At first glance, growing potatoes is not difficult at all. But to obtain a plentiful and high-quality harvest, there must be suitable weather conditions, the required amount of nutrients in the soil, high-quality seeds and the absence of diseases and pests. In order for this unpretentious vegetable culture to delight gardeners every year with its delicious fruits, it is necessary to take advantage of foreign experience and try to grow potatoes using Dutch technology.
Dutch potatoes have a strong immunity to common potato diseases. For its cultivation, only natural varieties and hybrids are used. The most popular of them are Asterix, Cleopatra, Mona Lisa, Eba, Prior and Frisia. Each variety has different ripening periods, which makes it possible to significantly increase the amount of harvest.
Dutch methods of growing vegetables and berry crops are already known to many of our gardeners and vegetable growers. For example, the Dutch technology of growing strawberries is successfully applied. Now strawberries can be enjoyed throughout the year.
With potatoes, you can also achieve the same result if you accurately and accurately fulfill all the requirements related to agrotechnical measures. For example, one of the important details of Dutch technology is the frequent and regular loosening of the soil for maximum aeration. Potatoes are grown in special earthen ridges at a great distance from each other. Compliance with all developed agrotechnical processes, care rules will help to get a decent harvest from each bush - about 2 kilograms of potatoes.
Not everyone succeeds in harvesting the expected rich harvest. There are various reasons for this. One of them is insufficient land area. Often the beds are located very close and densely, and the crops - predecessors are not taken into account at all, plus the low quality of the planting potatoes.
Even in the autumn, soil preparation begins for spring planting. First, the entire land plot must be well plowed, and then organic additives, mullein, superphosphate (500 grams per one hundred square meters) and potassium salt (200 grams per one hundred square meters) must be added to the soil. Cultivation of the soil is necessary for the complete destruction of the weed root system on the site.
When plowing again in early spring, it is advisable to add urea to the soil (about 500 grams per one hundred square meters).
Cultivation in a small summer cottage can be carried out using a conventional garden fork, and in large garden or farm fields, a disc cultivator must be used. The cultivator - the milling cutter will help to carry out all the difficult physical work: it will not only crush and loosen the ground, but also level it and dig in it.
Seeds for planting must strictly comply with the following requirements:
Planting material must be germinated until the formation of potato sprouts of a certain size. For planting in a summer cottage, the shoots can be five or more millimeters in length, and in the fields, using agricultural machinery, the length of the shoots should not exceed 5 millimeters. Longer branches break off easily during mass planting.
Before planting seeds, you need to make sure the soil is ready. The determination of soil moisture is carried out in a simple way: you need to pick up a handful of earth in your hand, squeeze it tightly, and then throw it. If the soil is ready for planting, then the lump of earth will easily crumble.
In each planting hole, you first need to pour a small amount of onion husks (to scare off potato pests), then a handful of ash, and already on top of the potato tuber upwards.
If you plant potatoes in early spring, then the green part of the bush will grow more actively, and the root part will form potato tubers at an accelerated rate. The distance between potato holes during planting should not be less than 75-90 centimeters. If such proportions are observed, about a thousand potato tubers for varieties of medium and late ripening times and about 700 tubers for early varieties will be required per one hundred square meters.
Caring for potato beds begins with processing the aisles. At a summer cottage, such processing is recommended to be carried out seven days after planting, and on fields and large plots - after 15-20 days. During this period, potato sprouts are as close to the soil surface as possible, and the weeds are already raging in full swing. Row-spacing is precisely aimed at controlling weeds as much as possible. After all, they can interfere with the development and growth of high-quality young potato tubers.
Farmers use a milling cultivator in the fields. With its help, the top layer of soil in the beds is covered with loosened soil and forms high ridges that do not allow excess moisture to accumulate on the surface. All water flows down the earthen slopes into the aisles.
At the summer cottage, it is also necessary to form ridges on potato plantations. Their height can reach 20-25 centimeters, and they are built using an ordinary garden shovel or hoe. Weed control begins one week after planting and is carried out using the harrowing method. Such soil treatment not only destroys harmful plants, but also protects the soil from drying out, improves air exchange and water permeability, and also has a beneficial effect on the reproduction of beneficial microorganisms.
If the summer cottage is located on an uneven or inclined surface that can harm the development of vegetable crops, then it is worth making a slight alignment. To do this, you can make transverse grooves on the site (more than 50 centimeters wide and about 30 centimeters deep), and between them build additional ridges, which must be strengthened with plantings of winter rapeseed. In winter, this "construction" will also help to evenly distribute the snow that has fallen on the surface, and hence the moisture of the soil.
It is recommended to water potato bushes no more than three times during the entire growing season. The first watering is before the beginning of flowering, the second - one and a half weeks after the start of active flowering, the third - after the complete end of the flowering period.
