Video about the breeding of the daylily. How to dig a daylily, how to divide a bush into several parts, how to properly plant a daylily after dividing.
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Lily propagation by scales 1
Take a pitchfork, insert them into the middle of the bump, the second side by side, and try to neatly separate the bush, as shown in the photo. You will receive 2 "delenki", on each of which, in the future, there will be a separate peduncle.
Choose a well-lit area for planting, but not in direct sunlight. It would be ideal to plant a daylily plant under the crown of a tall tree, where the light is diffused, but available.
Astilba is a member of the Kamnelomkov family. The word is translated as "very shiny" due to the special shine of the leaves. The plant develops in the form of a bush with different heights - from 20 cm to 2 m. Inflorescences also have different heights depending on the variety and can reach from 8 to 60 cm in length. Shades of flowers are purple, pink, red in a variety of variations. The flowering period is June-September. The seeds are in a small box.
The inflorescence can be formed in various shapes, therefore, the drooping, pyramidal and rhombic astilba are distinguished.
The historical homeland of Astilbe is considered to be the territories of East Asia, America and Japan.
Daylily: planting and care in the open field
Day-lily - the culture is not so whimsical and will grow under any conditions. But, if you want your daylilies not only to survive, but to look well-groomed and blooming profusely, you need to create all the conditions for them.
First you need to choose a landing site. Daylilies love sunny places... Especially, these are varieties of yellow, pink, white, light, pastel colors and shades.... Sunlight will only emphasize the subtleties of their color.
Reds, purples, purples, and other dark colored varieties prefer partial shade... Because dark colors absorb heat, they fade and fade prematurely very quickly, unable to withstand the bright sun. The top layer of pigment on the petals of the daylily flower seems to melt, creating an unsightly effect of greasy spots. In hot climates, dark shades can change color throughout the day, but sufficient watering will give the daylily a better chance of solving this problem. There should be no large trees and shrubs near daylily plantations, the roots of which will compete for moisture and nutrients, and interfere with the good development of the plant. Daylilies can tolerate windy weather, making them ideal for coastal areas and windy areas.
Ideal soil for daylily, it is - well-drained and rich in organic matter, loose loam with a cultivated layer 45-60 cm thick. If the soil is clayey, heavy, add sand and compost, because planting plants in such soils leads to a spasm of development and rotting of the root system. The optimum acidity of the soil is 6 - 6.5 pH, neutral or slightly acidic. Where the soil is too acidic, lime application will give results at a low cost. Alkaline soils can be corrected with peat and other low pH organic matter. Many gardeners go to great lengths to create the optimal potting mix for the daylily. But, this is usually not necessary. Good garden, not depleted soil will always suit the daylily. The introduction of organic matter into the soil will have a beneficial effect on the growth and development of the plant.
Stagnant water should be avoided, especially in early spring when snow melts. Although daylilies can temporarily tolerate high soil water levels. In this case, the root collar should be above the water level. Landing in raised ridges solves this problem.
We examine the newly acquired plants, remove all dead roots. The foliage should be pruned 10 to 15 cm above the root collar to reduce transpiration losses. We soak the roots of the daylily in a weak solution of fertilizers from several hours to a day, if necessary, since the plants arriving by mail can be quite dry and dehydrated. One of the growth stimulants can be added to the soaking water: in the summer a 0.0015% solution of indolylbutyric acid, the drug "Kornevin", in the spring, in the fall - in a 0.05% solution of indolylacetic acid - an aqueous solution of heteroauxin. Carry out the processing in a dark place at a temperature not exceeding 20 - 23 C. A higher temperature of 28 - 30 C can lead to plant poisoning. Processing at a decrease in temp. below 15 C is not effective. Good for soaking the root system of the daylily, a natural growth stimulant - willow infusion (willow branches are crushed and infused in water for 2 days). We immerse the root system of the daylily in the solution for 4 hours. For the prevention of bacterial rot, especially if the planting is carried out in the summer or there are wounds on the plot, as the consequences of dividing the bush, we treat the root system with a fungicide. Do not forget that after digging and dividing the daylily sprouts, it is imperative to dry the root system for several hours.
If planting was carried out in spring or summer in hot weather, daily watering is recommended for a week. 3-4 weeks after planting, you can carry out the first feeding with liquid mineral or organic fertilizers. If the planting was carried out in the autumn, then we control the soil moisture and before the onset of stable frosts, we must mulch the newly planted plants. If the root collar of the daylily is too deep when planting, the plant may rot and die or, after surviving, not bloom.
