One of the main problems of high beds is the strong subsidence of the soil in winter. This can happen for various reasons, so you need to consider all the options and properly prepare for the cold weather.
Moles, water voles and other rodents settle in high beds with great pleasure, creating numerous passages in the ground. For this reason, the soil can sag heavily by spring. To prevent the appearance of uninvited residents, you can use sound repellents, repellents, traps and traps, as well as poisonous baits (Ratobor, Warat, Last breakfast, etc.).Various ratchets made from bottles or cans, as well as special ultrasonic scarers, work well against moles and other pests with heightened hearing. Another feature of small pests is a sensitive sense of smell, so you can hang rags dipped in kerosene in the garden nearby, or bury herring heads in the ground.
Another effective way to deal with rodents and moles is with a cat or dog that lives on the site.
Predators will quickly ward off pests, and if it is not possible to settle a pet in the country, scatter used cat litter or dog excrement next to the minks. This will create the effect of the close presence of a predatory animal, and the rodents will rush to leave the garden as soon as possible.
Regardless of the material from which the walls of the beds are made, over time they can lose their original shape. Most often this happens not due to defects in the structure itself, but due to flooding of the "external" soil.
To prevent the earth from settling over the winter, check the sides of the beds in the fall, return them to their previous position and, if necessary, strengthen.
If at first glance the structure looks flat, check the fasteners at the joints of each of its walls. Over time, they can weaken or loosen, and then during the winter the soil in the garden bed will surely sag.
Regardless of the size of the structures, they are filled in the same way, filling the soil substrate layer by layer. If, at the same time, make a mistake, distributing the filler unevenly, after a while the layers will surely sag. In this case, you will have to add a new portion of the soil substrate.
Also, the problem of soil subsidence may appear due to the fact that the garden bed has simply exhausted its resource.
This usually happens after 4-5 seasons. By this time, all the organic matter embedded in the structure is finally processed, and the earth begins to sink naturally.
In this case, it is necessary to completely renew the garden in the fall.
Knowing all the reasons why tall beds settle, you can properly prepare them for wintering. The main thing is not to postpone this process and not to hope that the structure will survive the cold without loss.
Before starting any construction, you need to prepare a site for this. And one of the most important procedures is leveling the site, because it is impossible to find a perfectly flat area.
There will definitely be holes, slopes, lowlands and other features of the relief. Therefore, many are wondering how to level the site. Fortunately, this is not a complicated process and with the right training and knowledge can be easily done.
Brief content of the article:
Important stages in preparing a plant for winter are hilling and mulching. When should you start loosening? This can be done at the beginning of autumn, because immediately before the onset of frost, it is not necessary to loosen the ground, as this can cause damage to the root system. The roots will not have time to regain their strength, and this can adversely affect their stability in winter.
Hilling is a mandatory procedure that must be done before the onset of frost. This is due to the fact that adventitious roots grow on the shoots of strawberries, which form the upper tier of the root system. The roots grow from above, but so that they do not dry out and receive nutrition, they need soil. You can huddle with earth or compost, or mix it with peat. When hilling, make sure that the growing point is not covered with earth, because this can cause oppression of the bushes.
You can also mulch the soil around the bushes with humus or peat. They perform a double function: they feed the plants, and they also warm the strawberries in frost. You need to mulch carefully in the fall so that humus or peat does not get on the bushes.
The main reason for the development of keels is the soil, which turns out to be affected by fungal spores. Mushrooms often retain their own viability for a long time, therefore, when planting cabbage seedlings, it is advisable to be very careful.
Otherwise, spores can quickly spread through the root system of the cabbage, with the result that there is a risk of plant death. Infected areas usually appear after diseased cabbage seedlings are planted.
The following unfavorable conditions usually lead to the development of a keel:
For this reason, it is not recommended to plant cabbage in acidic soil.
Before you understand how to save cabbage from keels, it is recommended to take into account the peculiarities of the development of the disease.
For example, if on a sunny and clear day it was possible to notice wilting cabbage leaves, it is advisable to dig up a seedling. The presence of growths on the roots indicates a fungal infection, which turns out to be dangerous for other vegetables.
After the appearance of growths, nutrients cannot reach the root system, as a result of which the plant is threatened with death.
Diseased seedlings cannot fully interact with the soil, as a result of which they can be quickly and easily pulled out. If the growths continue to grow and rot, the plant will not be able to mature and become edible.
Cabbage can be affected by a fungus at any stage of its own development. However, the most vulnerable are young seedlings, which are actively growing.
If you plant seedlings in heavy acidic soil, a fungal disease is inevitable and the cabbage will begin to decline. It should be noted that the change in the color of cabbage leaves should also alert. If you do not take timely action, the plants will wither and dry out, as a result of which the harvest is impossible.
The main thing is that cucumbers for open ground are somewhat different: these are special parthenocarpic varieties and hybrids intended for growing under a film in the ground, as well as bee-pollinated varieties and hybrids. They do not need to be formed into a single stem. Cucumbers such as Othello F1, Paratunka F1, German F1, Baikonur F1 and many others like them can be carried in two or three stems, you just need to avoid excessive thickening of the beds and normalize the number of shoots. To do this, after the fifth true leaf, the main stem must be shortened, and the remaining shoots must be directed in different directions. They are periodically pinned on them. The top should also be pinched upon reaching the top of the support.
It should be noted here that for varieties and hybrids of the old selection (for example, Nezhinsky, Muromsky), strict formation was necessary, since not all flowers on these plants were female. The lateral shoots were mostly male, therefore, these shoots were mostly disposed of. Modern varieties and hybrids are devoid of this disadvantage.