Preventive treatment of potato plantings with chemicals and preparations should be carried out 5-6 times during the entire season. The very first spraying is carried out only for prevention purposes, without signs of pests or diseases. To protect potato plantings from the worst enemy of the Colorado potato beetle, it is necessary to treat crops with special pesticides before flowering.
Harvesting also requires a little preparatory work. It consists in mowing potato tops. The cut tops are removed, and the potatoes are left in the soil for about 10-15 days until they are fully ripe. Potato tubers, being in the ground, become stronger during this period and are less exposed to damage during the harvesting process. In addition, such potatoes have the ability to long-term storage while maintaining all quality properties and taste characteristics.
In large potato fields, the desiccation method is used instead of mowing the tops. This method allows you to dry the tops of plants by spraying with special chemicals to facilitate further harvesting.
The Dutch technology of growing potatoes is becoming more and more popular in many European countries and farms of our country. You just need to strictly adhere to all recommendations, and a rich harvest is ensured.
Dacha, which is associated with the dacha and country houses. Site about suburban construction.
The main and first advantage of the Dutch potato growing technology is good quality planting material.
To begin with, for sowing it is applied only varietal potatoes, and not a re-grading, which is often planted on domestic dacha farms. Varietal purity must be at least 100 percent.
Also, the reproduction of tubers for planting must be at least the second, as a rule, they are used super elite and elite... Moreover, germination and germination also must be at the level of 100 percent.
At the same time, the tubers are planted without fail. germinated... Their diameter is strictly controlled and should be approximately 55-65 mm. Moreover, the seedlings must be about 2-5 mm in size, in this case, during the use of automated planting, they do not break off.
Important: one of the main features of the Dutch method of growing potatoes is that before planting, the tubers must be treated with special chemicals against aphids.
Aphids are the main carrier of diseases, therefore, as a result, the crop is completely protected from viral action.
Today, along with the use of the Dutch method of growing potatoes, certain varieties of potatoes from Holland are popular in our country, which are distinguished, first of all, by their increased yield, therefore it is necessary to take a closer look at them.
It is surprising that after multiple variety trials, approximately 35 varieties of Dutch potatoes have been registered for cultivation in our country.
However, despite the use of these Dutch productive varieties, the yield during their industrial application did not increase much.
Our domestic potato varieties also have a pretty good yield potential. This suggests that it is not only about the use of high-quality and unique varieties. There are other features due to which the Dutch get their excellent yields.
Traditional planting methods include smooth, ridged and trench planting.
The distance between the tubers depends on the potato variety. Scheme for early varieties: distance between rows - 60 cm, between tubers - 30 cm. When planting late varieties, the indicators increase by 10 cm. Planting depth ranges from 4-5 cm on clay soils, to 10-12 cm on sandy soils.
On loose and moisture-absorbing soil, potatoes are planted under a shovel. In the designated rows, small holes are made into which the tubers are laid. Each planting is covered with earth from a hole in a parallel row.
Ridges are narrow strips of excavated earth. They can be either single or double. In the latter case, the landing holes are staggered. The interval between the ridges is 25-30 cm. This arrangement contributes to an increase in the number of tubers and their mass, and also helps to avoid infestation of potatoes with late blight.
The trench planting method has proven itself well with insufficient moisture. Sprouted tubers are laid in deep (up to 0.5 m) trenches filled with plant residues and soil mixed with wood ash. The planting material is sprinkled with a peat mixture and covered with a film. After the emergence of seedlings, the film is removed, and the sprouts are sprinkled with compost mass and covered again. After the second germination, the procedure is repeated, after which holes are cut in the film for young plants.
Reference. The film suppresses the growth of weeds, and also eliminates the need for hilling and loosening the soil.
They are used in areas with a close occurrence of groundwater and on heavy soils. The potatoes are planted in ridges 15 cm high, 70 cm apart. The embedding depth is from 6 to 8 cm. Holes are dug at a distance of 25-30 cm from the edge of the embankment.
The American method involves planting tubers according to the 22 × 22 cm scheme at the same depth. Suitable for late planting, when the soil warms up to a great depth, as well as for light soils that quickly lose moisture.
The key to growing potatoes using Dutch technology is pre-prepared soil: loose and weed-free.
This technology is convenient for its minimal use of mechanical stress. You need to build high ridges and this is where the inter-row processing ends.
Dutch potato growing technology requires healthy, quality raw materials. If varietal potatoes are used, then they are necessarily highly productive. Seed can be planted if it is treated for various types of diseases.
For one square meter, you must harvest at least 30 tubers for productive seed. Germination begins, and among the best those who have at least five eyes are selected, now the selected planting material must be planted separately so that there are no more than 6 tubers per square meter.
Dutch technology for growing potatoes requires the creation of aisles at a distance of at least 75 cm. If you do not adhere to it, which is most often the case, then the tubers can be damaged during their growth, and denudation and discoloration are also possible.
In addition to the presented technology, there are other, both non-standard and typical methods of growing potatoes in the country, which can be read in more detail on the pages of our website.
Did you like the article? Share it with your friends! (links below)
Compliance with technology and all agrotechnical techniques is a key feature of the method. The slightest deviation threatens with a decrease in yield, obtaining weak plants and a small number of tubers. We will tell you in detail how potatoes are planted in Holland.
For planting, choose a flat area without the slightest slope. The place is necessarily sunny, on a small hill, but by no means in the lowlands where water accumulates. Also, the site should be protected from constant winds to avoid blowing and overdrying the ridges.
The soil should be light and loose, heavy soils are facilitated by the introduction of river sand, too light ones are made heavier with peat.
For planting, select whole tubers without signs of damage or disease, with a diameter of 3 to 5 cm and a mass of 50-60 g. Each tuber must have at least 5 eyes.
Germination begins 30 days before planting. Tubers are poured into one layer in a dark place at a temperature of + 16 ... + 18 ° C. The best bedding is paper or cotton. The number of storeys is not allowed in order to avoid waterlogging of the upper tubers from evaporation from the lower tiers.
For mechanical planting, the shoots should be 5 to 8 mm long; for the manual method, a length of 1-2 cm is allowed. Sorting of tubers according to the length of the shoots is carried out on the eve of planting. Too long shoots will break off with the mechanical method, therefore they are only suitable for the manual method.
Soil preparation begins in the autumn after the harvest of the predecessor plants. Using a reversible plow, the soil is dug to a depth of 25-36 cm, removing weeds and their roots.
Plows swap the top and bottom layers of the soil, which makes it possible to simultaneously disinfect it for pests hibernating in deep layers. Simultaneously with digging, nitrogen-containing fertilizing is introduced, for example, ammonium nitrate or "Nitroammofosku" in the amount of 3 kg per 1 hundred square meters of soil. Sowing of cereals, alfalfa, clover or sweet clover as siderates is allowed.
In the spring, after the soil warms up to + 10 ° C, it is loosened with a cultivator to a depth of 10-15 cm. After loosening, double superphosphate (30 g per 1 m²) and potassium sulfate (30 g per 1 m²) are added.
During sowing, a thin layer - no more than 0.5 cm - of rotted manure, humus, dry chicken droppings and crushed shells is spread into the furrows. To prevent the appearance of a wireworm, dry crushed onion husks are scattered.
When landing in Russia, they rely on the climatic conditions of the region. The risk of night frost must be avoided. Otherwise, the tubers will freeze.
Optimal terms - late April - early May, however, in a year with a cold spring, they can move away until early June.
Row spacing is of great importance in the Dutch technique. To obtain a good harvest, a width of 65-70 cm is set for early potato varieties, and 75-80 cm for late varieties. This facilitates subsequent hilling, reduces the risk of cutting the developing root system.
The distance between the bushes should be 25-30 cm. Tubers are placed in holes or furrows with sprouts up and covered with soil by 4-6 cm.
In conditions of large farms and small private lands, planting is carried out from north to south. Thanks to this method, the plants are evenly illuminated from all sides, the risk of infection with a fungal disease is reduced. The optimal distance between the trenches is 75 cm. The indentations for planting should be 4-8 cm, maximum 10 cm.
Potatoes in the beds are placed in increments of 30 cm. With this arrangement, each bush has the ability to develop normally, and the rhizome receives the required amount of heat and minerals. In order to protect the plantings from wireworm and other pests, the bottom of the beds is sprinkled with onion husks, then fertilized with compost. The tubers themselves are powdered with ash.
To close the trenches, embankments are made 10 cm high and no more than 35 cm wide. Throughout the entire growth period, it will be necessary to periodically add soil. 28-30 days after the first shoots are hatched, the embankment is increased to 25 cm in height and 75 cm in width.
The culture needs regular loosening of the soil and adding soil to the crumbling ridges. In addition, the Dutch cultivation method involves the use of fungicides and herbicides in order to prevent the invasion of pests and the spread of fungal diseases. Performing simple plant care activities allows you to get a good harvest in any region.
Regular loosening of the soil contributes to the uniform development of the ground part and rhizomes, as well as the removal of excess moisture. When using herbicides, it is important to take into account that the effect of the drugs lasts 14 days, therefore, 6 treatments are carried out for the entire period. Prevention with chemicals is carried out strictly before the beginning of budding. It is strictly forbidden to use chemicals during flowering.
When potatoes are grown using the Dutch method, direct irrigation is not used, otherwise the embankments can be destroyed. The best option is a drip system. It ensures uniform penetration of moisture into all soil layers. This watering option saves water and directs it directly to the rhizome.