Soil care: mistakes of agricultural technology


Read the previous part. ← Soil care: you need to feed the soil, not the plants!

Seventh mistake

Such a technique as mulching the soil is little used - this is the seventh mistake.

Soil mulching

allows you to keep the soil moist and fertile, mulch inhibits weed growth, fights well

with pests and plant diseases

... When mulching, less energy is spent on weeding, watering and other work.

It is good to use as mulch

peat

mowed grass from the lawn,

sawdust

fallen leaves and so on.

In the garden on the trunk circle, you can use black plastic wrap as mulch, stones laid out with beautiful ornaments, decorate the trunk circle with boards.


Eighth mistake

Liming acidic soils

poorly conducted - the eighth mistake. Almost all

soils in our Northwest region are acidic

... And the fight against soil acidity is either not carried out at all or is carried out in violation of technology. Everyone knows what lime is and what it is for, but they do not know how to use it correctly. Most often, gardeners and vegetable growers usually create the appearance that liming is being carried out. They are trying somewhere, somehow to sprinkle the beds with lime. But in most cases they do not know how to properly liming the soil.

Plants on acidic soils often starve, an excess of hydrogen blocks the pathways of metabolic reactions between the root and the soil, plants are deprived of the ability to absorb nutrients, although there are sufficient nutrients in the soil.

Lime fertilizers must be applied correctly. First, observe the dose. In five years, each square meter of soil must receive at least one kilogram of dolomite flour. Lime can be applied once or in portions annually. Secondly, the main condition for the correct application of lime fertilizers is thorough mixing of lime with the soil. This condition is practically not met.

Vegetable growers "dust" a little with lime and think that this is liming. But it’s not like that. With proper liming, finely ground dolomite flour must be evenly scattered over the soil surface, then immediately thoroughly mix it with the entire mass of soil by digging, while achieving the most complete mixing of the soil with fertilizer. Simply scattering lime over the surface of the soil is ineffective. Lime is a water-insoluble fertilizer, it does not react to neutralize acidity in layers, lumps. And in this case it is wasted.

To neutralize acidity, it is necessary that the finely ground lime fertilizer is thoroughly mixed with the soil so that all lime particles come into contact with all small soil particles. This is the secret of liming, the secret of the interaction of alkaline fertilizer with acidic soil. Here, as in chemistry, the reactions proceed after thorough "shaking up", mixing of all interacting components.


The ninth mistake

Many gardeners and vegetable growers like to "save" on fertilizers - this is the ninth mistake. They don't buy or contribute

a complete set of fertilizers

, but they like to make one kind of fertilizer. It seems to them that the plant needs only him at the moment.

They often ask - how to feed the plants, do they grow badly? This is a fundamentally wrong question. The use of some nitrogen or some phosphorus or some other fertilizers unilaterally violates the nutritional regime of the soil, creates an imbalance of nutrients and does not give positive results.

The rule is not to save on fertilizers. Plants need a full range of fertilizers, approximately the same as indicated when considering the first error (see the first part of this article). Fertilizers are not dangerous, their shortage is more dangerous, plant starvation is dangerous. Plants, when starving, accumulate more toxic compounds in food products.

For example, an increased content of nitrates in products does not appear at all due to the fact that nitrogen nitrate fertilizers have been introduced, as many think, but due to the fact that plants cannot assimilate them, digest them, since they are starving from a lack of copper, cobalt, molybdenum and other trace elements. Microelements and enzymes containing them are responsible for the conversion of nitrates into amino acids and protein. With a lack of trace elements, there is an accumulation of nitrates in the cell sap of plants and the conversion of nitrogen into amino acids, while proteins are delayed. We learn about this by the increased content of nitrates in food products.

The tenth mistake

Agrotechnology of plant cultivation is often violated - this is the tenth mistake. Instead of precise technology, some kind of soil cultivation technology that is convenient or easier for the gardener is often used. Variants are invented, how to simplify the technology, to do without digging the soil or other measures. They forget to close the moisture in spring in time, do not carry out early spring harrowing, instead of moldboard or moldless plowing, light surface tillage is used, which supposedly helps to reduce soil contamination by weeds.

