At the moment, Kishmish 342 is one of the most popular varieties among winegrowers. It is known for its lack of seeds, bountiful harvest, and sweet berries. To grow this variety, it is enough to familiarize yourself with the features of its cultivation and follow the rules of care, which even a novice gardener can handle.
Grape Kishmish 342, which is also known as GF 342 or Hungarian Kishmish, is a relatively young variety. At the same time, he earned the trust of gardeners. The variety was bred by Hungarian breeders by crossing Villars Blanc and Perlet Sidlis.
For grapes GF 342, an early ripening period is characteristic: from the moment of budding to technical maturity, about 110-115 days pass.
The technical maturity of grapes is determined by the suitability of the crop for fresh consumption or for the preparation of a particular product.
The bunches are distinguished by their ability to graze right on the bush. To do this, they must be twisted. Kishmish 342 is endowed with a high yield, up to 20-25 kg per bush, as well as stable fruiting. This grape is distinguished by its great vigor and good ripening of the vine. To cover the shrub for the winter, you have to work hard, since the vine in this type of culture is quite elastic. Frost resistance of GF 342 reaches -26˚С.
Hungarian kishmish is distinguished by abundant harvests and delicious berries
The grapes form clusters weighing 0.5-0.6 kg, but if desired, you can get larger ones (up to 1.5 kg) by resorting to the appropriate molding. The berries are characterized by an egg-shaped shape and a golden-green color. Fruit sizes reach 15-18 mm and weight 2-3 g. Hungarian Kishmish belongs to the third class of seedlessness: there are practically no rudiments in the berries.
All raisin grape varieties according to the size of rudiments (underdeveloped seeds) are classified into 4 groups according to the class of seedlessness.
The pulp of the variety in question is juicy and fleshy, with a pleasant harmonious taste and light shades of nutmeg. The sugar content of the berries is about 20%, and the acidity is not more than 8 g per 1 liter.
In the sun, the skin of the berries becomes pink.
GF 342 has a number of advantages:
However, the variety also has some disadvantages:
For planting grapes, choose a spacious and well-lit area located on the east or west side of the house. A distance of at least 1 m is left between the plants and the support, and 3 m between the seedlings.
The culture loves nutritious soil, therefore, before proceeding with planting it, it is necessary to prepare the soil mixture. This will require 2 buckets of humus and 0.5 kg of wood ash and superphosphate. A fertile layer of earth is also used, which is formed when digging a hole. Before introducing all the components into the pit, they are thoroughly mixed.
Planting grapes GF 342 can be carried out both in the fall, before the start of frost, and in the spring. The process consists of the following steps:
A planting pit for grapes should be 1 m deep and 0.5 m wide
Expanded clay or crushed stone is poured into the planting pit as drainage
A pipe is inserted into the planting hole, which will be used for watering the bush.
After planting, the soil around the grapes is mulched and the plant is cut into 2 eyes
Mulching inhibits the growth of weeds and prevents rapid evaporation of moisture. Reeds, straw, manure, compost can be used as mulch.
After planting GF 342 seedlings, care is reduced to regular watering, loosening the soil, feeding and processing against pests and diseases.
In the spring and in the first half of summer, the culture needs additional nutrition with nitrogen fertilizers. You can also use organic matter, not just mineral fertilizers. Before flowering, it is recommended to process the bushes by the foliar method using the complex Plantofol. In order for the fruits to form normally, in the second half of the summer period, fertilizing with phosphorus and potassium is required, and nitrogen nutrition is stopped. During the flowering period, the grapes are treated on the leaf, for example, with the Ovary preparation. Some growers use gibberellin, which is a highly active biostimulant, to increase the density of the cluster and increase the fruit.
In spring, grapes need additional dressing before and during flowering, as well as in summer for the normal formation of berries
Special attention should be paid to watering in the summer. In hot weather, the bushes are irrigated every 3 days. The volume of water largely depends on the type of soil: on chernozems, the consumption should be 30% less than on sandy soils. Under one bush, you need to pour about 15 liters of water. Before harvesting, watering is reduced to once a week.
Watering grapes is usually done through special pipes, but drip irrigation is considered the best method.
In the process of forming Kishmish 342 grape bushes, an average pruning of 6 buds or a long one for 10 buds is carried out. During the summer, it is necessary to remove stepchildren and shoots that thicken the bush, since the variety is prone to overgrowth. Do not leave more than 1-2 brushes on one shoot. Otherwise, the berries will be small.
If the grapes were planted in the fall, then a plastic bottle (5 l) with a cut bottom can be used to protect against winter cold. The seedling is watered, covered with a container and sawdust is poured through the neck. Then slightly twist the cork and spud the bottle. The procedure is carried out in dry and sunny weather, when the air temperature drops to + 3-4–С. Under such a shelter, your seedlings will overwinter without any problems.
The next year, spruce or pine branches are used for shelter. They are lined around the grapes, and the vine is bent down from above, after having done pruning. The bush is also covered with branches and plastic wrap, slightly pressing it along the edges.
The bush is covered with branches when the temperature drops to 0˚С
Warming of grapes is necessary to protect not from low temperatures, but from their drops, as well as icing of the root system. The shelter allows you to keep the bush in dry conditions.
Despite the fact that Kishmish 342 is considered quite resistant to diseases, many growers still treat it with fungicides. This ensures 100% protection of the bushes. After pruning, you need to inspect the bushes for infection with diseases. In addition, the plants must be thinned regularly.
In spring, plants are treated with Bordeaux liquid, or with special biological products, such as Fitosporin, Trichodermin, Aktofit
In addition to diseases, pests often damage the culture. The sweet berries of Hungarian Kishmish attract the attention of wasps. To protect against insects, the bunches are placed in mesh bags or wrapped in gauze. The considered variety can also be damaged by leafworms, May beetle larvae, and spider mites. Ticks lay their eggs in the soil near the roots and entangle a vine bush with cobwebs, which leads to the formation of deformities, and in the worst case, the death of the bush. When a parasite is found, it is treated with chemicals (BI-58, Aktellik, Omayt, Fufanon).
You can find a tick on grapes by the presence of dark spots on the back of the leaf.
The leafworm butterfly itself is harmless to grapes, but their caterpillars damage leaves, parts of the vines and berries. If you do not react to the appearance of the pest in time, the loss of the vineyard is possible up to 75–90%. Prevention is carried out by Confidor, Decis, Fufanon. May beetle does not do any harm, but its larvae damage the rhizome by feeding on tissues. The appearance of a pest can be judged by the disease of the bush for no reason. As control measures, they resort to soil treatment with insecticides Diazin, Grom-2, Bazudin to a depth of 5-7 cm.
The leafworm butterfly is harmless, but the caterpillar damages leaves, parts of vines and berries
Kishmish 342 is propagated by:
The layering method is used in spring and autumn. To do this, they dig a trench near the bush up to 0.5 m deep, add nutrients as when planting, and then bend the one-year-old vine from the bottom of the plant, sprinkling it with soil. At the end of the procedure, abundant watering is carried out. If the shoots germinate, then in the future they can be planted as separate bushes.
Only a few tops of the shoots with leaves and growth points need to be left above the ground.
The method of propagation by grafting is the engraftment of the cuttings on an old vine. It is recommended to choose a disease-resistant mother shrub. The grafted seedling is inserted into the split on the mother trunk, after which it is wrapped with plastic wrap. The success of the event depends on the quality of the stock, that is, the bush on which the grafting is carried out.
Propagation of grapes by grafting is carried out by placing the scion in a split on the mother trunk (rootstock)
If preference is given to cuttings, then the material is harvested in the fall. Cuttings are cut at an angle of 45˚, after which they are treated in a solution of ferrous sulfate, and rooting is carried out in February - March. Planting material must be of good quality: green cut and eyes, brown bark. After the cuttings are selected, they are soaked in potassium permanganate, and then in water with honey.
In the spring, cuttings of Kishmish 342 are planted in pre-prepared containers, for example, in plastic bottles.
Then the material is planted in containers of suitable size, providing the necessary care: periodic watering, loosening the soil, pinching and removing the inflorescences. Before planting in open ground, the seedlings are hardened, for which they are taken out into fresh air.
If you made a decision to plant grapes with excellent taste on your plot, then you can safely give preference to Kishmish Hungarian. This variety is quite unpretentious, and you just have to find the optimal place for the shrub and provide minimal care. It will not be difficult to get tasty and sweet fruits.
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Grapes are a very tasty culture. However, each taste has its own admirers, but so that everyone rarely likes it. Those who already have "Kishmish 342" in their vineyard say that it is the earliest, favorite and most delicious.
The early ripening variety has vigorous bushes and ripens in 110–115 days from the moment of ovary formation. You can wait for ripe fruits at different times:
Grapes are medium-sized, less often large, 15 × 17 mm, weighing up to 2-3 g. Fruits are classified as seedless class 2-3, rudiments in the pulp are almost absent. The experience of gardeners shows: the greater the load on the vine, the less dense rudiments are found in the berries.
Grape shoots ripen two thirds of the length of the vine. It ripens better and the fruitfulness of the shoots rises to 80–85% if they are cut into 7–8 eyes (formations in the leaf axils that unite the buds and ensure their proper development) - this is the so-called medium pruning. The recommended load on grapes is 35–40 eyes.
Recommended load for grapes - 35-40 eyes
Plants grow vigorously, on branches with a large supply of perennial wood, impressive clusters weighing 500-600 g ripen, the average weight of cylindrical, moderately dense Kishmish 342 grapes is 300-400 g, they are left on one shoot 2-3. Sometimes, under favorable weather conditions and proper care, grape clusters gain weight 1–1.5 kg.
Bunches of variety Kishmish 342 are quite dense, conical in shape
The leaves of the plant are large, rounded, with a slight dissection. Flowers are bisexual, collected in dense panicle inflorescences. The pulp of the berries is fleshy-juicy, firm, sweet, with light nutmeg notes. The harmonious taste of berries with a pronounced sweetness is manifested in the fruits of Kishmish 342 grapes, even in an unripe form. The skin of the fruit is delicate and thin, at the time of ripening the color of the berries is green-golden, fully ripe fruits are light yellow, with time they acquire a pinkish tint, up to a brownish "tan". The sugar content of the hybrid variety is 20%, the acidity is 6–8 g / l.
Fully ripe grapes of the Kishmish 342 variety have a light crimson hue and are slightly covered with a waxy coating
The very thin skin of grapes Kishmish 342 is easily damaged by sweet-toothed wasps, therefore, to preserve the berries during the ripening period, mesh bags are put on the bunch.
|The possibility of growing on site |
with severe weather conditions: does not freeze even at the lowest temperatures (down to -26 ° С)
|The need for shelter in the winter season|
|The ability to store for a month despite the average density of the bunch and the thin skin of the fruit||Possibility of manifestation of peas and berries with seeds |
with improper vine formation
|Good transport tolerance||The tendency of berries to raisin during prolonged storage on a bush|
|Productivity - up to 20 kg per bush|
|Can be used for baby food|
|Resistance to fungal diseases (due to the early ripening of berries, it almost does not get sick with powdery mildew)|
|Good survival rate of seedlings|
It is better to plant grapes on the southwest or west side, covering it with planting of curtain plants: https://klumba.guru/yagody/vinograd/kak-posadit-vinograd.html