It is difficult to find a garden plot without black currant bushes. It is planted by everyone and everywhere - a garden, a vegetable garden, a summer cottage. The most difficult thing is to decide on the choice of varieties, there are now more than 200 species of them.
Currant berry is tasty and healthy... In order for it to be fresh on our table longer, it is desirable to have varieties of different ripening periods on the site.
In terms of ripening, currants are divided into early, medium, and late. Consider early ripening currant variety - Selechenskaya.
The variety was obtained by A.I. Astakhov in the 90s of the last century as a result of crossing the varieties Seyanets Golubki and Bradthorpe (line 32-77).
According to the State Register, it is recommended for cultivation in the Central, Central Black Earth parts of Russia, as well as in Western and Eastern Siberia. It can also be grown throughout Ukraine and Belarus.
Berries are large, weighing 2.2-5.0 g, roundish, black, medium thickness of the skin, dry separation of berries. The berries ripen in the first decade of July. The berry is sweet, taste 4.6 points on a 5-point scale.
The purpose of the berries is universal, according to their characteristics, they are good both fresh and in freezing and processing.
Winter hardiness of the variety is good, resistant to spring frost, drought tolerant.
The advantage of the variety is its high yield. (up to 2.5 kg / bush), large-fruited berries, high taste (soft sweet, dessert), amicable ripening of berries. Resistance to powdery mildew and kidney mites is good.
The Selechenskaya currant variety belongs to the intensive type varieties and therefore demanding on soil fertility, fertilizing and watering in dry years.
The Selechenskaya currant has a more promising, improved version - Selechenskaya-2. The variety takes its rightful place among large-fruited and early counterparts.
Compared to its predecessor he is more productive (3.5 kg / bush), the size of the berries reaches 5 g, the berries are sweeter with a pronounced currant flavor. The skin of the berries is thin. Tasting assessment of berries 4.9 points. Ripens at the end of June.
The variety is less demanding on cultivation agrotechnology (high frost and drought resistance), resistant to powdery mildew and anthracnose.
The bush is compact, erect, branches under a bountiful harvest do not bend and do not need a garter. This is the best variety of the breeder A.I. Astakhov.
Description and characteristics of the Selechenskaya-2 currant variety:
Selechenskaya black currant, like any black currant, hygrophilous plant with a shallow root system... This must be taken into account when choosing a landing site.
The place should be well lit, but not in the sun (at midday it is desirable for her to be in partial shade), sufficiently humid and protected from the winds.
The planting pits are filled with organic fertilizers and ash, if desired, mineral fertilizers are added, for example, superphosphate. The soil in places where currants are placed should not be acidic, for deoxidation, lime is introduced into the soil from autumn for digging at the rate of 0.5 kg / m2.
You can plant currants both in spring and autumn, but autumn planting is preferable.
Black currants are planted at a distance of 1-1.5 m between the bushes in planting pits 40 × 40 cm in size.
Planting a bush is made at an angle of 45 degrees, which will promote the formation of additional roots and new shoots from buried buds.
When planting, the seedling is deepened to 10 cm and cut off the branches, leaving 3 buds above the soil surface. This will promote better rooting and development of the seedling.
After planting, the planted currant bushes are watered, the earth is compacted and mulched. For the winter, we cover the young seedling with fallen leaves for better wintering.
If you decide to plant black currants in the fall, then you need to do this two weeks before the onset of stable cold weather, so that the plant has time to take root. Depending on the region, this period is the end of September-October.
Spring planting is limited in time... Black currant wakes up early, and you need to plant a seedling before budding. If you are late with planting, the plant will not take root well and hurt.
If you have planted such super-varieties of currants as Selechenskaya and Selechenskaya-2 on your site, this is not a reason to forget about plants for a long time... It is not worth making high demands on them without proper care. Plants need regular watering, feeding, shallow loosening of the soil.
Selechenskaya currant is moisture-loving, therefore it needs watering. To do this, it is advisable to make grooves up to 20 cm deep around the bushes, at a distance of 40 cm from the end of the branches, and irrigate in them, spending at least 30 liters of water per m2. Fertilizers can be applied to the same grooves.
After watering, the soil around the bushes must be mulched., or cover with black agrofibre. It will protect the plant not only from moisture evaporation and crust formation, but will also prevent weeds from growing, relieve it from the necessary regular loosening of the soil under the bushes.
Currants need feeding as well as watering... In the spring, urea is applied under the bushes - 30 g per m2, after flowering, liquid organic fertilizers are applied with the addition of 20 g of urea to a bucket of organic matter, after harvesting again organic fertilizers.
Foliar dressing is done once every two weeks., combining them with treatment against diseases and pests. To deoxidize the soil in the fall, it is necessary to apply ash under the currant bushes, followed by embedding it into the soil.
Pruning currant bushes is needed to form bushes and maintain their productivity.
Black currant bears fruit mainly on the growths of the last year, therefore old branches need to be deleted for the constant renewal of plants. For better illumination of the bushes, they also need to be thinned regularly.
The next year after planting from the grown basal shoots, 3-4 well-developed and located shoots are left, if the ends of the shoots are not ripe, they are also removed. In subsequent years, the pruning is the same.
Weak and thickening shoots are removed, diseased and dry. Of the zero shoots (shoots that have grown from the soil), no more than 4 of the strongest are left annually. So that the bush does not thicken, the distance between young shoots should be 10-15 cm.
By the age of 5, the formation of the bush ends, and we should get a full-fledged bush with 10-15 well-developed shoots of different ages. There should be 2 to 4 branches of each age.
To rejuvenate the bush, old branches are cut out, this gives an impetus to new growth.
Important when pruning:
Blackcurrant is propagated by layering and cuttings.
The simplest and most commonly used is method of propagation by horizontal layers... To do this, in early spring, shallow grooves are dug at the will of the bushes.
Annual shoots are shortened by 1/5 of their length to stimulate bud germination. The cut shoots are placed in grooves, pinned with hooks and lightly covered with earth.
After 10 cm high green shoots grow from the buds, they are sprinkled with well-fertilized soil to a height of up to 5 cm. During the growing season, the layers are regularly watered.
In the fall, the grooves with layering are opened, separated from the mother bush and seated: strong seedlings for a permanent place, weak ones grow in a school. From one shoot per season, you can get 5-7 seedlings.
Video instruction for propagating currants by layering:
For propagation by lignified cuttings undamaged, healthy annual branches are taken.
Pencil-thick shoots are cut in February (you can cut cuttings in late autumn, but then they must be stored correctly) cut into cuttings with at least 3 buds, dipped the lower end in a root formation stimulator and planted in prepared containers.
2 buds should remain above the ground... The containers are covered with polyethylene and shaded. The rooting process takes place at a temperature of 20-25 degrees, with periodic watering and airing the cuttings.
After about 1.5-2 months, the cuttings take root. In the fall, they can be transplanted to a permanent place, but it is good to cover for the winter, in order to avoid freezing.
The disease affects shoots, leaves and berries a white powdery coating appears on them. Infected shoots become bent, stunted and die off.
Dangerous viral disease. The plant thickens, the leaves from the five-lobed become three-lobed, shrink and lose their currant smell. Many shoots appear at the ends of the branches.
Control measures: removal of black currant bushes and burning. And it is necessary to fight the vector of kidney mite disease.
The disease affects leaves, petioles, shoots and berries.... Small brown spots appear on them, which then merge into one solid, the leaves curl upside down and fall off.
The disease begins in early June and with a strong infection by the middle of summer, the bushes completely shed their foliage, the shoots dry out.
In May, small spots with a brown border appear on currant leaves., which then turn white and merge. The leaves dry up and fall off.
Premature shedding of foliage affects the winter hardiness of the plant and the harvest of the next year, since the plant does not develop normally.
Control measures the same as for anthracosis.
Small insect that damages the kidneys... The buds swell and round up, do not develop and dry up the next year. The insect is a carrier of viral diseases.
Small mosquito damaging leaves... The leaves first wither, then dry up and fall off, the ends of the shoots die off. As a result, fatty shoots appear from the axils of fallen leaves, the plant is depleted.
A pest that damages shoots... Caterpillars hatched from larvae penetrate the stems and eat away the middle of the shoot, making passages with blackened walls in it. Damaged shoots wilt and dry out.
Black currant occupies a special place among fruit and berry crops. It is not for nothing that it is called a storehouse of vitamins.:
Why not in it. Organic acids (malic, citric) are available, pectin, tannins and nitrogenous substances are also present.
In black currant useful not only berries, but also leaves with shoots... Whoever once brewed tea from currant twigs (in early spring at the dacha) will never forget this taste and aroma.
Grow black currants, and you will never regret the time spent on it. For your care, she will reward you with a generous, tasty and healthy harvest.
To date, the breeders have done a great job. So, we have more than two hundred varieties of black currant. In such a situation, some gardeners even find it difficult to say where which variety is. So, our experts decided to name some varieties, tell about their characteristics. The best of the best black currant varieties have been selected.
However, before starting your acquaintance with the popular varieties of currants, I would like to tell you about one secret. Absolutely all varieties of black currant are self-fertile plants. However, when the bushes are planted, depending on the variety, all berries and the size of the plant itself will be different. You can even plant several bushes close to each other so that mutual pollination occurs.
If a person wants to have early currants on his site, you need to choose those bushes that begin to bloom at the end of May. In those regions that are characterized by frosts at night, currant bushes need to be covered. So, let's start considering the varieties of black currant:
The first kind - black currant vigorous... I must say that this is the largest currant that can only be. Berries are similar to grapes, but the size is not always the same. On average, the mass of a ripe berry can reach six grams. Bushes grow small, round in shape. Vigorous currant variety is considered to be medium late. After seven years, the bush is aging. This means that it needs to be updated. Vigorous currant berries have a sweet and sour taste. The versatility of the berries is that they have a dense skin.
Black currant Yadrenaya, photo
Many diseases, pests are absolutely not scary for vigorous black currant. Moreover, the bushes can winter well even in severe frosts. With good care, one bush can be harvested up to six kilograms of berries per season. The berry ripens in mid-July.
The next grade is Dobrynya. This is a large fruit currant. The largest berries grow up to seven grams. Thick skin, sweet and sour taste, and sugar content is 6.9 percent. The Dobrynya variety ripens quickly. It adapts perfectly to frost. The height of the bush is 1.5 meters. With proper care, up to 2.5 kilograms of berries can be harvested from one bush. The mass of one berry is 7 grams. The harvest ripens in the second half of July. The disadvantage of this variety can be called the unequal size of the berries, as well as the instability to ticks.
Black currant Selechinskaya - 2 is a variety in which the berry size reaches six grams. The fruit tastes sweet. The sugar content is 7.3 percent. The currant ripens early. The height of the bushes reaches 1.8 meters. The variety tolerates well not only drought, but also frost.
Proper care of the variety allows you to collect about 5 kilograms of currants from one bush per season. Flowering begins in early May.
Currant "Green haze" Is a variety of sweet berries. The crop ripens quickly. It is noteworthy that in the first year after planting, the bush does not bear fruit, but only in the second year. The berries are sweet and sour. They contain up to twelve percent sugar. Approximately 190 milligrams of ascorbic acid. The variety tolerates powdery mildew, as well as winter.
Summer residents collect up to five kilograms of berries from one bush. The average weight of one berry is 2.5 grams. Flowering begins in the second half of May. The only drawback of the variety is the instability to the kidney mite.
Black currant Nina - a variety that ripens early. Many shoots are formed from the bushes. The berries are quite large - up to 13 millimeters in diameter. The sugar content is 11 percent. Ripening occurs evenly. The variety is considered self-fertile. Usually, up to four kilograms of the crop are harvested from the bush, but if the care measures are enhanced, then it will be possible to collect up to eight kilograms of currants.
Another variety of black sweet currant – Bagheera... The bushes of this plant reach a height of one and a half meters. Ripening is medium late. The berries are large, after they ripen, they do not crumble. After the bush is planted, fruiting begins only in the second year. Heat, frost and disease do not harm the currant of this variety in any way. On average, up to 4.5 kilograms of harvest can be harvested from one bush. The fruit weighs approximately 2.3 grams. Bagheera blooms in early May, in July you can harvest.
Consider the main features of the variety:
Dovewing is a fruitful, self-fertile, low-growing currant, which has a high resistance to anthracnose, from a kidney mite, terry, you need to do preventive treatments. The variety is demanding on the quality of the soil, reacts well to fertilizers. The berries are medium in size and have a sour taste.
Dove currant is delicious in itself, you can use it to prepare blanks. Also, the fruits are frozen.
Selechenskaya has the following advantages:
The berries contain the following components:
Nutritional value per 100 g of berries:
100 grams of fruit contains 38 kcal.
The black currant of the Selechenskaya variety has a wide range of applications. Berries are used in the following areas:
Currants bear fruit for 12-15 years, and the richest yields are given in the sixth-seventh year of growth. Almost all blackcurrant varieties are self-fertile - they do not need pollinators, but the largest and sweetest blackcurrant is obtained when several varieties of this crop are pollinated in one area.
You can plant black currants throughout the growing season, but it is best to do this in late September or early October - before winter, black currant seedlings will root well, and in early spring they will start growing together. If you decide to plant currants in the spring, then try to do it before sap flow and bud swelling.
Soil for currants must be fertile, slightly acidic or neutral - pH 5.0-5.5. Most of all, the culture likes loams. Black currants are planted from the south or southwest side, in a well-lit area, protected from the wind. Groundwater should be no higher than 1.5 m.
A site for black currant should be prepared in the fall: the soil is dug to the depth of a shovel bayonet, adding 7-10 kg of humus, 1 liter of wood ash and 80-100 g of superphosphate to each m².
The planting density of black currant bushes depends on the type of culture. For example, low-spreading or straight-growing varieties are planted at a distance of 100-130 cm from each other, keeping row spacings up to one and a half meters wide. The planting hole is dug about 50x50x50 cm in size, half a bucket of water is poured into it, the seedling is placed in it at an angle of 45 º 4-6 cm deeper than it grew in the mother liquor - this method of planting stimulates the intensive formation of roots and shoots.
The roots of the seedling are carefully straightened, covered with soil, compacted, after which another half a bucket of water is poured under the seedling. In order to avoid rapid evaporation of moisture from the soil, the site is mulched with peat, humus, dry soil or sawdust.
Pits for autumn planting of blackcurrant seedlings are prepared in two to three weeks. The top layer of soil is poured into them, mixed with two tablespoons of double superphosphate, a large handful of ash and 5 kg of rotted compost, filling the hole two-thirds. Before planting, the soil in the pit should settle and compact. The planting procedure is carried out according to the same rules as in the spring. After planting, all the shoots are cut off from the seedlings, leaving no more than 2-3 buds on each.
In order for a black currant sapling of the Litvinovskaya variety to take root on the site, you should start with its correct choice. It is recommended to purchase seedlings of this fruiting shrub exclusively in proven nurseries and gardening stores. The plant must be completely healthy, there must be no rotten spots and spots on its roots and branches.
The next step is to choose the right footprint. It should be borne in mind that it must be chosen in a bright area. It is preferable to plant a bush near the fence so that it is closed from the wind on at least one side. Black currants thrive well under the canopy of tall trees that provide some protection from direct sunlight. The soil at the site of planting of currants should be slightly moistened.
The timing of planting black currant varieties Litvinovskaya varies, depending on the region of growth:
The algorithm of actions for planting black currant seedlings of the Litvinovskaya variety should be approximately as follows:
Subsequent care for the black currant variety Litvinovskaya involves the implementation of standard procedures:
The berries ripen from late July to mid-August. They hold well on the branches, the separation is dry. Harvesting is preferable in dry weather: then the fruits are stored longer.
Thanks to the dense skin, the currants can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 2 weeks at temperatures up to + 3– + 5 C. If you need to save the berries longer, it is better to freeze or dry them. In addition, these remarkably sweet varieties are perfect for preservation of any kind: they are used to make preserves, jams, jellies, compotes.
Selechenskaya 2 gives an average of 3.7 kg per bush. With very good agricultural technology, the yield can be increased to 8 kg per plant.
Currants can be transported, but at the same time their keeping quality decreases.