a dry, calm, cloudy day for pruning, or even better, refer to the lunar calendar, which will tell you which day is favorable for a particular type of garden work.
The apple tree is propagated in a variety of ways. For example, seed. True, this is not done by amateur gardeners, but by professional breeders in nurseries growing new varieties. In amateur gardening, vegetative propagation methods are used - cuttings, propagation by layering, as well as grafting.
Seedlings from root cuttings are grown mainly for use as a rootstock, however, it is possible to obtain own-rooted seedlings of varietal trees from them, provided that the mother plant is also rooted, otherwise the derived specimen will not receive the characteristics of a varietal scion, but a plant used as a rootstock.
Harvesting of roots for grafting is carried out in the spring, before the buds swell, or at the end of the growing season. Sections 18-20 cm long cut from root cuttings in spring are planted in furrows at a distance of 30 cm from each other, deepening the cut by 2-3 cm, the site is mulched with a five-centimeter layer of humus. The row spacing is about one meter. The cuttings are watered regularly. Until autumn, strong seedlings grow out of them, which are ready for transplantation to a permanent place.
This is the most effective way to propagate an apple tree. Since it is impossible to dig in a branch of an adult tree, the rooting of the cuttings occurs in the air. So:
Apple trees can be propagated by budding - grafting a cultivated apple eye on the root of the wild. A T-shaped incision is made on the rootstock just above the root collar with a sharp knife, the edges of the dissected bark are carefully turned off, exposing the wood. A kidney cut from a varietal cutting with a surrounding bark, a petiole about one and a half centimeters long and a thin layer of wood is inserted into the incision under the bark. The bent bark of the incision is pressed against the kidney and the inoculation site is tightly wrapped with a damp cloth or washcloth so that the kidney itself with a piece of the petiole remains open. After two weeks, check if the peephole has taken root well: with successful budding, the peephole will be green and fresh.
The best time for vaccination is autumn - about 80% of the eyes take root successfully, while the results of vaccinations carried out in the spring time are much more modest - only 10% survival rate. Budding is carried out in the morning or in the evening of a calm clear day.
Diseases in an apple tree in the garden are the same as in a pear, although if the disease affects any of these trees, and you have no time, and you postpone the treatment of the apple tree for later, quince may get sick over time, and then the disease will spread to other fruit trees trees such as plum, sweet cherry, cherry. If you take proper care of your garden, fulfill all agrotechnical requirements on time, then almost certainly nothing threatens the health of your trees, but if the disease still starts, it is better to know what disease you are dealing with and how to deal with it faster.
So, diseases of apple trees that you may encounter: proliferation of apple trees (witch's broom), bitter and fruit rot, milky shine, mosaic disease, mosaic ringing, fly beetle, powdery mildew, real mulberry, common cancer, black cancer, dying off of branches, scab , subcutaneous viral spotting, rubberiness, rust, flattening of branches, vitreousness of fruits, cytosporosis, black spot.
Each disease has its own symptoms: one affects the leaves of the apple tree, and they turn yellow and fall off, the other destroys the bark and wood, which causes the apple tree to dry out and die. Sometimes, due to some disease, a fruiting apple tree suddenly drops unripe fruits. Most of the diseases are fungal in nature, at an early stage these diseases are successfully treated with fungicides (Karbofos, Bordeaux liquid, Nitrafen).
Unfortunately, there are no drugs against viral diseases; it is also difficult to treat trees affected by mycoplasma-like organisms. And in any case, it is easier to avoid infection than to try to get rid of the disease later. Good results in the prevention of diseases are obtained by the preventive treatment of fruit trees, which we wrote about in the corresponding section.
We will tell you in detail about the symptoms of diseases and ways to get rid of them in a separate article.
The apple tree has no fewer enemies among insects than diseases, so the topic of apple pests will be included in a separate article, but now we suggest you get to know in general terms the insects that affect not only the apple tree, but also other fruit trees.
So, the pests of apple trees include hawthorn moth, brown fruit mite, hawthorn; apple, rowan, fruit, fruit striped and top-sided fruit moth; apple blossom beetle, oriental and apple moth, pear sawfly and tube-worm, oak-leaved silkworm, sapwood, western unpaired bark beetle, winter moth; green apple, plantain, red-gall and blood aphids; goose, ringed and unpaired silkworms, apple mites, miner moths, apple and common pear saplings; currant, fruit and subcrustal leaf rollers; apple moth, leafworm, peppered moth, bluehead scoop, apple comma-shaped scale, apple glass, apple sawfly.
