When growing sunflower on an industrial scale, its correct sowing is of great importance, and not only the planting time is taken into account, but also the seeding rate of sunflower, the distance between the rows, tillage, as well as the preliminary preparation of seeds. The combination of these factors directly affects the yield of sunflower seeds.
Modern sunflower sowing technologies are aimed at:
When growing sunflower on an industrial scale, its correct sowing is of great importance.
When choosing a place for sowing a sunflower, crop rotation must be observed. Preferred precursors: corn, legumes, spring wheat or barley. After alfalfa, sugar beets and beans, planting sunflowers is not recommended due to the fact that these crops dramatically dry out the land.
Sunflower sowing video
Before you start sowing sunflower, the land is cultivated. In the presence of perennial weeds in the field (bindweed, lettuce, sedge, thistle), first they start plowing stubble to a depth of six centimeters using disc tools. When the weeds germinate, the soil is cultivated with plow-plowing plows to a depth of ten centimeters. After weed control, 25 cm plowing is carried out in October. To increase soil moisture in winter, snow retention is carried out on the field. Spring treatments include soil harrowing and cross-plowing cultivation.
To provide favorable conditions for the growth of sunflower, mineral fertilizers and manure are applied for plowing, which guarantees a significant increase in yield.
Sunflower seeds are sorted before sowing, leaving the highest quality, large ones. Mostly for industrial purposes, zoned sunflower hybrids are grown with high germination rates, productivity, disease resistance, drought and lodging.
Sunflower seeds are sorted before sowing, leaving the highest quality, large
Pre-sowing soaking of sunflower seeds for fourteen hours in a solution of potassium permanganate helps to increase the yield. A good effect is provided by the incrustation of seeds with a film-forming composition with the addition of growth stimulants, trace elements, fungicides and insecticides.
Due to the thick, lignified skin, sunflower seeds swell slowly, so it is better to sow them early. Moreover, young seedlings normally tolerate low temperatures. Sowing dates are determined depending on the air temperature, soil readiness, moisture content in it and other conditions. The most friendly shoots can be achieved if sowing is carried out twelve days after the spring cultivation of the land, at an air temperature of +15 degrees and a soil temperature at a depth of 8 cm from +10 degrees.
Seeds of high-oil varieties of sunflower germinate well and germinate at soil temperatures of +8 degrees, if they are planted earlier, the seeds may partially lose their germination capacity, and the seedlings will turn out to be sparse.
Sowing of sunflower seeds is carried out at different depths depending on the moisture and temperature of the soil.
The seeding rate is determined by the seed size and the planned seedling density, as well as other factors:
Sowing of sunflower seeds is carried out at different depths depending on the moisture and temperature of the soil, on the size of the seeds and the energy of their germination. Each nest is filled with two or three grains. Small-seeded hybrids should be sown to a depth of about 5 cm, large seeds in arid regions are planted by 8 cm, in humid regions - by 6 cm.Grains should not be sown deeper than 10 cm, as this will lead to sparse seedlings, and therefore to a decrease in yield ...
Adequate distance allows the sunflower to develop quickly and guarantees a good harvest
Various methods of sowing sunflower are known: wide-row, dotted, square-nested. With the wide-row method, the grains are sown in rows with row spacings from 25 cm to 80 cm.Moreover, among some experts there is an opinion that it is quite enough to make small distances between the rows, since the plants still do not completely use nutrients and water from the row spacings, and the soil dries out from - due to insufficient shade from sunflowers.
With wide-row sowing with 30 cm row spacing, it is proposed to increase the yield of sunflower by introducing herbicides to protect seedlings from weeds, and by growing undersized hybrids that will have enough sunlight with such a small "personal area".
When square-nesting fit sunflower with a distance of 70x70 cm, the seeds are located at the corners of an imaginary square, so that crops can be processed in the longitudinal and in the forward direction. In addition, plants germinate faster with this method, and the gaps allow you to fully mechanize all the necessary work on sunflower care.
Video about continuous sowing of domestic sunflower varieties with a thin seeding rate (no-till)
Currently widespread dotted fit sunflower 70x30 cm. It differs from a wide-row one in that the seeds are sown evenly, at a certain distance from each other. A sufficient distance allows the sunflower to develop quickly and guarantees a good harvest.
Seeds are sown in the fields using pneumatic seeders or precision seeders. Configurable seed drills at 6 km / h ensure precise seed spacing and seed savings.
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January is outside the window, but spring is not far off. Already the day has begun to slowly increase, therefore, it is time to think about planting seedlings, especially since there is not much time left. Often, gardeners think that this is a simple matter, but in reality it is not: knowledge is needed. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the calendar of planting seedlings in 2021.
I started testing Russian size sunflower on May 26 with looking at the package and soaking the seeds.
The packaging is attractive and sealed. On the back of the package there is information on agricultural technology.
The tested seeds (weight 1.2 grams), harvest 2019, were packed on January 14, 2020, lot no. 1061 = seeds fresh. The expiration date of the seeds is indicated on the package, it is 4 years.
