People have long known and revered raspberries. In Russia, this berry became known in the XII century and became widespread. There are more than 600 varieties of raspberries in the world. It is grown in 37 countries, on an industrial scale and in the private sector. In order to feast on sweet aromatic berries in summer and autumn, you need to pay attention to raspberries from the first warm days.
A good harvest of raspberries is not so much a gift from nature as the painstaking work of a gardener. Even very high yielding varieties can produce poor fruit if they are not properly taken care of or taken care of on time. Learn basic farming techniques to grow sweet, juicy raspberries.
The main care for raspberries in spring begins in March and comes down to the following procedures:
In early March, you should carefully scoop up the remains of leaves and debris at the base of the bushes. This waste must be incinerated as it may contain harmful insects and microorganisms. Then you should make a hot shower with raspberries to destroy harmful microorganisms.
For the procedure you need:
This procedure is not only harmless, but also very beneficial for raspberries. Hot water does not have time to burn the sleeping raspberry buds, as it cools down to 70 degrees (until it reaches the bushes). A hot shower is a great way to kill a nematode that sometimes defies even the most powerful chemicals.
On average, 1 watering can of hot water is enough to process 2–4 bushes. If the raspberry bushes are large (10-15 branches), then 5 liters of water are consumed per 2 bushes.
After a hot shower, as soon as a positive temperature is established, the top layer of the soil dries up, the raspberry bushes are cut and shaped. Regardless of the method of planting raspberries, it is more practical to prune in 2 stages: in early spring and later, when a constant temperature is established above 5 degrees Celsius.
Dry shoots, markedly different in color from young ones, are cut off at the base with a sharp pruner
At the first stage, weak shoots are removed near the ground, which have fertile, crooked, thickening branches and stems with bulges at the base (gall midge larvae overwinter there). Thin the remaining stems, leaving 6–8 stems during bush formation, and up to 15–20 stems per linear meter of area with tape (trench) planting. Thickening will lead to a decrease in yield and shrinking of berries.
It is necessary to cut out completely frozen, broken, underdeveloped and pest-damaged stems and burn them.
The raspberry shoot, in which the stem gall midge overwintered, has a thickening
It is necessary to cut off with a sharp secateurs the damaged areas near the frozen stems to the upper living bud. In young healthy bushes up to 20 cm, the tops are cut off. This pinching will allow the lateral shoots to grow.
Scheme of spring pruning of raspberry bushes
When caring for raspberries after winter, gardeners should avoid digging up the soil between the rows so as not to damage the roots, the depth of which does not exceed 30 centimeters. Digging up row spacings is permissible only in autumn.
In spring, the soil in the raspberry tree is mulched, that is, it is covered with a thick (up to 15 cm) layer of mulch. As a mulching material, you can use:
The mulching process should be preceded by a procedure of deep (up to 10 centimeters) loosening and abundant watering.
Mulching prevents the depletion of the substrate, contributes to the long-term preservation of moisture under the bushes and the supply of the root system with a rich complex of nutrients. The mulching method is contraindicated only in relation to very wet soils: it is enough to loosen them and apply fertilizers.
The raspberry root system tends to grow, capturing large areas. To prevent this process, it is necessary to make a raspberry fence. To do this, it is enough to dig in a strip of galvanized iron or sheet metal around its entire perimeter (the width of the strip should be at least twenty centimeters). Thanks to this barrier, the raspberry tree will remain in place.
An equally important point is the correct garter of raspberry vines. This is especially true for varieties that bend under the weight of their own fruits. The procedure will help:
When bush formation of raspberries, a stake is driven in between 2 bushes and from each to a stake, half of the bush is tied (separately each stem). With this method, the garter uses step pruning. Each stem is cut to a different height - 10-15-20 cm.
The easiest, most economical and affordable way to tie a raspberry garter is a cola
The most popular type of support is trellis. How to carry out the garter correctly:
Pillars with a height of 2.2-2.3 meters are dug in with a step of 3.5-4.5 meters, a wire is stretched between them at a height of 0.75, 1 and 1.6 meters
Among the varieties that do not require a garter are:
Raspberries are very sensitive to moisture supply, but there is no strict irrigation schedule. They are carried out according to the condition of the raspberry tree and weather conditions. Especially frequent and sufficient watering is necessary for raspberries during flowering and ovary formation. With a lack of water, the berries are small, dry, bony. Watering is carried out along the furrows. The soil should be saturated with water up to 10-15 cm of the layer. At the end of watering, mulching is required.