Here is such an army of pests ready to pounce on your apple tree as soon as you relax your guard and begin to neglect care measures. The garden requires patience and work, as well as strict and systematic observance of agrotechnical requirements, one of which is regular preventive treatment of trees from pests. If the rules of caring for fruit trees are meticulously followed, insect pests will not have the slightest chance to get well in your garden.
There are a great many varieties of domestic apple trees - according to various sources, from twenty-five to thirty-five thousand, but the work of breeders on the development of new varieties continues. For those who want to grow an apple tree in their garden and do not know which variety to prefer, we offer a short classification of varieties, among which you will choose the best one for yourself, because the best apple tree is the one that grows and bears fruit in your garden for decades, delighting you, your children and grandchildren with their fruits.
Depending on the timing of consumption, apple varieties are divided into summer, autumn and winter. Summer, in turn, are divided into early summer and summer proper, autumn - into early autumn, autumn and late autumn, winter - into early winter, winter and late winter. Summer varieties ripen early, but they cannot be stored. Winter varieties can be stored in proper conditions until next spring. It is interesting that the same variety, depending on the area in which it is grown, can be winter, if it grows, for example, in the Moscow region, and summer, if it is grown in the Crimea.
Ideally, apple varieties growing in your garden should be selected in such a way that one of the early-ripening summer varieties, one of the autumn varieties and one of the winter varieties of apple trees are present on the site. It is necessary to select varieties in such a way that they mutually pollinate each other. For example, a winter apple variety planted next to an autumn apple tree will mutually re-pollinate, since the flowering times of these varieties overlap. But summer and winter varieties bloom at different times and cross-pollination between them is problematic.
When choosing a variety, it should also be borne in mind that the apple tree is large, and if you do not have a spacious area, you need to choose a seedling from those varieties that do not take up much space, for example, from columnar or dwarf bushy ones.
In apple trees of these varieties of Moscow selection, side branches are absent, they grow into one trunk vertically upward, reaching a height of 2.5-3 m and densely overgrown with fruit formations along the trunk - twigs, ringlets, spears. The main advantage of these varieties is that they begin to bear fruit very early - in some cases even in the year of planting, although more often abundant fruiting begins in the second or third year.
In addition, it is much more comfortable to look after a tree without branches and without twigs - due to the lack of a large crown, pruning of these apple trees is completely easy, as well as pest control, foliar dressing and harvesting. The disadvantage of these varieties can be called individual cases of poor fruiting or its complete absence, although the reason for all examples was unsatisfactory tree care.
Of the early summer varieties of columnar apple trees, Dialog and Vasyugan have proven themselves well. Among the autumn varieties, Medok, Malyukha and President are the most famous, and winter varieties are represented by Currency and Moscow Necklace.
Apple trees grafted onto a dwarf rootstock are called dwarf trees. Countries that grow apples on an industrial scale have long abandoned vigorous apple trees with a spreading crown, which take up too much space. The advantage of dwarf varieties is in their compactness and, accordingly, in a greater number of fruits harvested from a unit area.
Unlike vigorous varieties, which take five to seven years to reach maturity, dwarf apple trees begin to bear fruit fully two years after planting. It is much easier to care for short trees, it is easier to harvest from them, in addition, the root system of dwarf apple trees allows them to be grown even in places with a high groundwater table. True, the period of active fruiting in dwarf apple trees is a little shorter - only 20-30 years versus 35-40 years for vigorous varieties, but based on the number of apple trees per unit area of the garden, dwarfs give much more fruits in their life than their tall competitors.
From the most summer varieties, the varieties Letnee Polosatoye, Grushovka Moskovskaya, Mantet became popular, from the autumn ones - Orlovskoye Polosatoye, Uralskoye Nalivnoye, Spartak. Orenburgskoe Krasnoe and Kutuzovets are considered the best winter varieties of dwarf apple trees.
Growing an apple tree in a warm area with mild winters is not so difficult.But what about gardeners living in the middle lane, what varieties of apple trees can tolerate the cold winters near Moscow without painful consequences? In this matter, as I.V. Michurin, the variety decides the success of the business. So, what varieties can be grown in the climatic conditions of the Moscow region?
Of summer varieties suitable winter-hardy Candy, high-yielding Medunitsa, varieties of Canadian breeding dwarf Mantet and the Melba apple tree.
Autumn varieties: Autumn Striped, Cinnamon Striped, Cinnamon New, Zhigulevskoe.
Winter varieties: Antonovka Ordinary, Bogatyr, Zvezdochka, Pepin Shafranny, Moscow Winter, Student.
Early varieties of apple trees include early summer and summer varieties, the most popular of which are:
In addition to those described, the varieties Borovinka, Grushovka Moskovskaya, Kitayka Zolotaya, Belfleur-Kitayka, Candy, Dream, Super Prekos, Mironchik, Early Sladkoe and others are popular in culture.
These include early autumn, autumn and late autumn varieties, the most famous of which are:
There are also known varieties such as Ural Nalivnoe, Uralets, September, Tambov, Riga Golubok, Autumn Striped, Krasa Sverdlovsk, Orlovskaya Garland, Cinnamon Striped, Zhigulevskoe, Baltika, Bessemyanka, Michurinskaya, Anis Sverdlovsky and Anis Polosaty.
Late varieties of apple trees include early winter, winter and late winter varieties, for example:
The winter varieties also include apple trees of the varieties Martovskoe, Vityaz, Antonovka Obyknovennaya, Aport, Bezhin Lug, Bogatyr, Bratchud, Veteran, Vishnevoe, Zvezdochka, Imrus, Izumitelnoe, Karlikovoe, Kutuzovets, Moskovskoe Krasnoe, Moskovskoe Pozdneye, Orlikst, Pipinskoe, Svezhe Orlovsky, North Sinap and many other wonderful varieties.
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Pink (Rosaceae) Fruit trees Honey plants Plants on Ya Apple tree
Apple varieties for Siberia, photos and characteristics of small-fruited, semi-cultivated and large-fruited varieties for planting in Siberia, cultivation features
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It is required to artificially form the crown, otherwise lateral growth will quickly form on the plant, which turns the Royalty apple tree into a shrub.
The plant grows slowly. At the age of 10, the height rarely exceeds 4 meters. It grows to a maximum of 6 meters.
In the first few years, the crown grows slightly, therefore it is very compact in appearance. There are varieties:
In the early years, the growth is insignificant, therefore the plant is compact. After 3 years, the tree builds up a strong root mass and proceeds to the growth of the aerial part. The annual growth of the Royalties is a maximum of 40 centimeters. Depends on growing conditions and plant variety. A slight increase helps to maintain the unity of the compositions for a long time.
The foliage does not crumble for a long time. Therefore, the plant stands out for a long time with a bright color among the gray autumn garden.
If the groundwater is deep, then the tree tolerates severe frosts down to -35 ° C. In a particularly windy winter, flower buds can freeze.
The Royalty apple tree has good disease resistance. In the presence of foci of fungal infections in the garden on fruit trees, it is necessary to carry out prevention in order to prevent the spread of the disease and not to spoil the appearance of the apple tree. The culture is prophylactically treated simultaneously with other apple trees.
Before planting an apple tree, choose a suitable place. The main condition is good illumination of the site with sunlight. Culture does not develop well in the shade.
The soil needs nutritious and enriched. The acidic environment is not suitable for growing. To reduce the acidity of the soil, it is treated with dolomite flour or lime. One of the substances is introduced into the soil during the digging process.
Planting pits are prepared in a month or even two. The pit should be up to 1 meter wide and up to 70 - 80 meters deep. Soil mixed with manure is introduced at the rate of 20 liters per plant. Be sure to add superphosphate and wood ash (1 kg). The pit is filled in such a way that it has a slight elevation above the ground. Should look like a mound.
When planting plants, it is worth remembering that apple trees do not like shade.
Therefore, the distance is clearly observed:
Keeping the distance contributes to the full formation and growth of the plant.
Only young seedlings are transplanted, the grown trees in a new place take root with difficulty. All forms of Kitayka require the same care. They need watering, feeding, pruning. For the prevention of diseases, the trunk circle is kept clean, loosened.
The soil should not be waterlogged, the required depth of groundwater is at least 2.5 m. The pits for planting are prepared in advance. Parameters: diameter up to 100 cm, depth 80 cm, the distance to the nearest tree is at least 6 meters, the crown of an adult Chinese woman is wide.
Before filling, it is required to add superphosphate to the composition at the rate specified in the instructions for the product. The time for planting is spring, until the buds have blossomed, or autumn - no later than mid-October. Seedlings for planting are taken 2 or 3 years old.
For the first 2 years, Kitayka is not fed, the seedling has enough fertilizers laid during planting. This rule does not apply to depleted (non-fertile) soils. After 2 years, feeding should be done annually. In the first half of summer, nitrogen predominates in the composition of the fertilizer mixture, in the second - phosphorus and potassium.