There are 8 seeds in a package, they are striped and large enough, I decided to plant everything:
Soaked the seeds in water overnight to hatch faster:
On May 27, she sowed Russian size sunflower seeds for seedlings in a greenhouse. Greenhouse made of polycarbonate, oriented from west to east. During the day, the temperature rose above +25 degrees, at night it dropped to +3 (and possibly lower). A spunbond with a density of 40 was stretched over the plants, protected from direct sunlight during the day (only from above). On the sides, the spandbond was lowered overnight to protect the plants from a possible nighttime cold snap.
The soil in the greenhouse is an ordinary garden one, it was prepared in the fall. Our soil is sandy loam, many years ago analysis showed: acidity - 5.80 phosphorus - more than 25.0 potassium - 20. When sowing, nothing was added to the soil. Made a groove, spilled water:
And laid out 8 seeds:
The fact that when planting a sunflower it would be necessary to make deeper furrows in order for the roots to develop better, I remembered when the shoots appeared. Let them rise longer, but then 3-meter giants would be more stable.
The first two shoots (and one hint of it) appeared by June 1:
On June 2, there were already 5 seedlings:
By June 6, 7 out of 8 seedlings appeared. Those plants that crawled out earlier had real leaves:
The first leaves
On June 8, the Russian size sunflower was quite vigorous and felt great in the greenhouse:
Let's calculate the germination rate: The sunflower has grown enough, there is a steady plus on the street - it's time to plant the Russian size in the garden. Since each region has its own agro-climatic features, the planting days of culture in a particular region will be different.
Planted 8 seeds - 100%
7 seeds have risen - X%
X = 87.5%
Germination rate = 87.5%
Thanks for attention!
Sowing dates depending on the region
The sunflower has grown enough, there is a steady plus on the street - it's time to plant the Russian size in the garden.
Since each region has its own agro-climatic features, the planting days of culture in a particular region will be different.
The temperature for warming up the soil should be from + 10 ° С. The growing season is 2.5-4 months. In the northern regions, frosts come early, so early varieties are planted. Then they will have time to ripen before the cold weather.
Despite the simplicity of growing green manure crops, some rules must be followed to get a good harvest:
The structure of the sunflower seed is unique and needs to be calibrated. Then use a 1% manganese solution to etch them. This should take 14 hours. Then make an infusion of garlic and onions, in which the seeds must be kept all night. To do this, you will need garlic (100 g) and onion skins, as well as two liters of hot water (boiling water). This mixture must be infused for 24 hours. Thanks to this tincture, the seeds will not be spoiled by pathogens, and they will not be affected by pests and rodents, at least for the first time.
The soil for sowing a hybrid of a sunflower and a normal plant must be sufficiently moist. Planting depth is 8 cm. Place 2 seeds in each nest. If the sunflowers are large, then the distance between them should be up to a meter, and if the middle ones - up to 60 cm. If you adhere to a sufficient distance, then the new crop will have large seeds.
It is also worth understanding what can be planted in the field after you have harvested the sunflower crop. Since this plant tends to deplete the soil, planting vegetables after it will be pointless. In this case, legumes are suitable, in the form of soybeans, beans or peas. Thanks to legumes, the soil will rest and be saturated with nitrogen. After a year of growing legumes, cucumbers can be planted in the same place.
Gardeners cultivate only 3 types of cosmos, with 1 of them being perennial, and the remaining 2 are annual. As a result of the painstaking work of breeders, a large number of hybrids and varieties of this flowering plant were born.
This herb is an annual plant. It comes from the mountainous regions of Mexico. The height of highly branched erect shoots can vary from 0.8 to 1.5 m. The leaf plates dissected into filamentous lobes are outwardly similar to the foliage of dill. In diameter, the inflorescences reach 7-10 centimeters, they can be solitary or be part of large corymbose inflorescences. The marginal flowers are colored red, purple, white or pink. In this case, tubular flowers in the middle of the inflorescence form a small disc of yellow color. This species is distinguished by lush flowering, and it also gives excellent self-seeding. It has been cultivated since 1799. Today this type is most popular with flower growers. Varieties:
This annual species naturally occurs in Latin America. It is distinguished by its warmth-loving nature. On the surface of erect branched shoots there is pubescence, they reach a height of about 150 cm. The leaf plates are twice or three times dissected into feathery wide lanceolate lobes, which are pointed towards the apices. The color of the reed flowers is yellow-golden or orange. The yellow tubular flowers have protruding dark anthers, and the tips are orange in color. Cultivated since 1799 Varieties:
This species is perennial, and in natural conditions it can be found in Mexico. This species is also called black cosme, because the inflorescences are painted in a very dark shade of red, while the velvety flowers have a chocolate smell. The composition of complex leaf plates includes an unpaired number of leaves. This plant is also very thermophilic, in this regard, experienced gardeners recommend planting flowers in pots that can be brought into the room during winter. When grown in open soil, the cosmeya will need to be covered. Today, terry varieties are especially popular. The most popular are the following varieties: