Calamondin (Citrofortunella)


Every year, the cultivation of citrus fruits in indoor conditions is becoming an increasingly popular hobby among flower growers. Most often windowsills are decorated with lemons, and tangerines are also often seen. However, there are also more exotic representatives of Citrus, for example, calamondin, which is also called citrofortunella.

Calamondin is a hybrid that is the result of crossing a kumquat and a mandarin. This plant is great for indoor cultivation and yields good results.

Features of Calamondin

In natural conditions, calamondin is grown in Southeast Asia. In nature, the height of a tree can reach about 700 cm. Trees grown indoors are more modest in size. The maximum height of indoor citrofortunella is 120 centimeters.

Twigs adorn oval leaf plates with a glossy surface. Flowering is observed in the spring and summer. At this time, small white star-shaped flowers with a pleasant aroma are formed on the tree.

If you care for such a citrus plant correctly and provide it with favorable conditions for growth, then the formation of fruits will be observed all year round. Outwardly, the fruits of calamondin are similar to tangerines, but they have a smaller size: the average weight is from 10 to 15 grams. They are also distinguished by a special bitter-sour taste.

Calamondin. The fruits are ripe

What to do after purchase?

If you buy grown citrofortunella in a specialized store, then you need to remember that it is grown for sale using a special technology. As a rule, getting into room conditions, the tree needs a certain time to adapt. In addition, those plants that already have fruits are often put up for sale.

In order for the citrus to grow and develop further at the end of fruiting, it must definitely provide optimal conditions so that it can successfully get used to a new place. If you neglect this advice, then the bush may die.

Creation of comfortable conditions:

  • for a plant, you need to create a mini-greenhouse: for this, it is covered with a plastic bag on top;
  • systematic ventilation is required (twice a day);
  • watering should be such that the potted substrate does not dry out;
  • for the bush, you should choose a place protected from direct sunlight;
  • when buying a tree in winter, he is provided with additional supplementary lighting.

It is very easy to understand that the plant has fully adapted to new conditions. The formation of new foliage will begin on the bush. Typically, citrus takes about 15 days to adapt.

What to do with citrus fruits after purchase, exotic plants. Adapting citrus fruits at home

Caring for calamondin at home

In order for calamondin to regularly bloom and bear fruit at home, you should adhere to the temperature regime recommended by the specialist, as well as provide him with proper lighting and regular moderate moistening of the soil mixture in the pot.

Pot selection

This citrus is a spectacular tree with a developed root system. This must be taken into account when choosing a container for planting it. The earthen lump of the tree should be one and a half times smaller than the diameter of the selected pot. For the normal development of such a plant, it needs space.

Lighting

For indoor calamondin, it is better to choose an eastern or southern window sill. In this case, it is imperative to ensure that the foliage is protected from direct sunlight, otherwise they can leave burns on the bush. Moreover, it is the eastern window that is best suited for such a light-loving culture. If you decide to put it on the southern windowsill, then it will be possible to apply a protective film to the window, which does not let the direct rays of the sun through.

In the warm season, the bush can, if possible, be transferred to the balcony. At the same time, a place is chosen for him so that the lighting throughout the day is diffused. During the winter months, citrofortunella must be provided with additional supplementary lighting. In this case, the optimal duration of daylight hours is about 12 hours. Experts recommend using a phytolamp for illumination.

In order to make it easier to provide the plant with the correct lighting regime, it is recommended to purchase a decorative flower cart. Thanks to her, you can change the position of the bush without touching the pot itself.

Substrate

The soil mixture should be fertile and light. You can buy a citrus potting soil at a specialist store, or you can make it yourself if you want. To do this, you need to combine sand, turf soil and manure (1: 2: 1).

There must be drainage holes at the bottom of the container. Also, do not forget to lay out a good drainage layer 30–40 mm thick, expanded clay is perfect for this.

Temperature regime

During the growing season, which is observed in spring and summer, citrofortunella should be kept warm: the optimum air temperature is 24-28 degrees. During wintering, the plant is rearranged to a cooler place (from 15 to 18 degrees).

Air humidity

Citrus needs high air humidity, its level should not fall below 70 percent. To increase the humidity, the bush is regularly moistened with a spray bottle, and an open container filled with water should also be placed next to it. It is recommended to moisturize the foliage regularly, two or three times a day. If you neglect this rule, then no fruit will form on the bush.

Watering

Calamondin should be irrigated at such a frequency that the top layer of the substrate is slightly damp all the time. Be sure to check the pallet some time after watering. If there is water in it, then it must be poured out.

