The cultivation of mushrooms has reached colossal proportions. Today, not only farms, but also summer residents are engaged in their cultivation. The most popular variety of mushrooms is champignons. To grow them at home, you need to make compost. How to do it right with your own hands will be discussed in this article.
Mushrooms need conditions close to natural nature, moist air and specially prepared compost. Its composition should be loose, nutritious. If you do everything right, after 3-4 months you can get a stable mushroom crop. As for normal soil, mushrooms usually do not grow on it.
A specially prepared composition should consist of sources of carbon nutrition, mineral additives. It is this composition that will provide the necessary conditions for the growth of mushrooms. You can buy ready-made soil for mushrooms, however, it is a very costly business. To reduce costs, the substrate is prepared independently.
Mushrooms, unlike vegetable crops, do not contain chlorophyll. Its absence does not allow the plant to synthesize nutrients, so they are not grown in ordinary beds. Only thanks to a special substrate, the vital activity of microorganisms necessary for the growth of fungi occurs.
A quality substrate will allow you to get the most out of this event.
The compost for mushrooms is made on the basis of mown hay (straw). Some gardeners prepare it from fallen leaves, vegetable waste from the garden. The main thing is that the raw materials are not rotten and infected with infections. Later, the used substrate becomes an excellent fertilizer for vegetable beds. The composition must include:
In addition to the composition, experienced gardeners pay special attention to composting. At its core, it is a complex fermentation process for microorganisms. The substrate needs a certain time to be ready for planting the mycelium, so this issue needs to be dealt with in advance.
If the site is not concreted, its surface can be covered with dense cellophane.
To prepare the substrate, straw and manure are taken in equal proportions. You will need a hose for watering or a watering can. A canopy over the site to prevent the compost from being washed away by the rains and it does not dry out. You will also need a pitchfork. The formulations may vary, as there are many options for its preparation. The most popular composition is prepared from the following components:
Straw with organic fertilizers and mineral components are mixed and regularly moistened. To keep the pile wet, you need to water in the morning, in the evening. Every 5 days, interrupt a bunch from place to place. The finished substrate should have a loose consistency and stick to your hands.
So that the resulting composition smells like ammonia and has a brown color, otherwise it is not yet ready.
The manure is taken fresh, if it lies down for a long time, it will not contain the required amount of microorganisms. Straw or grass must not have mold or rot.
You can water it with plain water or with the addition of fermentation activators. The straw must be soaked. The dry components are added during the mixing process, taking into account the proportions to be respected.
The process of preparing the substrate for champignons is long and complicated. If you follow all the recommendations, the result will be excellent raw materials for growing mushrooms. On a self-prepared substrate, you can grow 100-150 kg of fresh mushrooms.
The mushrooms grown in this way are economically viable for the purpose of selling. The technological process of breaking up the compost is as follows:
In order for the pile to rotate qualitatively, the straw can be pre-crushed in a feed crusher. Thus, you can grind large grass, leaves, branches.
They depend on the raw material, the degree of its grinding and the season. Fermentation is faster in hot weather. Uncrushed raw materials can rot for years. In this case, you need to use biological products Baikal, Renaissance, Radiance.
However, you can do without them, experienced gardeners use yeast or whey for this purpose. It is better if the raw material is overdue for several days than not completely fermented. On average, straw and manure compost takes 22-25 days to prepare.
The labor expended on the preparation of compost will be more than justified. The better the composition, the richer the harvest from the mycelium will be. Subsequently, the used substrate is scattered over the beds or greenhouses, it will still serve other plants.
Growing mushrooms at home is a laborious process. It requires a certain investment, time, and a competent approach. The main element for the development of mushrooms is the right soil.
In the natural environment, champignons grow actively on soils rich in organic matter. The more manure residues and rotted plants in the ground, the higher the likelihood of meeting the mushroom family. The best nutrient medium for mushrooms is a substrate that is close in composition to natural.
