All fruits and vegetables are healthy. Some to a greater extent, others to a lesser extent. The most important indicator of usefulness is the content of vitamin C. But the absolute champion in this indicator is the rosehip!
Vitamin C in rose hips is 100 times more than in lemon and 10 times more than in wild garlic! And not in every rosehip, but only in cinnamon, growing in the European part of Russia and in Siberia, as well as in wrinkled, found on the ocean coast of the Far East.
Along with these two species, dog rose is widespread in nature (especially in the south of Russia and in the Chernozem region), in small fruits of which vitamin C is almost absent. Ironically, this is what is traded throughout the markets. You can distinguish dog rose hips by the bracts pressed against the berry, while in other species they stand upright. But tough merchants break them off when drying. To avoid getting screwed up, there is nothing easier than growing vitamin rosehip on its site - after all, the plant is extremely unpretentious.
For this purpose, the wrinkled rosehip is most suitable. (Rosa rugosa)... Firstly, its fruits are very large - up to 3 cm in diameter - and are suitable not only for drying, but also for cooking. preserves, jam, pastilles…
Secondly, it has the property of remontant, that is, it blooms and bears fruit constantly until late autumn, in contrast to the cinnamon rosehip, which blooms only in May (why else is it called May). Therefore, it is very decorative all summer long and is ideal for creating a beautiful impassable hedge, especially since it is naturally resistant to cold winds.
And since the rose hips are valuable raw materials not only fruits, but also fragrant petals, over the summer they can be dried a lot and added to herbal teas all winter, giving them a unique rose aroma. The productivity of wrinkled rose hips is amazing: 1-1.5 liters of fruit and 0.5 liters of petals can be harvested from just 1 square meter.
It is very easy to grow wrinkled rose hips. It is extremely frost-hardy and hibernates without shelter even with low snow cover, resistant to winter thaws, drought, not picky about soil…
His only requirement for light is that when shaded, flowering and fruiting weaken. But this requirement is just satisfied when planting along the edge of the site - in a hedge. Rosehip is very responsive to fertile soil and watering. Therefore, if we want to have a really beautiful hedge and collect good harvests, then when planting, we need to work a little and dig a trench of the required length, 0.5-0.7 meters wide, 30-40 cm deep and fill it with fertile soil.
And then in the fall or early spring, plant seedlings in a trench every 0.7-1 meter. Why is it necessary to plant in a trench, and not in pits, as is usually done? Because the rose hips multiply very quickly by root shoots. In order for it to spread along the fence and not "creep" onto the site or road, a trench is being prepared.
Rosehip seedlings are rarely on sale, even in large cities, as nurseries are reluctant to deal with this plant due to its thorniness. But this cannot be an obstacle for those wishing to get hold of this rare plant in the gardens. Everyone can grow seedlings himself, since the wrinkled rosehip reproduces well by seeds, and, as a natural plant, it completely transmits all its characteristics to the offspring.
Rosehip seeds have a very thick and strong "shell" and a long dormant state. Therefore, it is best to sow them before winter. Then the embryo ripens in the soil, and the shell cracks when freezing, and in early spring the seeds germinate. You can sow them in a box in winter and put it under the snow. Finally, you can sow seeds in early spring, but then they must be prepared.
First, they must be scarified, i.e. rub with sandpaper to make the shell thinner. Secondly, they need stratify, i.e. keep for about two months in a damp substrate (peat, sawdust, moss, etc.) at a temperature of about zero degrees - in a refrigerator or cellar.
In the first year, rosehip plants reach a height of 30 cm, in the second - already one meter and begin to bush, and in the third - these are adult bushes about 1.5 meters high, entering into fruiting.
Rosehip petals can be collected all summer at intervals of 2-3 days (this is how long the flower lives), dried and stored in glass jars. The fruits are harvested from August to October as they ripen.
In overripe fruits with a bright red color and soft pulp, the amount of vitamins is significantly reduced. Vitamins are also destroyed during prolonged (more than two days) drying, so it is better to dry the rosehip in the oven with the door ajar at a temperature of about 80oFROM.
In addition to the record amount of vitamin C, the pulp of wrinkled rose hips contains many other vitamins - B, K, P, PP, as well as various useful substances: carotene, sugar, kalufer, etc.
More than 200 other rare medicinal, spicy plants, vegetables, flowers and shrubs can be ordered from the catalog. Send an envelope with your address - in it you will receive the catalog for free. The catalog can also be found on the website www.sem-ot-anis.narod.ru or to receive it by e-mail - send a request to E-mail: [email protected] My mailing address: 634024, Tomsk, st. 5th Army, 29, apt. 33, mob. t. +7 (913) 851-81-03 - Anisimov Gennady Pavlovich.
Tomsk Photo by the author
Conditions. Photophilous, landing in a sunny place protected from cold winds. It grows undemanding to soils on drained, dry and fresh, even the poorest sandy, but prefers fertile, optimal pH 5.5-6.5. On too alkaline, it gets sick with chlorosis. Withstands salinization. Heat and drought resistant. Winter hardiness up to -30 ° C, hibernates without shelter. Grows well after cutting. Withstands urban conditions.
Landing... The best planting time is spring to bud or fall. The distance between the plants is 1.5-3 m. In the hedge, 0.5-1 m, and between the rows, 0.5-0.7 m. The diameter of the pit is 50 cm, the depth is 45-50 cm. Drainage is arranged on damp soils. Peat or humus (8-10 kg / m²), superphosphate (10 g / m²) and potassium salt (50 g / m²) are introduced into a pit or trench. They are planted to a depth of 10-15 cm. After planting, the seedling is cut, leaving no more than 1/3 of the length of the shoots. Abundant watering and mulching are required.
Care: Watering is advisable for young plants in hot dry weather. Watering rate is one and a half buckets per bush once a week. The soil around the bush is regularly loosened, while removing weeds.
The first two years after planting, the plants are not fertilized, on the third they are fed in the spring with rotted manure or prolonged-release fertilizers for roses, or mineral fertilizers are applied 3-4 times per season.
Young plants in the early years are not pruned, then in the fall they carry out an annual formative pruning, leaving 10-15 strong shoots of different ages and removing thickening and weak shoots. Branches over 6 years old are cut at the base. Bushes are able to creep due to root growth. If it is necessary to limit such growth, then sheets of iron, slate or other similar material are dug in along the perimeter of the crown, which prevents the growth of roots.
In damp years, thickened plantings can suffer from fungal diseases. In case of significant damage, treatment with an approved fungicide is recommended.
Application. In single plantings, small groups, on the edges, in any type of hedges, palisade flower beds and for decorating the entrance to the house. It fixes slopes well. The cut branches make a magnificent bouquet.
100% natural fertilizer. Optimal for all varieties of roses and other flowering plants, except for acid-loving ones.
Composition of the product:
Application: Apply fertilizer to the surface of the soil around the plant, water, mulch. When used on flower beds - from 100 grams per sq. meter
For roses and peonies - from 100 grams for a large bush.
This beautiful plant belongs to the Rosaceae family - about six dozen of its species grow in Russia. In the wild, bushes can be seen on forest edges and clearings, on river banks, ravine slopes and rocky slopes. Rosehips are of greatest interest to gardeners:
• Multi-flowered (climbing)
Each of these varieties pleases with a diverse varietal composition - plants differ in the shape and color of flowers, shape, size and color of fruits, percentage of useful elements.
The Rubin variety can be referred to the category of early rose hips. This vigorous plant is covered with thorns, especially at the base of the branches. The fruits are large, red, oval, tasty (with a small amount of acid). The variety tolerates a drop in temperature well.
Middle and late ripening periods are inherent in varieties:
The plant is weak, with spiny shoots (thorns are yellowish in color). The flowers are very beautiful - large and bright. The oval fruits are creamy orange in color. The plant is winter-hardy, fruitful.
A sufficient number of large-fruited varieties are known. The largest berries are produced by apple rose hips - their diameter reaches 3 cm, and their weight is 12 g. The varieties have good indicators:
Description of the variety Large-fruited VNIVI
Rosehip variety Large-fruited
The plant is sprawling, large. Brownish shoots are covered with numerous thorns. The pink flowers are quite large. Red-orange berries are very large, round, sweet and sour. The plant tolerates low temperatures well.
Almost all rose hips have good resistance to unfavorable weather factors, therefore, in the conditions of central Russia, a wide variety of varieties are successfully grown. The most popular are:
• Vorontsovsky (1, 2, 3)
Description of the variety Russian
Rosehip variety Russian
The plant is of medium size. It looks very nice in the garden. The flowers are large, fragrant. The fruits are elongated, red-orange, rather sweet. The plant is resistant to many diseases.