In the autumn-winter time, the air in the room is dry by working heating devices. Therefore, at this time, it is recommended to pay special attention to increasing the level of air humidity, while the soil mixture in the pot should be moistened less often and less abundantly.

Fertilizer

From the beginning of spring, they begin to regularly feed Calamondin. They are carried out three or four times a month, using liquid fertilizers for this. Complex mineral fertilizers for flowering or citrus plants are excellent for such a culture.

Also, such a compact citrus tree responds well to foliar dressing, for this, the nutrient mixture is applied to the foliage using a spray bottle. In winter, fertilizers are applied to the soil mixture once a month.

Bloom

The beginning of flowering of such a plant occurs in May, and fragrant flowers adorn the bush until July. Small stellate white flowers look very impressive against the background of dark green foliage. An interesting fact is that both flowers and ripening fruits can be present on the tree at the same time.

With proper care, the plant will surely delight you with unusual fruits that look like very small tangerines. The average weight of the fruit is from 10 to 12 g. The duration of fruit ripening is from three to four months.

Can citrofortunella fruits be eaten? Yes, the fruit is edible. Those who have tried them are advised to eat the fruit without peeling. In this case, it will not seem so unbearably sour. Each of the fruits contains a large number of seeds, which are pits.

Dormant period

After the fruits are ripe, they need to be harvested. After that, the plant begins a dormant period. In November, the tree should be rearranged to a place where the air temperature does not rise above 12-15 degrees. Also, the place should be well lit, and supplementary lighting can be used.

At rest, the plant does not need a lot of moisture, so it is watered 1 or 2 times a month. The beginning of a new growing season falls on the first days of March.

Pruning

In most cases, flower growers, using pruning, give the crown of Calamondin a spherical shape. The plant is pruned in the last days of February, just before the beginning of the growing season.

However, the tree needs not only a formative haircut, it needs regular sanitary pruning. To do this, remove injured and dried branches. In order for the bush to be more lush, in the summer, the upper parts of all its shoots are pinched.

Care depending on the season

The rules for caring for indoor calamondin directly depend on the season. For example, in the spring-summer period, the plant needs regular fertilization and pruning, in the autumn months they collect fruits, and in the winter they provide the bush with optimal conditions for rest.

Experienced growers recommend drawing up a care schedule for this citrus. Then you will definitely not forget anything, and the plant will delight with its appearance and fruits.

Calamondin or citrofortunella - homemade tangerine: winter care features

Calamondin transplant

Calamondin is transplanted only:

  • in the process of reproduction;
  • after purchase in a store;
  • when the bush gets cramped.

If the citrus recently purchased in the store has endured the adaptation period well, then it is time to transplant it into a permanent pot.

Planned transplant

Until the tree is 3 years old, it needs a regular annual transplant. More mature bushes are subjected to this procedure less often, or rather, once every couple of years. Such transplants are planned.

Before proceeding with the direct transplantation of a plant, you need to find its root collar and remember where it is. The fact is that after transferring calamondin to a new container, its root collar should be in the same position relative to the surface of the substrate. The transplanted bush needs mandatory watering.

After the purchase

A plant purchased in a specialized store is recommended to be transplanted into a new container. However, they do it 15–20 days after purchase, during which time the tree must adapt to new conditions. Step-by-step transplant instructions:

  1. In order for the bush to be easily pulled out of the store pot, it should first be watered abundantly. Leave the substrate to soak for a few hours.
  2. Carefully remove the bush from the old container, while holding it by the trunk.
  3. A drainage layer is made at the bottom of the new container, after which the plant is installed in it.
  4. Hold the barrel with your hand so that it is upright. The substrate is gradually poured into the pot and carefully compacted in such a way that no voids remain.
  5. The plant needs to be watered.
  6. The first time the transplanted plant is fed after 6 weeks.

Remember that it is strictly forbidden to rinse the citrofortunella root system during the transplantation process. The fact is that this can lead to the death of the bush.

Transplanting citrus fruits in an apartment

Getting fruits

As a rule, flower shops sell calamondins, on the branches of which fruits are already hanging. When purchasing such a plant, remember that its fruits are most likely not ripe. In addition, you should take into account the fact that when you bring the tree home, the fruits from it may fall.

If you have purchased a young bush that does not yet have fruit, then it is quite easy to make it bear fruit. In this case, the most important thing is to provide the bush with the most favorable conditions for growth. Do not forget to timely fertilize the substrate, provide increased air humidity and a dormant period, and then the unusual citrus plant will delight you with its fruits.

After the fruits are well ripe, they are carefully cut and, if necessary, stored in a place where it is always cool. In order for the plant to bear fruit annually, you need to monitor the condition of its crown. Those stems and branches on which no fruit is formed for the second year in a row must be cut off.

CALAMONDIN CARE at home. / FLOWERING and the beginning of FRUIT! / Home Tangerine

Reproduction methods

The lifespan of citrofortunella growing in natural conditions is about 100 years. At the same time, the indoor tree has a shorter life span. In order to preserve a plant, you need to learn how to propagate it correctly.

Cuttings

It is recommended to harvest cuttings in the last spring weeks, shortly before the bush blooms. For this, the branches that are in the upper part of the crown are suitable. Each cutting should have two or three buds.

The segment must be immersed for a while in a solution of a means that stimulates root growth (for example, Kornevin). For rooting, it is planted in a pot filled with a substrate, and covered with a glass jar on top.

Transfer the cutting to a well-lit place and provide it with regular ventilation, which is carried out twice a day. Roots on the segment should appear after 20-30 days. After that, the bush can be transplanted into a permanent container. Flowers and fruits will appear on it only in the second year of growth.

Rooting fruit twigs of calamondin

Growing from seeds

Seed propagation of calamondin is quite popular among gardeners. It should be remembered that the seeds of such a plant are also called seeds.

For sowing, seeds are chosen from well-ripe fruits. Since their germination rate is low, you will need a relatively large number of seeds.

Seeds are harvested in autumn. Remove all pulp from them, dry well and store until spring. Sowing is carried out in March, immediately in front of it, the bones are immersed in a solution of a growth-stimulating agent for two or three days.

Sow the seeds in a box filled with substrate to a depth of 15–20 mm. Cover the crops with glass or foil on top and remove them in a dark and warm (about 28 degrees) place. Air them twice a day.

The first seedlings should appear after about 4 weeks. At this time, the crops are transferred to a well-lit place. The shelter is removed after 7 days. After 3 or 4 leaves grow on the plants, they are dived into individual containers.

Reproduction of Calamondin. / The bones sprouted inside the fetus !!) / My experiment!

Graft

If you are an experienced florist, then you can try to propagate citrofortunella by grafting. Young seedlings are suitable as a stock, and the scion is taken from an adult healthy tree.

Pick a strong and healthy branch and cut it back. The length of the scion should be about 10 cm. An incision should be made on the bark of the rootstock. Further, the edges of the bark are moved apart and the scion is inserted obliquely. Use adhesive tape for fixation. From above, the bush should be covered with a film. The scion will take root within 30 days. After a couple of months, you can remove the fixing tape.

Diseases and pests

Most often, homemade calamondin suffers from diseases such as:

  1. Sooty fungus... A black bloom appears on the surface of the foliage. Remove it with a tissue paper. To cure the bush, it should be treated with Fitosporin. It is also used to disinfect potted substrate.
  2. Gommoz... The foliage and other parts of the affected tree turn yellow massively. Initially, the lower leaf plates begin to turn yellow, after which the disease spreads to the entire plant. When the first symptoms of the disease appear, cut off the affected stems, and coat the cuts with copper sulfate.
  3. Anthracnose... Initially, yellow spots appear on the foliage of a diseased bush, after a while other parts of the plant begin to die off. This leads to his death. The bush can be cured only at an early stage of the disease. For this, a solution of copper sulfate (3%) is used.

Pests such as scale insects, aphids and mealybugs can settle on citrofortunella. To destroy them, use a solution of an insecticidal preparation.

Possible problems

With improper care with calamondin, problems such as:

  1. Drying branches and flying around foliage... If foliage flies around in autumn, then this is a completely natural process. If leaf shedding is observed at a different time, then this may be due to an incorrect irrigation regime, poor lighting, or a violation of the temperature regime.
  2. Unripe fruits fly around... This happens when an earthen coma is overdried or when there is an acute lack of nutrients. In addition, the bush can shed fruits itself, if there are a lot of them.
  3. Lack of flowering... Too poor lighting. Move the bush to a suitable place or provide additional lighting. In some cases, the cause is a lack of moisture and nutrients.

Superstitions and omens

Calamondin is believed to improve the emotional state of the home. If you put a bush in the northeastern part of the room, then it will be able to attract wealth into it.

To make a business meeting or an important event a success, before going there, take a piece of paper and rub it between your fingers. If the tree is placed in the bedroom, it will contribute to strengthening the feelings between the spouses, while family life will be cloudless and long.

ALL ABOUT GROWING CITRUS HOUSES


Citrofortunella (Calamondin) is a plant also known to flower growers as "indoor tangerine" or "golden orange". This is a hybrid, its "parents" are mandarin and kumquat. In "captivity" calamondin, which can be called a micro-citrus, reaches a height of 0.6-1.5 m.

Calamondin is a suitable option for those who want to grow something unusual and exotic on the windowsill.

Brownish rough shoots often branch, the crown is densely leafy. Leaves are leathery, smooth, 4-7 cm long. The tip is pointed, the central vein is pronounced. Citrofortunella microcarpa or citrus calamondin is a self-pollinating plant.

Important! You can eat the fruits of citrofortunella, since calamondin is edible. Although not everyone will like a specific taste.

At home, flower growers grow different varieties of Calamondin:

  • Variegata - variegated green and white leaves
  • Margarita Big - pear-shaped citruses
  • Meiwa - sweet fruit almost seedless
  • Tiger - leaves with a golden border
  • Peters - profuse flowering and very sour fruits
  • Shikinari are the largest and most delicious citrus fruits.

Jam is made from the fruits of calamondin and added to tea instead of lemon.


Features of the care and cultivation of calamondin

When kept indoors, the plant forms a compact shrub or an elegant standard tree, although in the open air the culture sometimes reaches five meters in height. For simple home care, citrus calamondin:

  • grows well
  • bears fruit
  • it can be propagated by cuttings or seeds.

Today, indoor plant lovers are offered plants not only with monochromatic foliage, but also variegated forms, in which even the fruits have an unusual striped color.

In the second half of spring, citrus blooms, and then the crown is covered with very fragrant star-shaped flowers of white color. The plant requires manual pollination, after which numerous ovaries are formed on it.

Even a small specimen, with proper feeding and watering, will not throw them off and can bloom when unripe fruits still remain on its branches. Calamondin signals discomfort or disturbances in growing conditions by the loss of foliage.

If the right measures are not taken, the plant will die. How to care for Calamondin? What are the requirements for the maintenance and care of this culture?


Varieties of Calamondin

Mandarin calamondin is a hybrid species and does not have a large varietal variety. Breeders have bred several varieties with bright foliage or fruits of various shapes. Today, in addition to the classic calamondine, the following varieties are popular in flower shops:

    variegated - the edges of the leaves are outlined with an uneven whitish border


Reproduction of calomondin

The life span of a home tangerine is short - 5-6 years, but you can propagate the plant and grow new specimens.

Growing citrofortunella from the seed

This is the easiest method. However, citrofortunella grown from seed begins to yield after a few years, and sometimes does not bear fruit at all.

The seeds should be taken from fresh, well-ripened fruit.

Seeds are planted in a loose fertile soil mixture, deepening by 1 cm.After abundant watering, they arrange a greenhouse, covering with a glass jar.

After a month and a half, sprouts appear. When 4-5 leaves develop on each, they are seated in separate pots.

Cutting home tangerine

You can propagate calamondin by cuttings in late spring or early summer. You need to choose a healthy twig with 2-3 buds closer to the top of the crown and cut it off with a sharp knife.

For better rooting, the shoot should be soaked in a stimulant solution. More often used "Epin" or "Kornevin".

Then the cutting is transferred to a pot with prepared soil and a mini-greenhouse is arranged.

The place for the greenhouse should be light. Twice a day, the seedling needs to be ventilated by removing the can for 15-20 minutes.

With sufficient humidity and a comfortable temperature (+ 25 ° C), the plant will take root, after 3-4 weeks it can be transplanted into a pot.

Reproduction by cuttings allows you to get the first harvest in the second year. Citrus retains varietal qualities and does not require grafting.


Diseases, pests and growing problems

For any signs of rapid drying or blackening of the shoots, emergency pruning of the affected parts of the plant is needed and an assessment of the condition of the roots with their removal from the pot. If they are not affected, you can try to save the plant by adjusting the conditions of the plant. In addition to rot, calamondins are quite susceptible to rust, requiring a quick start with systemic fungicides.

This hybrid cannot be called pest resistant either. Mealybugs cause a lot of trouble and require repeated insecticide treatments. In unfavorable conditions, scale insects or spider mites, preferring dry air, can settle on calamondins.


Watch the video: The Calamondin Orange Citrofortunella Microcarpa #5


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