After pruning, it is necessary to weed and loosen the soil, feed the plants and treat them from pests. Early spring is the best period for applying nitrogen fertilizers to the soil. They are brought in after the snow melts before loosening the soil. Nitrogen increases yields and causes the growth and development of powerful shoots, but they should not be applied in excess of the norm.
Nitrogen fertilizers are applied to freshly thawed and not yet loosened soil, barely free of snow
I scatter urea or ammonium nitrate on the ground up to 15 grams per 1 sq. m. (this is 1 matchbox). Together with nitrogen fertilizer, I introduce ash, which also deacidifies the soil.
To prevent viral and fungal diseases, before bud break, I treat the bushes and the soil surface under them with a 1% solution of copper oxychloride or use a 3% Bordeaux mixture.
During the budding period, I begin to fight pests: aphids, ticks, raspberry kidney moth. I process the bushes with Fufanon at the rate of 2 liters of solution for 10 bushes. I also use folk remedies. To protect plants from weevil larvae, I dissolve 5 tablespoons of mustard powder in 10 liters of water, leave for 10-12 hours and spray the bushes with this composition.
The norms of mineral fertilizers range from 60–80 g / sq. m
When caring for raspberries, it is important to prevent the soil from drying out, therefore, in the spring, the ground under the bushes is mulched with straw, peat or sawdust up to a layer of 20 cm. You can also use black spunbond for this. In addition to retaining moisture in the soil, such a simple operation allows:
Raspberry bushes are mulched with organic fertilizers: straw manure, humus or peat compost
In raspberries, fruiting occurs in the second year, and in the first - the shoots only grow. Young growth also needs to be cut for the correct formation of the bush, cut out excess shoots in order to provide the bush with normal air exchange, a sufficient amount of light and nutrition in the future.
With the bush method of planting raspberries, I cut off young shoots of the first year with pruning shears to a height of 40-50 cm, and in the bush I leave 5-6 of the largest and healthiest shoots of last year. My pruner is always sharp, treated with a solution of potassium permanganate to prevent infection from entering the sections.
As for the remontant varieties, the berries on them are obtained on young shoots of the first year in the fall. If before winter it was not possible to cut the aboveground part at soil level and you want to get only one, but a large harvest, then in the spring, before the beginning of the growing season, all the stems must be removed. When the shoots grow 30–40 cm, normalization is carried out - only 5–6 of the most developed shoots are left per bush. Pinching, or pinching of green shoots, is not done in remontant varieties.
Yellow raspberries are a godsend for people with allergies to red fruits. The varieties of yellow raspberries are very diverse. But in the cultivation of yellow and red raspberries, there are no significant differences.
Yellow raspberry is an incredibly hardy bush, characterized by low whimsicality and increased endurance.
The fruits of black raspberries are medicinal, their anticarcinogenic effect has been proven. The choice of a place for planting, soil composition, feeding, protection from pests and diseases will be the same as for red raspberries. However, there are also differences:
The Cumberland raspberry is a hybrid of raspberries and blackberries
For black raspberries in the spring, it is important to form the bushes correctly. After the growth of young annual shoots up to 0.5 m, we cut off their tops by 10 cm, then by autumn they will form into tall shoots. Last year's weak branches are cut to the ground, and strong ones should be shortened, leaving only 4–5 buds.
Due to its unpretentiousness, raspberries grow in various climatic conditions. The work done by the breeders has shown the world great winter-hardy, resistant, productive hybrids. And yet it is better to select zoned varieties and hybrids of raspberries for growing.
The climate on the territory of Belarus is moderately continental, with relatively small temperature ranges, which makes it possible not to bend raspberry bushes for the winter. Therefore, spring work on the care of raspberries can be started immediately with pruning and feeding. The timing of these works differs in 2-3 weeks between the south of the country and the north. So, in the Vitebsk region (the northernmost in Belarus), work with raspberries begins in April, and in the south - in March. In the southern and southeastern regions, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture and, if necessary, water the bushes in early spring. Additions should be made to the feeding of raspberry bushes. The soils of Belarus are insufficiently provided with microelements, especially boron, sulfur and copper. Therefore, trace elements should be added to the spring feeding.
To make up for the lack of micro- and macroelements, I use Zdraven Turbo fertilizer for strawberries and raspberries, which, moreover, does not contain chlorine. In a bucket of water with a volume of 10 liters, I dilute 15 grams of fertilizer and water it 2-3 times a month until flowering. All winter I collect eggshells and in the spring, in a ground form, I mix it with ash. I use this mixture for the first spring fertilizing and for reducing the acidity of the soil. I also use ash to protect raspberries from diseases: I pour 300 grams into 10 liters of water, leave for 5-6 hours and, adding 100 grams of liquid laundry soap, spray the plants.
The climate and conditions of central Russia are great for growing raspberries. Spring plant care in this region does not stand out in anything special and begins in the last days of March.
The climate of Siberia and the Urals is particularly harsh, so spring work in the raspberry-tree begins only in April. Until the night temperature is about zero, and the daytime temperature is from 2 to 8 degrees Celsius, it is not worth opening the bushes after winter. Before the onset of the night temperature above zero, the plants do not unbend, but the soil is already opened so that it warms up and starts feeding the roots. Small-drop spraying of bushes can be carried out, while the plants will be able to better tolerate return frosts. To start the growth of shoots, the plants are covered with black covering material. Waking up raspberries in time is the secret of growing this berry in Siberia and the Urals.
Correctly and on time, by completing all the spring work on caring for raspberries, you will form strong, healthy bushes, get a great harvest and make a contribution to the next year's harvest. Modern medicine considers raspberries to be an elixir of health and longevity, and the excellent taste of berries leaves no one indifferent. Put in some effort in the spring to enjoy the healthy and sweet berries.
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Recently, the remontant raspberry is gaining more and more popularity among amateur gardeners. Such varieties effectively use favorable environmental factors due to the one-year crop formation cycle and the peculiarities of the cultivation technology.
Features. From remontant raspberries, you can harvest two crops per season. Having removed the first harvest on one-year shoots in the second half of August - September, the next year you can get an early harvest in the last decade of June on two-year shoots. It makes sense to grow remontant varieties to obtain two harvests per season only with intensive nutrition and abundant watering of the crop, otherwise the berries will be small and dry. The resulting crop on biennial shoots will weaken the plant and delay the ripening of the second most valuable crop (its value lies in the fact that there are no other fresh berries during this period).
For most amateur gardeners in Belarus, it will be optimal to use remontant raspberries to get one harvest in late summer or early autumn. An important feature of such varieties is the good preservation of berries on the bushes (for example, in the Heritage variety, berries can be harvested once a week without losing the yield from decay). Moreover, remontant raspberries continue to form good berries even after short autumn frosts.
Landing. Rhizomes of remontant raspberries are planted in the spring before the beginning of the growing season or in late autumn. Seedlings with a closed root system are planted from early spring to late autumn. For landing, you must choose an illuminated place, preferably on the south side.Raspberries grow on any soil, but a higher yield and high-quality berries are obtained on light sod-podzolic soils filled with organic matter. 1-2 buckets of humus, 4-5 tablespoons of azofoska or Fertika wagon-2 (for autumn planting - Fertika Autumn) are introduced into the planting pit. The soil with fertilizers must be thoroughly mixed.
Planting pattern: distance between rows 1.5-2.0 m, between plants in a row - 0.7-0.8 m.
Care. It consists in timely feeding, loosening the soil, weeding, watering. Plants grow quickly in spring, in one season they grow shoots that bloom profusely and by autumn give a large harvest of berries. The first feeding of raspberries is carried out in late April - early May. It is advisable to use complex nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. For example: Amofoska or Fertik universal-2 is applied in full at the rate of 80-120 g per 1 m2, or locally for each plant it is better with embedding. During the summer, 1-2 additional fertilizing with complex fertilizers is carried out with the same rate.