In the north-west of the country, good results are shown by such varieties as:
• Ural champion
Description of the Ural Champion variety
Rosehip variety Ural champion
The variety is very winter-hardy, productive, large-fruited (the weight of the berries reaches almost 5 g). The flowers are large and bright. The fruits are rounded and colored red. The berries have a pleasant, sweet and sour taste. The plant is slightly spreading.
Berries of all varieties of rose hips are of high value in terms of the content of ascorbic acid and other valuable elements. Nevertheless, real leaders can be distinguished among them. This category includes varieties:
• Vorontsovsky-1 (3900 mg)
• Vitamin (3806 mg)
• Thornless (3110 mg)
Description of the Vitamin variety
Rosehip variety Vitamin
This variety has good winter hardiness. The average height of the plant is 2.5 m. The bush is spreading. Fruits are oval, large, sweet and sour, numerous (up to 5 pieces in a brush). Single thorns.
One of the most popular varieties of rose hips is Besshipny. The plant has an average yield. The thorns are completely absent. The berries are medium-sized, rather sweet, with a high content of vitamin C.
The varieties Grushenka and Yadviga are also devoid of thorns.
In addition to varieties with elongated berries, there are those that form rounded fruits. Examples of this are:
• Ural champion
• Chelyabinsk vitamin
• The globe
• Anniversary of Michurinsk
This winter-hardy plant pleases with a high yield. The fruits are large, rather sweet, spherical. The plant is resistant to disease.
In the garden, rosehip varieties with climbing shoots and double flowers look very beautiful. Many decorative forms have been developed. The most interesting varieties are:
• Golden Wings
This variety pleases with the beauty of the flowers - they are large, semi-double, white with a slight pink blush (the color can change depending on the type of soil and can be creamy, pure white or pinkish).
Terry prickly rosehip is considered one of the most decorative species. The plant has double white flowers.
As for the rosehip varieties, the most interesting for gardeners are the following:
• Alba Mediland
• Climbing Iceberg
Description of the Alba Mediland variety
Rosehip variety Alba Mediland
Shoots of this type of dog rose spread (the height of the bush does not exceed one and a half meters). The flowers are very beautiful, double, with white petals. They are small in size and have a pleasant aroma. The plant can bloom twice per season (if conditions are favorable).
In nature, this plant can be seen in the Far East. In culture, it is often grown as a hedge. The most popular varieties of foreign selection:
• Grootendorst (white, pink, suprem)
• Ferdinand Meyer
Description of the variety Queen of the North
Rosehip variety Queen of the North
The variety of the Queen of the North is of interest. It is ideally adapted to the conditions of our country, hibernates without shelter. The flowers are double, red-pink, very beautiful.
Each of the rosehip varieties has its own advantages - some of them are grown in order to obtain useful fruits, while others are ideal for decorating the site.
A rosehip that has just been planted in open ground will need to be watered abundantly and often during the first year. It should be remembered that this crop is highly resistant to drought, therefore, in other years, it does not need systematic watering. If there is a prolonged drought and heat, then under 1 adult bush it will be necessary to pour 50 liters of water at a time, and under a young one - 20-30 liters, and that's it. This plant should be watered 3 or 4 times throughout the season.
In order for the shrub to grow and develop normally, from the second year of growth it must be fed with nitrogen fertilizers, introducing them into the soil. The first time the plant is fed at the beginning of the spring period, the second - during the period of active growth of the stems (in June – July), and the third - in September. Also, once every 3 years, compost or humus must be added to the soil under the bush (3 kilograms per plant). Every time the rose hips are fed, the soil under the bush must be watered and loosened, and then its surface is covered with a layer of mulch.
From the age of three, such a plant begins to need systematic pruning. To do this, you need to cut out all weak, diseased or dried stems, and also shorten one-year growths to 1.7-1.8 m.When the bush turns 5 years old, then it should include from 15 to 20 branches of different ages, which are evenly spaced from each other. Branches that are over 7 years old need to be replaced. It is recommended to prune such a crop in the spring before sap flow begins, the fact is that it tolerates pruning in the fall extremely poorly. Note that over-shortening of the stems will cause the young growth to grow actively in the next season, but it will not bear fruit.