But bunch varieties and hybrids, such as Bingo F1 and Temp F1, in the leaf axils of which more than five fruits are formed, should still be formed according to the single-stem version. After all, if there is an excessive number of side shoots, they will deplete the plant, thereby reducing the quality of the greens. So you need to achieve that the entire crop is concentrated on the central stem.
So, to summarize the main thing: the formation of cucumbers is necessarily performed to increase yields in varieties and hybrids of the old selection, since not all their flowers are female, and for general healing and thinning - in modern varieties and hybrids with predominantly female flowers.
In modern varieties and hybrids, the meaning of formation is different - it boils down to improving nutrition, illumination, and airing the plant. Nevertheless, for excellent quality and a large harvest, it is advisable to form bunch cucumbers according to all the rules.
Precipitation and temperature fluctuations can damage the film, polycarbonate or other covering material. Therefore, it is often necessary to carry out minor repairs.
Pathogenic microorganisms that cause plant diseases can multiply on the walls of the structure and on the soil. Indoor ground is characterized by a special microclimate with high humidity and temperature. In addition, the same plants are grown in greenhouses every year, which creates optimal conditions for the development of microorganisms and insect pests.
Therefore, before processing the greenhouse in the spring after winter, it must be disinfected and properly prepared.
Before working the soil in the spring after winter, you need to remove the snow from the surrounding area. Most often, summer residents bring it inside the greenhouse and scatter it on the ground surface.
This simple technique makes the soil softer and looser, saturates it with useful microelements contained in the melt water. If you skip this stage of natural moisture, the soil will be compacted and it will be difficult for oxygen to pass through.
Snow can be thrown into the greenhouse in February or early March, before it melts. This will help not only loosen the ground, but also get rid of the pest larvae.
Preparing the greenhouse after winter includes the mandatory cleaning of all garden tools left in storage. You also need to remove all wooden pegs, top dressing and other devices that were used by gardeners last year to tie the plants.
The collected garbage should not be thrown away, it is best to burn it. The resulting ash will become an excellent natural fertilizer that saturates the soil with useful microelements. For this, ash is introduced in the amount of 4-5 glasses per 1 sq. m. during digging.
The dismantling of the supports is also carried out, which serve to strengthen the roof and protect it from collapse under the weight of snow. It is advisable to whitewash wooden supports with a mixture of paint glue and lime.
Metal elements should be treated with special anti-rust agents. If they are not at hand, you can use lemon juice with the addition of baking soda or vinegar.
If the polycarbonate sheets are bent or burst under the weight of snow, they must be replaced. In this case, it is necessary to strengthen the base of the structure. Seal gaps in transoms and frames with sealant.
During the spring preparation of the greenhouse for the next season, you need to remove all the dust and dirt that has accumulated over the winter. This procedure should be carried out even if all structural elements were thoroughly washed in the fall.
When choosing how to wash the greenhouse after winter, it is best to give preference to the following means:
If pests were detected in the greenhouse last year, an insecticidal preparation must be added to the washing solution, designed to combat these pests.
Polycarbonate elements should be cleaned with a cloth or sponge on both sides. After application, the soap solution must be washed off - by hand from the inside of the greenhouse and with a strong water solution from the outside.
To prevent harm to fertile soil, care must be taken that the soapy solution does not fall on its surface.
Treatment of greenhouses from pests and diseases is an important element of the spring preparation of the greenhouse. To combat harmful insects and plant diseases, you can use various means - both special preparations and smoke bombs, lime, iodine, copper sulfate or hydrogen peroxide.
How to disinfect a greenhouse before planting:
Spray such solutions inside the greenhouse with a spray gun, trying to process all parts and structural elements.
One of the most effective means of treating a greenhouse after winter is a smoke bomb. Such fumigations are used in case of extensive lesions of the greenhouse with fungal diseases. The use of a smoke bomb should be carried out in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, otherwise you can not only poorly disinfect the greenhouse, but also cause yourself serious harm.
Fumigations are not carried out if the structure consists of unpainted iron parts. Sulfur smoke provokes the development of corrosion and the elements will be damaged.
One way to prepare your greenhouse for the new season in spring is to use charcoal and chopped cuttings sulfur. Combine these substances in equal proportions and transfer to regular kitchen trays.
After that, place the trays with the mixture in the basins and place them inside the greenhouse. Light the mixture and leave the greenhouse with the door sealed. The consumption of components depends on the area to be treated - about 100 g per 1 sq. m.
If fungal or other diseases were detected on the plants last year, all plant particles and twine for the garter must be burned and the soil replaced with a new one.
In the spring, the soil must be prepared for sowing. This can be done in the second half of March or early April. To do this, the soil should be dug up and peat or ash should be scattered over its surface. Instead, you can tighten it with a dark film. This is one of the ways to warm up the soil in a greenhouse, allowing you to start planting seedlings much earlier.
After healing and heating the soil, you can start preparing it, which consists of several stages.:
To prepare the soil for planting, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment of diseases and insect pests. Many summer residents use Fitosporin for this purpose, adding 30 g of the drug to a bucket of water.
The prepared Fitosporin solution can be used in two ways:
After processing, the soil must be covered with a dark film and left for a while. Then remove and let the soil dry completely. Then you can start sowing.
Spring processing of the greenhouse is a great opportunity to prepare the greenhouse and soil for the upcoming season. Due to the observance of several rules and stages of preparation, it is possible to ensure consistently high yields of vegetable and fruit and berry crops, as well as prevent the appearance of pests and the development of diseases.