The last time phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is applied after barrier watering (before the first frosts). With proper fertilization, apple trees winter better, bear fruit abundantly every year, and do not get sick.
Young trees are prepared for wintering. To protect the trunk, old newspapers and spruce branches are used. The roots are protected from freezing with a layer of mulch (peat, humus, rotted sawdust), which is removed with the arrival of spring.
To combat diseases and pests, preventive treatments with fungicides are carried out.
|Copper sulfate 1%||Before the kidneys swell||From rot, fungi, mechanical damage on the bark|
|"Nitrofen"||Before the kidneys swell||Powdery mildew, pest larvae|
|Urea||Before the kidneys swell||Scab, powdery mildew, aphids, weevil|
|Copper sulphate||Before flowering (buds open)||For regeneration of the bark, control of pest larvae|
|Bordeaux liquid 3%||Before flowering (buds open)||From pests and diseases|
|Colloidal sulfur||Before flowering (buds open)||For fungal infections and ticks|
|"Karbofos"||20 days after flowering||From aphids, weevils, moths, leafworms|
Shoots of certain varieties of Kitayka form sharp forks that break under the weight of the crop or a layer of snow. The crowns of such trees must be formed, shoots:
The crown begins to be dealt with when the seedling reaches 2 years of age:
The guide is shortened to 80 cm. Two types of trimming are practiced. To the outer bud - to expand the crown. On the inner bud - to strengthen the center and raise the shoot. Throughout the life of the apple tree, the crown density is monitored, excess shoots are cut out, and sanitary pruning is the removal of frost-beaten, dry and broken branches by bad weather.
Apple trees are propagated in two ways. The first option is seeds, the second is grafting. For spring sowing, seeds are stratified from December to spring. Freshly harvested planting material is sown in early autumn. For planting in late autumn, seeds are stratified from 1 to 2 months.
Apples of different varieties of Kitayka ripen from mid-summer to mid-September. When choosing a seedling for your garden, you must take into account the peculiarity of this type of apple trees.
The period of the beginning of fruiting
Some varieties begin to bear fruit early, from the year of planting to the appearance of the first fruits, it takes 5 to 6 years. The harvest of other forms takes a long time. Many slimy varieties give first fruits at the age of 8-9 years.
The massive apple harvest takes place from August to the end of September. There are not enough scummers. The keeping quality of Kitayka's apple trees is different. Belfleur retains its commercial and consumer properties for the longest time. After removal, the fruits lie for 4 months, the transportation is well tolerated.
The crop is stored in plastic boxes, wood or baskets. Optimum storage temperature + 2… + 4 ° C. In the absence of a cellar, the fruits are kept in the refrigerator, the undamaged ones are selected, if there is damage on the skin, they are allowed to process.
The fruits are rich in vitamins. They serve as an excellent prevention of hypertension: they strengthen the walls of blood vessels, stimulate blood circulation. The most delicious apples grow on Dessert Kitayka. The variety is also very productive. Up to 70 kg of fruits are removed from one tree.
The Dolgo apples have a good wine-sweet taste. They are fragrant, stored very little, the jam made from them has a unique taste. Apples of the following varieties are suitable for long-term storage:
Summer varieties of apples are not stored for a long time, but their plus is early fruiting. Eating fresh fruits from your garden helps your body replenish missing nutrients. For lovers of homemade wine, preserves, jams, summer varieties of Chinese do not let them get bored, they give a lot of raw materials for blanks.
The Melba apple tree was bred by the efforts of Canadian breeders in 1898 from seedlings obtained by pollination of the Mekintosh variety. She received the name in honor of the Australian opera singer with a unique soprano, Nelly Melba. Included in the State Register in 1947, zoned in all regions of Russia, except for the Northern, Far Eastern and Ural regions.
The variety took part in the selection of more than 20 apple trees, including very similar ones, with greater frost resistance Daughter of Melba and Melba Red.
Melba forms a medium-sized plant with a beautiful rounded crown. Young shoots are glossy, cherry, eventually covered with light brown bark.
The height of the tree depends on the rootstock, usually no more than 4 meters. The older Melba is, the thicker the trunk becomes, and the crown becomes wider. In an old apple tree, its diameter can reach 7 meters; branches that have sank under the weight of the harvest need props. Leaves are light green, oblong-oval. They have a sharp tip and crenate, slightly curved edges.
The closed buds of the Melba apple tree are very decorative, the color is dominated by pink with a purple tint, which is confirmed by numerous photos and descriptions. Fully open flowers are large, with closely spaced white-pink round petals.
On one tree, apples of a round-conical and slightly flattened shape at the poles, with a thickening at the base, can ripen. The surface of Melba fruits is slightly ribbed, the skin is smooth, with a waxy bloom and not too noticeable small white dots. The main color is salad, integumentary - red stripes for half an apple, more and more pronounced and bright as it ripens.
The pulp of the Melba variety is tender, juicy, sweet and sour, white, with full ripeness, sometimes pink veins appear. The aroma is strong, candy.
The weight of apples depends on the care and load of the tree:
Melba apples are eaten fresh, used for processing, including juices, jams. Ripe fruits lie for 2-3 weeks in normal room conditions. When stored in a cool basement or refrigerator, they lie until November, and if you are lucky, they will not lose their consumer qualities at the beginning of January.
The variety withstands transportation well.
The Melba apple tree is partially self-fertile. This means that if there are no other varieties growing nearby, it will give from 5 to 20% of the possible yield. Top pollinators:
The plant is characterized by a mixed type of fruiting. In mature trees, most of the apples ripen on ringlets.
Melba is a late summer ripening variety. Most regions are harvested in August. Apple tree seedlings begin to bear fruit 4-5 years after planting. The first flowers appear earlier, but they must be removed, otherwise this will negatively affect the health of the tree.
Until the age of 12, the Melba variety yields a crop annually, then it becomes prone to periodicity of fruiting. Productivity depends on the rootstock, therefore, the height and spreading of the plant. But other factors also matter:
From an adult tree with a height of about 3 m, 150-200 kg of fruits are harvested in a good season. When growing an apple tree on a dwarf rootstock - about 85 kg.
Frost resistance and winter hardiness of the variety are average. In a particularly harsh winter in the middle lane, the tree can freeze slightly, in all regions it suffers from bark burns. Therefore, in the fall, the trunk must be whitewashed.
The Melba apple tree should be watered in hot dry summers. The plant is in great need of moisture during flowering and fruit formation.
The Red Melba variety, the photo of which shows a uniform blush covering almost the entire apple, is more frost-resistant than the mother variety.
Medium resistant to scab and powdery mildew. Melba takes significant damage from the Venturia inaegualis mushroom periodically. It suffers from insects in the same way as other apple trees, especially strongly during the years of epizootics.
Preventive treatments for pests and diseases are required. Otherwise, you can lose a significant part of the harvest, the marketability of the rest of the fruits decreases.
Gypsophila is propagated in 2 ways:
A way to arrange early flowering is by sowing seeds in open ground in the fall, in September. It should be used only in warm regions of the country. After the emergence of seedlings when sowing into the ground, the seedlings are thinned out - they break through, leaving the plants at a distance of 10-15 cm. For small varieties, the distance is 10 cm. When sowing directly into the ground, seedlings should appear in about 2 weeks.
In a cool area, it is advisable to propagate heliotrope by sowing seeds for seedlings or in heated greenhouses about 6 weeks before planting in the ground. Seedlings are planted in a permanent place in spring or summer.
The seeds are rather small (2000 pieces - in 1 gram) and the seedlings are small. Do not be patient - it is better to plant in bunches, like lobelia. The seeds retain the ability to germinate for 2 years.
Sowing, growing gypsophila seedlings:
The perennial grows in width, therefore it requires space. The correct planting distance is 50-70 cm.
Gypsophila paniculata propagates by cuttings 5–9 cm long, which can be cut all year round. Before being placed in a substrate - perlite or a mixture of perlite and peat (1: 1) - the cuttings are treated with a rooting stimulator. The recommended rooting temperature is 18–20 ° C. Cuttings take root for a long time, not all are accepted.
Japanese wisteria is so rich and beautiful that other plants lose out in its company. There is practically no place where the plant cannot be used. It is important to remember the severity of the shoots. A gazebo made of inch pipes can bend under the weight of vine shoots.
Liana is large - casts a fairly large shadow. Hosta can be a good company for her - a unique plant that is considered the queen of shady nooks of the garden. Hosta is decorative with leaves, so it will look great against the background of dense wisteria flowers.
Bulbous plants that bloom in summer will be an interesting company for the vine. They will delight with flowers and will look beautiful against the background of green wisteria leaves. For example:
There are many plants that wisterias should not be combined with. She is so attractive that other vines will disappear next to her. Moreover, in the literal and figurative sense, because wisteria is very expansive and takes a place, so even kampsis or honeysuckle will be suppressed.