Since the dog rose is a rather thorny plant, its fruits must be collected, protecting hands with thick gloves, and wearing strong clothing. The collection of fruits is carried out gradually, since their ripening begins in August and ends only in mid-October. All fruits must be harvested before frost, otherwise they may lose their properties.
Sometimes it becomes necessary to transplant an already adult rosehip bush to another place. This can happen, for example, due to planting on plants in an area not suitable for it, or if the soil becomes excessively scarce. It is recommended to transplant in the spring or in October and November. Preparing the pit and nutrient soil should be done in advance. A cloudy day is good for transplanting. The shrub must be carefully dug up and after the soil is loosened, the bush is pulled out along with the earthy clod, while trying not to injure its root system. Immediately after the bush is removed from the ground, it must be moved to a new location. It should be remembered that the root system of this culture reacts extremely negatively to heat, in this regard, the longer it stays on the surface, the less likely the shrub will successfully take root after transplantation. During flowering, it is impossible to carry out a transplant, it is recommended to do this either before the sap flow begins, or when it ends.
The collection of rosehip seeds is carried out in August, when the fruits are still brown unripe, and their shell is relatively soft. Seeds are sown in October directly into open soil, the grooves must be covered with sawdust or humus from above. To make the seedlings appear faster in spring, a frame is constructed over the crops, on which a plastic wrap should be pulled. After the seedlings have formed 2 true leaf plates, you can start planting them. If sowing is scheduled for spring, then the seeds are best stratified, for this they are combined with river sand or peat and removed to a cool place with a temperature of 2-3 degrees (for example, a refrigerator). Remember to periodically remove and stir the seeds.
If you propagate the rosehip by root suckers, then it will be possible to preserve all the varietal characteristics of the parent bush. In spring or autumn, it is necessary to find an offspring, the height of which can vary from 0.25 to 0.4 m. This offspring must be cut off from the mother plant using a shovel, and then transplanted to a new place. There is another way of propagation by root shoots. The offspring does not separate from the mother bush, it should be highlighted and watered in a timely manner throughout the season and, if necessary, poured soil under it. The offspring will grow adventitious roots, and in the fall of the next season it can be cut off from the parent bush, and with the onset of the next spring period, it can be carefully removed from the soil and planted in a new place.
Rosehip - plant, the second name of which is "wild rose". The family to which the genus belongs is also called pink. The cultivated forms sold in flower shops are actually the dog rose, but ennobled by selection. If his "offspring" are the queens of flowers, then he himself, apparently, is the king.
When rose hips grow, there are mountain slopes, rivers or woodlands nearby. These are the habitats of the plant. It is a shrub with thorny trunks. Shoots can be single, or grouped into thickets. There is a tree-like form of wild rose, but it is not common in Russia.
Rosehip is a very thorny shrub
Evergreen species are also considered rare. More often, rose hips are bare with the onset of autumn. Leaves falling from bushes are pinnate. This means that an odd number of petals are attached to one handle. At first they go in pairs, and a loner remains at the top.
Sweet rosehip aroma buds exude. Their appearance is familiar to everyone. In nature, as in culture, there are smooth and double varieties. They not only become an adornment of bouquets, gardens, but also fall into the perfume. Rosehip oil makes their compositions romantic and attractive. A fragrant elixir is obtained by distilling wild rose petals.
Rosehip blooms with beautiful flowers that resemble roses
If the flowers are not cut, they form dog-rose fruit... Their oval shape is also familiar to everyone. However, not everyone knows why the berries are bright orange, or red. This color is given to the fruit by carotene. This plant pigment is a biochemical precursor of vitamin A, similar to it in action.
Rosehip broth saturates the body with vitamin C. The berries also contain phosphorus, manganese, iron and potassium salts. Vitamins of group P and B are present in small amounts. Two rosehip acids - citric and malic - are also useful for health. So, the fruits of the wild rose are not in vain considered a food medicine and an immunostimulant.
If the medicinal properties of the fruit are heard, then rosehip root few keep in the first aid kit. Meanwhile, the underground part of the plant is an excellent diuretic. It is, in particular, used in the removal of kidney stones.
Astringent root infusions disinfect, kill microbes. The properties of rose hips also include a general strengthening effect. However, consultation with a specialist is needed. Doses, rules of admission and, most importantly, recommendations for him are important.
Rosehip fruits and root have medicinal properties