The daylily survives long-term drought due to the structure of its root system and natural vitality. There is no doubt that water supplied in sufficient quantity increases the quantity, quality and size of daylily buds. It will promote the fastest growth of daughter divisions of the bush, as well as increase the ability of some varieties to re-bloom, especially during periods of low rainfall. Watering weekly during the growing season will promote good growth and flowering. The amount of water for irrigation depends on the texture of the soil. The main thing is to wet the top layer with a thickness of 20-30 cm well. Considering all the soil and climatic conditions of our region, 1-2 waterings per week are needed to maintain the proper humidity level.
Soil and climatic data south of Ukraine (Southern steppe) The soil on which the site is located is a heavy loam with a pronounced slightly alkaline reaction (with signs of solonetzicity). The thickness of the fertile layer is 0.50 m. White-eye clay lies at a depth of 1 m. The duration of the sunshine is 2308 hours. The frost-free period lasts from 148 to 230 days. The date of the onset of the freeze: the last from 24.03 to 15.05, the first from 17.09 to 20.11. Seasonal and annual precipitation amounts: winter - 90, spring - 92, summer - 129, autumn - 89, 400 mm in total per year. The length of the period with temperature: 5 C - 227 days, 10 C - 181 days, 15 C - 140 days, 20 C - 74 days. Peak winter temperatures are 29 C, + 14 C, summer + 42 C, + 14 C. Regular winter thaws and strong winds.
Sandy soils may require additional watering. Irrigation timed to the planned fertilization is obligatory. The best conditions for retaining moisture is mulching.
The best time of day for watering is evening. It is advisable to water it directly under the bush, especially during the flowering period of daylilies, since surface watering in the form of bathing will lead to spots on the buds the next day of flowering. Avoid potential water blotchiness, rational irrigation - drip irrigation. Although, surface irrigation in the form of sprinkling serves as a good prevention of spider mites and makes the foliage more attractive. On the other hand, foliage that is wet for a long time serves as a breeding ground for many bacterial diseases, but most of them are not afraid of the daylily.
Hybridization of the last 30 years has been mainly aimed at improving the appearance of the flower (variation in shades, interesting edges of the petals, clear, multi-colored, big eyes, clear green throat, sculptural petals, patterns, horns on the petals, etc.). And such characteristics as resistance to disease, beauty and appearance of foliage, tolerance to frost and temperature extremes, tolerance to drought and excessive insolation. let's say in one phrase - the universal vitality of the daylily fade into the background. And we must agree that the modern daylily is becoming more and more whimsical flower. One of the leading American hybridizers, Dan Trimmer, notes in his advice on daylily care that ".. Water, Water and Water - in the first place for the daylily. This is more important than any nutritional program. "
One more fact. In the early 90s, due to a severe drought, the collection of daylilies of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden suffered. Of more than 100 varieties, only 38 have been preserved.
I would like to conclude that the daylily loves water and watering is not very frequent, but abundant, corresponding to the weather conditions and the composition of the soil of the garden plot.
Fertilizing daylilies is a somewhat controversial issue. But, all gardeners agree that daylilies respond very positively to fertilization and feeding. They respond to fertilization with vigorous growth and excellent, abundant flowering. One point to note is that one type of balanced diet is not necessarily the best for all types of soil. It is advisable, before applying fertilizers, to know the shortcomings of your soil in order to compensate for the deficiency of essential nutrients. Sixteen chemical elements are essential for plant growth and development. They are divided into non-mineral and mineral. The first, non-minerals include hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and carbon (C). These nutrients are found in the air and water. And plants are needed for photosynthesis using the energy of the sun. This process is controlled by Nature.
Mineral nutrients are divided into two groups.
Macronutrients - primary, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K). These are the main nutrients that are needed in the first place, since they are consumed in large quantities by the plant for growth and life. Secondary nutrients, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulfur (S). A large amount of calcium and magnesium gets into the liming of acidic soils. Sulfur, as a rule, enters the soil in sufficient quantities with the slow decomposition of organic residues, one of the important reasons for using compost.
Trace elements, are those nutrients that a plant needs for growth and development, in very small (micro) quantities. Recycling organic matter like leaves and grass is an excellent way to provide plants with trace minerals boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), chlorine (Cl), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn).
The pH (acidity or alkalinity of the soil) is one of the important properties of soils, which affects the availability of nutrients to plants. Correct soil pH adjustment will solve the problem of imbalance in plant nutrition. Macronutrients are generally less available in low pH soils. Trace minerals are generally less available in high pH soils. For daylily, the optimal pH is within the range of 6-6.5 pH (neutral). The use of potash fertilizers (one of the ways is spraying with a fertilizer solution, with the addition of surfactants, on the leaf), will help the daylily show the maximum flowering potential and give nourishment to the foliage, and increase resistance to diseases. It is important not to overdo it, so as not to poison the soil. A sign of a lack of potassium in the soil is the browning of the edges of the leaves. The leaves turn yellow. Older leaves are the first to suffer. The use of high doses of nitrogen on daylilies will improve the growth and condition of the foliage, provoke abundant reproduction, but the use of nitrogen at a later date can adversely affect the wintering of the plant. Lack of nitrogen leads to yellowing of the leaves, as well as a slowdown in the growth rate. Phosphorus promotes healthy root growth, seed development and increased disease resistance of daylilies.