Plant nutrition areas are not maintained, thickened plantings are most often used. The necessary fertilizer application systems, weed control systems, plant diseases and pests are not being implemented. People often forget to dig the soil in autumn. Do not conduct

crops of catch crops, green manure

... Irregular watering of the soil. Digging the soil is often carried out poorly, there are many lumps, irregularities, and so on. These are all "wounds" on the ground that do not heal for a long time.

Gardeners and vegetable growers, having received a summer cottage and arriving at the country, think that they are the owners here, kings and gods, they do what they want. In fact, the gardener and vegetable grower at their summer cottage is just a small link in the natural food chain. On well-groomed and fertile soil, nothing threatens the gardener, but on "unkempt soil" there are much more threats. In the United States, a large fine can be paid for an unkempt lawn, for unmown grass on a lawn.

The fight against weeds, pests and plant diseases is weak, the garden area usually turns into a real breeding ground for unnecessary plants and dangerous organisms. It is easy to cope with weeds in the germination phase by simple harrowing of the soil (forgotten), in a more adult state, it is necessary to destroy weeds before flowering and ripening of seeds (forgotten), when pests and diseases spread above the harmfulness threshold (death of 15-30-50% of the crop), go on more effective means and even on chemical means - they also forgot.

Among the violations of agricultural technology are often irregular and insufficient

watering the soil

... Variable moistening and drying of the soil is very dangerous, while soil fertility is sharply reduced. During alternating drying and moistening, the nutrients are fixed by the soil irreversibly, they enter the crystal lattice of minerals and become inaccessible to plants. The rule is to water the soil wisely, it is better to do this not often, but abundantly. It is necessary to water the entire feeding area, and not just around the plant in the hole.

Accurate observance of agrotechnical requirements for plant cultivation, soil cultivation is the law of safety, obtaining ecologically safe food. Each stage in the technological chain of plant cultivation must be carried out accurately and on time.

On our soils, it is difficult to do without spring harrowing to cover moisture, spring plowing with a turnover for fertilizing, repeated cultivation and weeding in the fight against weeds, autumn digging of the soil to combat weeds and dangerous diseases and pests. And this is an incomplete list of mandatory activities that every gardener should carry out.

In addition, it is necessary to create paradises for soil and garden animals, they will help gardeners and vegetable growers to comply with the agricultural techniques of plant cultivation. Ladybug eats a day

up to 150 aphids

, toads and frogs destroy insects and eggs of snails, bees and bumblebees pollinate plants - and this is only a small thing that garden animals do on your site.

To create favorable conditions for soil and garden animals, it is necessary to organize a useful mess in some corners of the dacha - an overgrown corner, a compost heap, a place with hemp and twigs to attract birds, hedgehogs, lacewings, hoverflies, and so on. Create beautiful heaps of brushwood, stones, boards, a corner with nettles and food plants for butterflies, caterpillars and birds, shelters for frogs, toads, hedgehogs. They are friends of gardeners and gardeners and hardworking helpers.

We hope that our advice will help you, dear readers, to avoid mistakes in summer cottage farming. There are many of them, but let them become less for you. We wish you every success!

Gennady Vasyaev, Associate Professor,
Chief Specialist of the SZ Regional Scientific Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener


Read all parts of the article "Soil is the most important thing!"
- Part 1. Soil care: what the soil is made of
- Part 2. Soil care: air, mineral and organic components
- Part 3. Soil care: liquid phase or soil solution
- Part 4. Soil care: you need to feed the soil, not the plants!
- Part 5. Soil care: agricultural mistakes

Agrotechnics currant

The optimal place on the site is an open area with a maximum of lighting throughout the day. The culture feels good on any light and moist soils, especially chernozem loam.

Landing

Currants are planted in late autumn or with the arrival of spring - before bud break. The main condition is to prepare the soil in advance. 1-2 weeks before planting, planting holes or trenches 40-50 cm deep are dug out and each is filled with fertilizers (6 kg of rotted manure or compost, 20 g of superphosphate and sulfate), which are thoroughly mixed with the soil.

You can add 0.5 liters of wood ash to the hole.

On soils of medium texture, the planting of a seedling is carried out with a deepening of the root system by 8–10 cm. On clayey heavy soils, it is not necessary to deepen the roots of the seedling.

Before planting, the pits are moistened. Saplings are cut, keeping 3-5 buds on one branch. When planting, the plant should be upright. The roots are straightened, covered with soil, watered. The settled soil is trampled down, covered with a layer of mulch (straw or peat).

Seedlings of zoned varieties are selected as follows: for the first commercial grade - the presence of 2 or more stems with a length of 40 cm, five skeletal roots 20 cm long for the 2nd commercial grade - the presence of 2 or more stems 30 cm long and three roots 15 cm long.

In order to preserve the seedlings without damage before planting, their roots are dipped in an earthen chatterbox, after which they are added dropwise for a while. The chatterbox is prepared from clay and mullein, diluted in water until creamy and thoroughly mixed. When storing seedlings, it is important to prevent the roots from drying out.

Landing patterns

When breeding currants, either a single arrangement of bushes is used, or a single row. At the same time, the optimal row spacing is 2.5–3 m, and between bushes in a row - 0.6 m.

Top dressing

Any kind of currant is responsive to applied fertilizers. If the soil in the planting pit has been thoroughly fertilized, then during the next 2-3 years of the growing season, the bush is not fed. It is enough in the fall to close up the mulch in the root area, which is laid out in the spring.

After 2-3 years, during the autumn digging process, dry potassium-phosphorus fertilizers (30 g per bush) are added to the soil. Ammonium nitrate or urea is applied in early spring - in the form of a solution or scattered directly over the snow (25 g per plant).

In the flowering phase, organic fertilizing is preferable for the bushes: bird droppings (diluted with water 1:15) or mullein (1:10). In the fruiting phase, immediately after flowering, currant bushes are sprayed with zinc sulfate dissolved in water or Ovary.

In summer, under the currant bush, you can put weed stems weeded from the ridges. They overheat and become a good fertilizer.

Pruning

Immediately after planting, the initial pruning of the bushes is performed. It is recommended to shorten all shoots, leaving 5 cm from the soil surface. In the first year of harvest there will be no branches, but powerful young stems and a root system will develop. Low initial pruning should stimulate the development of 3-4 strong stems up to 0.5 m in length.

In the process of rejuvenating the currant bush, shoots older than 4 years are removed

Rejuvenating bush pruning

The purpose of pruning rejuvenation is to stimulate the renewal of the bush, the growth of young shoots that will bear fruit in the next season. A simple way of rejuvenating currant pruning for beginner fruit growers: annually remove one fourth of the branches of the bush. To do this, mentally divide the bush into 4 parts, one of which will be removed. With this approach, there will be no shoots older than 4 years of age. Dried, stunted and affected branches are subject to mandatory removal.

A more complex procedure for rejuvenating a bush involves removing branches:

  • lying on the ground
  • directed inside the bush
  • injured
  • lean (the main crop of currants ripens on 2-3-year-old shoots)
  • weak growth in the current year.

At the end of the rejuvenation procedure, the tips of the preserved shoots are cut off for fruiting (not "nulls") to the place where the wood has matured well. This promotes the growth of shoots and large fruits.

The procedure for rejuvenating the bush is aimed at the possibility of free (without interference) regrowth of the so-called zero shoots extending from underground roots.

Video: pruning and rejuvenating the currant bush

Processing currants from diseases and pests

Even compliance with all the rules of currant farming does not guarantee the protection of the bush from harmful insects and diseases. Currant bushes are often attacked by pests - gooseberry fire, aphid, currant glass, sawfly, kidney mite. Diseases with powdery mildew, anthracnose are not excluded. The fight against uninvited insects and ailments can be carried out in all known ways - from folk to the use of popular chemicals. In addition, all damaged shoots are cut out on the plant. They are necessarily burned. This is done in early spring or late autumn. After removing the fallen leaves, the soil under the bush is dug up.

Any disease of the currant is easier to prevent than to eliminate its consequences later. For this, various preventive measures are carried out. In particular, watering currants with boiling water is considered one of the most effective measures to prevent diseases and harmful insects. The procedure is recommended to be performed even before the snow cover completely melts. The bushes are sprayed with boiling water from a watering can, processing not only parts of the plant, but also the soil. Boiling water, heating the soil, has a positive effect on the awakening of the kidneys, increases the plant's immunity.


The needs of young and old trees differ in the amount of fertilizers. Older trees have a large above-ground mass and well-developed roots, therefore, the amount of fertilizer is needed more than for young plants. So, under young trees, you need to apply 25 g of nitrogen, 20 g of phosphorus and 15 g of potassium in the spring, and after flowering, 12 g of potassium and 15 g of phosphorus in the form of appropriate fertilizers. For trees older than 7 years of age, this dose of fertilizer can be safely doubled.

In June and July, young trees need to be watered every week - a couple of buckets of water under each, but trees over 7 years old can be watered once every two weeks, but the water rate needs to be doubled. Since August, young and old trees in the garden need to be watered once a month - a bucket of water for a young one and two buckets of water for a tree over 7 years old. Drip irrigation is very effective, it is desirable to use it if possible.

After watering or heavy rain, the soil in the near-trunk strip of young trees must be mulched with a layer of humus a couple of centimeters; for trees over ten years old, mulching can be omitted.

1. Installation of supports under the branches of the apple tree

2. Tinning in row spacings


Is it possible to grow asparagus at home

Growing asparagus at home exactly as a vegetable plant is a thankless task. And the question is not even about special care. It's just that the asparagus rhizome needs too much space for normal development, both in depth and in width. It is unlikely that it will be possible to provide the plant with sufficient soil volumes in the conditions of small balconies. But to keep asparagus as an ornamental plant - please. Indoor asparagus (this is how asparagus is called in Latin) will decorate any corner of the apartment with fresh greenery.

At home, asparagus can only delight you with an abundance of greenery.


Thuja western. Agricultural rules

Western thuja varieties differ in the shape and color of the crown, as well as in the height of the plants. Thanks to this, among all their variety, you can choose those that are suitable for a garden of any size.

Agricultural rules

These plants thrive in full sun and light shade. In full shade, the needles will become loose and rare. Thuja western well tolerate frost and relative drought. This is an unpretentious plant, but nevertheless, certain conditions for its growth must be observed. The most suitable soil for thuja is fertile loam, which is rather loose and moist. Thuja needles growing on poor soil, over time, acquire a yellowish tint, but the plant does not lose its overall decorative effect.

A planting pit for a thuja is prepared as follows: its dimensions should be 2 times larger than a clod of earth of a planted plant, sand, peat and humus are poured onto the bottom, mixing with ordinary soil. When planting a western thuja, it is important not to deepen the root collar of the seedling and not plant it so that it is too high above the soil level. Having planted a plant, the earth is tamped so that there are no voids, and watered. After finishing planting, it is recommended to mulch the trunk circle. Crushed tree bark, wood chips or gravel are most often used as mulch for conifers.

Thuja care

Within 30 days after planting, the plants are watered once a week. In addition, a procedure such as sprinkling the crown is carried out. For the winter, it is recommended to cover the western thigh with burlap or non-woven material in order to avoid sunburn in early spring. If, nevertheless, the shoots are burnt, and the needles have acquired a yellow-brown tint, then they must be removed. Soon, new healthy branches will grow in their place. Top dressing is carried out with fertilizers for conifers according to the scheme described on their packaging.


Watering

Lilacs are not demanding for watering, most species and varieties are drought-resistant. Abundant watering is required only after planting the seedling. If it was planted under unfavorable conditions (in spring), then throughout the summer it will also be necessary to monitor the plant, water it as the soil dries up and spray it with water if the foliage loses its elasticity.

The established plants are watered only during the flowering period, if at this time it is hot dry weather. If the summer turned out to be sultry and dry at all, from time to time it is good to water the lilacs both under the root and from above - to make her a "shower" from a hose. Closer to August, watering is stopped. When the weather in summer is not too dry and there are occasional rains, lilacs will have enough moisture received with precipitation.

During flowering, one of the additional types of care for lilacs is picking June beetles from it. These are large shiny beetles of emerald green color. They very willingly feed on lilac flowers, devouring its inflorescences and making them very unattractive. Therefore, in order to preserve the decorative effect of the shrub from the beetle, we have to fight.


Young garden soil care

For a number of years, young trees do not use the entire area allotted to them, therefore, strawberries, carrots, beets, onions, cucumbers, tomatoes, vegetable beans, radishes, early cabbage, potatoes, etc. the growing season (late cabbage, zucchini, eggplant), berries (raspberries, currants, gooseberries), as well as cereals, sunflowers, corn, which attract many mice and are competitors for fruit plants in water and nutrients.

The period before the garden begins to bear fruit (5-6 years after planting the trees) is most favorable for growing vegetables. Therefore, in a young garden, cabbage and cauliflower, onions, root vegetables, zucchini, pumpkin, tomatoes, dill, lettuce, radishes, potatoes, sorrel, and rhubarb are grown.

At the beginning of the fruiting period (age 6-9 years), root crops, tomatoes, early white cabbage and cauliflower, onions, lettuce, dill, sorrel, rhubarb, early potatoes are grown in the garden.

In the first years of the fruiting period (the garden is about 9-15 years old), tree crowns do not yet reach full development. Therefore, beets, turnips, cauliflower, onions, lettuce, dill, rhubarb, sorrel are grown in the garden.

During the period of full fruiting (the garden is 18-20 years old and more), the most shade-tolerant crops are grown: table beets, onions, lettuce, sorrel, rhubarb.

Since the bulk of the roots of a fruit tree is located within the near-trunk circle, it is kept in a loose and weed-free state. In the fall, after harvesting, the soil is dug up to a depth of 18-20 cm under an apple tree and a pear and 12-15 cm under a cherry and plum tree. Near the trunk, the soil is dug to a depth of 5-6 cm. One should not be afraid of some damage to the roots. Usually roots with a diameter of less than 6-8 cm (pencil thickness) are easily regenerated. Thicker skeletal and semi-skeletal roots must be protected from mechanical damage.

Fallen leaves are raked up and piled up for composting or burned before digging. In the spring and in the first half of summer, the trunks are weeded and loosened (with a pitchfork, a hoe) 4-5 times to a depth of 5-10 cm.

In August, loosening of the soil is not carried out, as this contributes to the ripening of shoots and the preparation of trees for winter. This system of soil maintenance in near-trunk circles, called black steam, degrades the properties of the soil after 7-8 years or more. Therefore, it is advisable to replace this system.

One of the best systems for keeping soil in near-stem circles is mulching. In this case, peat, humus, manure, leaves, compost, mowed grass, sawdust, paper, various synthetic films, sand or stones are used.


Peonies have faded - what to do?

When winter comes, trim the leaves of the herbaceous peonies as close to ground level as possible, and sprinkle the soil with ash. For tree species, shelter is required: mulch the ground with peat, and wrap the stems with burlap or dense material until spring.

With proper care, herbaceous peonies grow at one point for about 15 years, and tree species even longer. Therefore, do not be lazy to follow the recommendations for the maintenance of these wonderful perennials, which will decorate your site every summer.

Peonies not only look five in the garden. They are also gorgeous cut flowers that last up to 10 days in a vase. In order to enjoy their appearance and smell in the house more genuinely, it is better to cut peonies in buds. The best time to cut is early morning or evening.

Hope we have encouraged you to plant some great peonies in your garden.



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