At the beginning of September, the last feeding is carried out, which contributes to the formation of the crop and, at the same time, the extinction of growth processes and the preparation of plants for winter. A good result is obtained by the Fertika Autumn complex fertilizer at the rate of 80-120 g per plant. It is advisable to carry out all dressing after watering, immediately before loosening. Loosening of the soil is carried out to a depth of 5-7 cm. In dry periods, raspberries need regular watering, since their root system is located superficially.
To obtain a high yield and larger berries, it is necessary to remove excess replacement shoots and offspring as soon as possible. In the bush of the remontant raspberry, no more than five replacement shoots are left, on which the crop is formed.
Pruning. After picking berries and the onset of stable autumn frosts (the soil should freeze), the aerial part of the remontant raspberry is mowed or cut off. You should not rush to pruning, before the soil freezes from the shoots and leaves, nutrients enter the roots. Extending the supply of nutrients will allow the plants to grow more intensively in the next season. This is a fundamentally new technology: constantly young raspberries are not affected by diseases and pests, so there is no need to use plant protection products, which makes it possible to grow environmentally friendly berries. By completely cutting off the aerial part of the remontant raspberry for the winter, we solve the problem of its winter hardiness. Raspberry rhizomes are highly frost-resistant and, in the presence of snow cover, can withstand frosts down to minus 20-25 ° С.
After a hot shower, as soon as a positive temperature is established, the top layer of the soil dries up, the raspberry bushes are cut and shaped.
Regardless of the method of planting raspberries, it is more practical to prune in 2 stages.
At the first stage, weak shoots are removed near the ground, which have fertile, crooked, thickening branches and stems with bulges at the base (gall midge larvae overwinter there). The remaining stems are thinned out, leaving 6-8 stems during bush formation, and up to 15-20 stems per linear meter of area with tape (trench) planting. Thickening will lead to a decrease in yield and crushing of berries.
The second stage of spring pruning of raspberries is carried out when a stable positive air temperature is established at least + 5 ° C. During this period, the buds are already open, the tops of the shoots of the culture have begun to grow and it is clearly visible how the bush overwintered. The final revision removes the missed fruiting raspberry stems, the frozen tops of the stems.
In healthy raspberry stems, the tops are cut off to a length of up to 20 cm in order to obtain additional lateral fruiting shoots, the frozen ones are cut to the first living bud. Spring pruning of raspberries is important in that it creates optimal conditions conducive to the formation of a bountiful harvest, increases the duration of the fruitful period of the crop.
Spring pruning of raspberries. © PavelRodimov
How to fertilize raspberries in the spring? The first feeding of berry bushes is carried out in early spring, when the plants just wake up and start growing.
If in the fall you have already applied all the necessary fertilizers under the raspberry tree, then the accumulated plants will be enough until the beginning of flowering. It is not necessary to "feed" the raspberries again until this moment.
And starting from the second half of May, when the shrubs are at their peak of flowering, you can replenish the supply of trace elements in the soil around them.
What exactly is the best way to feed raspberries in spring for a good future harvest? For spring fertilization, complex nitrogen-containing fertilizers are suitable, which will help plants to actively grow and form enough ovaries (raspberries are sensitive to nitrogen deficiency).
You can make top dressing not in a complex, but separately. For example, humus (5-6 kg per 1 square meter) or a solution of chicken manure (1:20) or mullein (1:10) at the rate of 3-5 liters of finished fertilizer per 1 square meter of garden. Also, do not forget to apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (50-80 g of superphosphate and 20-40 g of potassium sulfate per 1 sq. M).
After harvesting, when all the berries have already been harvested, the bushes are cut off, fertilizers are applied to the raspberry plant: nitroammofoska 60-80 g, nitrate - 25-30 g, superphosphate - 60 g and potash fertilizers - 25-30 g. During autumn care You can also use organic matter with raspberries - sprinkle the soil with humus or peat, close up green manures grown in another area. During the winter, organic matter will overflow and become an excellent easily digestible food for plants.
In addition, raspberries are prepared for winter, if necessary, by covering their shoots with a protective cover. To do this, they are untied from the trellis, tied, laid on the ground and covered with foliage or other insulating material. Shelter can not be carried out in the southern regions, in the northern ones you cannot do without it.