For a long time, horse manure has been an invariable component used in the manufacture of do-it-yourself compost for mushrooms. However, the scale of champignon production increased, and the demand for manure increased. The bio-substance supplied by the stables became insufficient, and it was gradually replaced by poultry droppings and cattle feces.
The second essential component for making compost is straw. The priority is to use straw after harvesting wheat, rye. Lower quality substrates will be made from barley, oat and rice straw.
The compost for champignon mushrooms should not contain rotten, rotten straw. The quality of raw materials depends on compliance with storage standards. Good quality straw is stored in a dry, well-ventilated area. The product left on the ground or without a canopy will melt, becoming an ideal breeding ground for mold and fungi. A poor-quality component reduces the level of mushroom production by at least 2 times. The optimal result is considered to be a yield of 15-20% of the weight of the substrate.
The recipe for mushroom compost consists of preparing several components:
Possible compositions of compost for growing mushrooms:
|Components||Horse manure with chicken droppings||Based on bird droppings||Sheep dung based||On the basis of sawdust||Horse dung based||Based on corn cobs and droppings|
|Weight (kg) / percentage|
|a piece of chalk||5/2%|
The choice of a recipe for making compost for mushrooms depends on the place of residence, the proximity of livestock farms and agricultural enterprises, the ease of transportation of each component.
To select high-quality raw materials, you need to visit livestock farms, agricultural enterprises, make sure that the standards for storing straw (sawdust, bulk components) are observed, and make sure that the quality of nutrition of animals whose feces are used in the production of the substrate. After verification, prepare contracts for the supply of all components of the nutrient medium for growing mushrooms.
To obtain compost with the optimal content of all the necessary substances, allowing you to grow mushrooms, there is several variations of its composition... They can be cooked on sunflower husks, with mycelium, and also from sawdust. The main ingredient in the manufacture of such a mixture is horse manure.
In this version, the mushroom compost contains:
This composition contains the following ingredients:
This substrate is chemically identical to the mixture using horse waste, but it contains other ingredients, such as:
Corncob compost recipe:
The sawdust compost contains the following ingredients:
In some cases, straw can be replaced with fallen leaves, grass or hay.
The first thing to know if you decide to grow mushrooms on your own is that these mushrooms do not grow in ordinary soil. So in order to grow good and healthy mushrooms, you must first prepare a nutrient medium for growing them. And here you can find out how you can properly prepare such a soil for growing homemade mushrooms.
For these mushrooms, there is a special technology that has been proven for years. Although they consider it rather difficult, and those who like to master the preparation of the substrate right away will be a problem on their own, there is still nothing stopping you from trying. Mushrooms require a lot of attention and patience, and compost will make it easier for you to care for them in the future. Some people prefer to buy a ready-made compound in the store, and if you trust the manufacturers and are ready to spend money, then you will save a lot of time. But still, many modern gardeners prefer to do everything themselves, and we invite you to find out exactly about independent production.
Everyone understands how convenient it is to grow mushrooms on their own, and even summer residents can afford such a pleasure. Champignons are a versatile product that you can cook in any way. And so, in order to properly grow mushrooms, you need favorable conditions for them, as is the case with any other vegetable, fruit, etc. Since the garden environment is not where mushrooms grow, you need to create one. So that it resembles natural conditions with a sufficient amount of air and other components. The compost for mushrooms is made especially loose and nutritious for the necessary components.
The soil will be "preparing" for a while, but after 3 months you will be able to start growing a large-scale harvest of mushrooms. What should compost for mushrooms have, it is important that the composition contains carbon and mineral additives. You can achieve such a composition on your own, just observe all the proportions and spend a little time. Buying such compost is a costly business, which gardeners decide, but only to avoid a lot of time. But any good harvest requires your concentration and diligence, of course mushrooms are no exception. Already from the above, you could understand that mushrooms do not grow next to other vegetables, since the ripening process is different for them and mushrooms do not contain chlorophyll.
The key to success and a good future harvest lies precisely in the composition of the compost. Only with good quality compost can you get the most out of mushroom growth. The first thing you need is hay. It is this that serves as the basis for the compost for mushrooms, therefore the first ingredient is mowed hay.It is better to carefully check it for damaged pieces, it is important that rot or infection is not contained in the future compost. After that, you can collect some more foliage and herbs, which are good at supplying air and the necessary nutrition. The next important part will be manure, of course, where without it. Manure or chicken droppings will be a source of organic nitrogen. You also need chalk, gypsum or flour in compost for mushrooms, such components are needed as mineral additives for the substrate. And you also need different bio-activators for cooking.
In addition to all the ingredients, the cooking process itself requires attention. Copying is an unusual and difficult process of fragmentation of microorganisms. You will need to wait a certain amount of time and understand what stages the compost has gone through. Only when the time comes will the substrate be ready for planting. Therefore, already 2 months before the season, they begin to engage in all the preparations for growing mushrooms.
Manure and straw are taken in equal proportions. Since the mass will need to be moistened often, think over the entire watering process in advance. If it rains, then it is impossible for water to fall on your workpiece.
Since mushrooms are grown on a plot separate from other vegetables, prepare a separate area for champignons. Soak the straw in one place. Make sure the compost is not connected to the ground and is completely separated from it. Also, the area where you will grow mushrooms should be fenced with bumpers of about 50 centimeters. The straw is poured in a ratio of 1 to 4 (10 kg of straw and 40 liters of water).
When all the conditions are met, the site is ready, and the main ingredients are prepared, you can start preparing the substrate. Pay attention to the presented step-by-step instructions:
The resulting "structure" is watered several times a day, but the amount of liquid should be moderate - it should not flow out from below. After 5-6 days, the pile is mixed - it is important to place the outer layers inside, and vice versa. Is it done? The structure is re-poured with water.
The whole process of maturation of the home substrate should be accompanied by 3-4 interruptions. When the "soil" is mixed for the last time, friable gypsum (30-50 kilograms) is added to it. The resulting mixture should be moist, but not very heavy. Everything worked out? Leave the mass to "settle" for another three days.
The finished compost is placed in boxes or on racks, where mushroom mycelium is immediately planted. The agronomist can only ventilate the room and maintain the air temperature necessary for the growth of mushrooms.
1. Find a suitable place. Ideally, a spacious concrete area under a canopy, protected from direct sunlight and precipitation.
2. Take equal parts of straw and manure. Put the straw in a clean container, cover with water and leave for 2-3 days to soak.
3. At this time, prepare a mixture of the remaining components (chalk, gypsum, urea and superphosphate). You should have a homogeneous powder.
4. Place the compost in layers. First, spread the straw on the prepared place, moisten it with water, sprinkle with a powdery mixture, then put a layer of manure and sprinkle with powder too. Thus, it is recommended to lay eight layers (4 - manure and 4 - straw), in this case, a pile should be obtained with a width of about 1.3-1.5 m and a height of 1.5-1.7 m.
Compost preparation scheme for champignons
5. Soon the substrate will begin to rot and heat up. When the temperature reaches 60-70 ° C (usually after 3-5 days), stir the compost heap with a fork and during this process add 1-3 buckets of water (the nutrient substrate should be moist all the time, but the water should not drain it).
In this way, mix the compost for a month, doing this procedure every 4-5 days. Over the entire period of preparation of the nutrient substrate, about 400 liters of water should be consumed per 100 kg of straw.
How to tell if mushroom compost is ready to use? The substrate should be brown, moderately moist, crumbly and free of a strong ammoniacal odor. If you squeeze a small amount of compost in the palm of your hand, the particles should not adhere, leaving water droplets on the skin. If the substrate is too wet, stir it well and let it sit for a couple of days to allow some of the liquid to evaporate.
6. Put the ready-made nutritious substrate for mushrooms in several wooden boxes that fit on the shelves and compact.
Thus, you get 250-300 kg of substrate for growing mushrooms at home. Find out how to deal with compost further from our article.