Approximate terms and doses of fertilizers used in our soil and climatic conditions.
During the growing season, daylily plants respond positively to watering with infusions of mullein, chicken droppings, fermented herbs (1 liter per 10 liters of water).
The basic rule! After fertilizing, it is good to spill the soil with water.
There is such a fact that the plant satisfies its nutritional needs from the soil by 20%, and 80% from the air. Spray-on liquid top dressing can be up to 20 times more effective than root feeding. Of course, this efficient and economical way of feeding should not replace a good soil fertility program.The pores on the leaves - the stomata - are the main points of absorption of nutrients. This process requires an adequate level of calcium in the soil. Mist type sprayers are best used because the smaller the fertilizer particle size, the better the absorption response of the plant. Daylilies should be sprayed early in the morning or in the evening when the relative humidity is higher. The temperature should be above + 12C. Most of the stomata are located on the underside of the leaf, so the spray nozzle should point upwards, although it is difficult, to spray the underside of the leaf. There is a reciprocal relationship between moon cycles and spray performance. Any six days before the full moon would be ideal for spraying. Highly diluted, soluble artificial fertilizers are used. Urea 1 tbsp. l. 10 liters. water. Nitroammofosk 1 tbsp 10 liters. water. Organic infusions, as an alternative to chemical ones, can be prepared for spraying yourself. Growth stimulants can be added to these infusions.
Fertilization is needed both for young bushes to actively build up green mass and increase the bush, as well as old bushes, in which the central part suffers from nutritional deficiencies and soil depletion. Some commercial growers use high doses of nitrogen fertilizers in the spring to increase the number of divisions. These growers are ready to sacrifice flowering and give all their strength for vigorous foliage growth and for the future development of subsidiaries.
And one more thing, I would like to say about fertilization. Many talk about the unpretentiousness of the daylily and its vitality and that it does not need feeding. But, given that the selection process has been going by leaps and bounds for more than 30 years, every year we get more and more new varieties, they can no longer be compared with the vitality of old varieties. The daylily began to demand more and more attention. It should also be borne in mind that overfeeding will not benefit the daylily. The volume of green mass will increase to the detriment of flowering. An overfed daylily loses its charm. With over-fertilization, the color of the flowers may suffer. The color of the petals becomes uneven, spotty, the originality of the daylily flower is lost. An excess of nutrients that stimulates active growth will not allow the daylily to stop development in time and successfully prepare for wintering. I would especially like to note this fact for evergreen varieties of daylily.
There is no scientific research to substantiate the exact timing of fertilization of daylilies. Each grower relies on his own experience and that of his colleagues. Some growers can apply fertilizers only at the beginning of the growing season. Some, given the unpretentiousness of the daylily, may forget about it altogether. But, in my opinion, if you want to see your plant blooming and healthy, fertilize! Only, in everything there should be a reasonable measure and a business approach.
The word MULCH most likely comes from the German word "MOLSCH" - soft, which began to collapse.
One of the important agricultural techniques in horticulture and floriculture. My opinion is that for the daylily, this agrotechnical technique is simply necessary. It should be borne in mind that more than half of the modern varieties are grown in the southern states and introduced into various climatic zones. The adaptation of the newest varieties can be gradual, over several years, and in order to preserve the evergreen varieties of daylilies, mulching is vital.
Winters in the south of Ukraine are distinguished by their sharp temperature changes from peak positive + 14 C to peak negative - 29 C. This provokes a violation of the dormant period in daylilies in winter, causing their growth, depleting and weakening, followed by freezing, causing leaf necrosis. Alternating thawing and freezing has a very negative effect on the development and normal growth of evergreen daylily varieties. Peak summer temperatures up to + 42 C and frequent strong winds, causing critical overheating and drying out of the soil, also entail negative consequences, which may result in the death of the plant.
Today, many types of natural and synthetic, mineral mulch are used. All of them perform at least three functions - they reduce the loss of soil moisture, suppress the growth of weeds, and protect the soil from temperature fluctuations. Natural mulch improves the structure of the soil in several ways - this is the decomposition of organic residues, the enrichment of the soil with organic matter, an increase in aeration and soil moisture conditions. All these conditions, in turn, stimulate the development of additional roots, favor the further improvement of the soil structure and its biological activity.
There are two types of mulching, cosmetic and functional. Cosmetic mulching is simply a thin layer (2-4 cm thick) that hides the surface of the soil behind a pleasant appearance. Makes the garden more attractive by covering bare soil and giving the landscape a more natural background color. Provides some protection from sun and wind, but is not as stable and reliable as functional mulching. Functional mulching (from 5 cm to 10 cm and more in winter), not only has a natural beautiful appearance, but also gives all the advantages described above.
Understanding the characteristics of various covering materials will help you choose the best type of soil mulching in various agricultural conditions. First you need to take into account the weather conditions, winter-summer.
In my flower garden, I use rotted pine needles, mixed with bark. Pine needles decompose slowly, are resistant to compaction, are easy to work with, and have a pleasant appearance. It has an acidifying effect on our alkaline soils, which is beneficial for the growth and development of daylilies. The only point is that this material is not industrially developed. We harvest it in a nearby pine forest. It is impossible to use fresh bark and chips for mulching, since when watering, toxins begin to leach from the bark, which have a detrimental effect on the plant. For subsequent use, chips and bark are laid for a long time for overheating.
When using an agricultural technique - mulching, in the process of decomposition of mulch, the amount of nitrogen in the soil absorbed by plants can be reduced. For this, we compensate for the loss by adding nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
When mulching, such moments are important. At the base of the bush, there should not be a thick layer of mulch and its large elements, so that the mulch does not interfere with the formation of new layers of children. Every year in the fall, we bring a new portion of pine needles to the site, therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the root collar of the daylily does not deepen over the years, which can negatively affect the growing season.
Fallen leaves and grass cuttings can also be used as mulch. But usually, fresh leaves and freshly cut grass form a barrier that blocks the free movement of water and oxygen in the soil. For best results, when using leaves and herbs, give them time to partially decompose before using them as mulch. They complete decomposition already in the soil next to the plants, contributing to the enrichment of humus, nitrogen and other nutrients in the soil.
Straw is the most widely available and relatively inexpensive material. Effectively inhibits weed growth and reduces soil moisture loss. It is used both in summer and winter, protecting the root system from frost. Although the straw also has some problems, such as germination of seeds in the straw, the reproduction of rodents, does not look very attractive, is easily blown away by the wind and, in the process of decomposition, reduces the amount of nitrogen in the soil. The straw must be renewed every year.
As mulch, you can use natural, natural materials peat chips, humus, bulk manure, compost. The nutrients contained in these types of mulch are gradually transferred to the roots of the daylily, contributing to their better growth and development. For 1 sq. m. of the mulched area is added 130-150 g of urea, 100-150 g of superphosphate, 100 g of potash fertilizers.
In late autumn, we necessarily cover young seedlings, planting daylilies that survive the first winter and bushes of evergreen and semi-evergreen varieties with a layer of rotted pine needles, 20-30 cm thick.In early spring, the plants are freed from mulch and after warming up the earth, in the month of May, the mulch returns to its original place, in the aisles of daylilies, to fulfill its summer function. If the daylily has survived a fungal disease, the mulch around the diseased bush is removed at the end of autumn and replaced with fresh to prevent spores overwintering. I will not talk about mineral types of mulch, such as black film, geotextiles, etc., we do not use them for mulching daylilies.
Few people know, but the flower was used in everyday life long before its appearance in scientific literature and books on botany. For the first time, Karl Linnaeus wrote about him when he compiled works on the systematics of living organisms in the 18th century. In Europe, it was used as a decoration for royal palaces - the plant was planted in large flower beds, while making bizarre drawings from various varieties of flowers.
Long before that, in East Asia, it was also used for landscaping the courtyards and gardens of wealthy nobility. Daylily is a great flower for decorating both large areas and small courtyards and gardens, since the plant is completely universal: it fits into many design concepts due to the unusual appearance of the flower, its optimal shape and size. We recommend that you read the full information on planting and caring for daylily flowers.
With such a variety of varieties and types of daylilies, the florist is faced with a very acute problem of choice. What should you pay attention to first of all, what should be guided by when choosing a variety for your garden?
As strange as it sounds, the beauty and size of the flower are not the defining qualities. Much more important is the reliability of the variety, its unpretentiousness, long and abundant flowering, the resistance of the flower to different weather conditions. All these requirements are met to a much greater extent by old, time-tested varieties, and not by fashionable novelties.
The belonging of the variety to one of three groups according to the duration of the growing season can be found in the catalogs, but this information is not on the colorful packages in which the planting material is sold in garden centers. Therefore, it is better to write out the necessary and suitable varieties of daylilies with names in advance, before going shopping.
Caring for a transplanted plant is no different than for other blackberry bushes. Initially, you need abundant watering. You can't rush to feed. Mineral fertilizers can burn the root system that has not taken root. Over time, after adaptation in a new place, you can begin to introduce organic matter.
Caring for transplanted blackberries requires standard actions:
The transplanted plant initially needs to be properly cared for to establish itself quickly.
More information about transplanting blackberries is shown in the video: