Ayan or Yez spruce


Ayan spruce is a type of coniferous evergreen trees. This spruce can be safely attributed to long-lived trees: the life span is up to 350 years. In appearance, it is very similar to an ordinary spruce. In Russian conditions, it grows up to 8 meters by the age of thirty-six. Has cracked bark of dark gray color. Young shoots are characterized by a yellowish or light green color. The needles are short and flat, its color is unusual in that the top is actually always dark green, the bottom is gray. The needles can reach 2 cm in length, the tip of the needles is dull or very short.

Ayan spruce cones are very beautiful: before ripening, they can have a purple or greenish color, then turn into glossy, about 7 cm long, with light scales. Ayan spruce is well adapted to winter. Prefers moist soil, but rarely found in swamps.

There are very few varieties of Ayan spruce. One of them - Canadian Aurea... It has the shape of a pyramid, the needles are yellow and bright.

Another variety - Nana kalous... A bonsai with an interesting vertical structure without a central trunk. The underside of the needles is bluish.

Variety called spruce Yosawa - is an exact copy of the adult form with a wide crown of bright bluish color.


Ayan or Yez spruce - gardening

Despite the high prevalence of pine crops in coniferous forests, natural spruce forests (Piceeta abietis) grow in an altitude zone of 1200-1650 meters above sea level, where the forest floor mainly consists of layers of immature humus. Such plantations were especially well formed in the conditions of the Marmarosky crystalline massif and the Chernogorsky ridge. Here, spruce forms clean stands over large areas.

Fir-spruce forests (Abieto-Piceetum) formed on very acidic, poor, but with a high proportion of fine earth, mainly on waterlogged soils in the mountain fir-beech belt. Under such habitat conditions, beech is not competitive.

Cedar pine (Pinus cembra) and larch (Larix decidua) grow here and there on the border of the forest. In the Kedrin reserve and on the slopes of Mount Popadya, relict cedar-fir and larch-cedar-fir plantations are under protection.

Mountain pine (Pinus mugo), green alder (Alnus viridis) and Siberian juniper (Juniperus sibirica) over the entire area form almost completely clean thickets with undergrowth, which varies depending on the properties of the substrate, exposure and other habitat factors.


Botanical description

Spruce is a coniferous forest beauty that grows in the form of tall, spreading trees with evergreen needles. Small needle-like leaves have a pleasant aroma. Spruce - tall trees, can exceed 30 meters in height. The average lifespan of a Christmas tree is about 500 years. The strength of the wood and the high heat transfer of the tree allows the plant to be used for industrial purposes. In addition, even the spruce branches obtained from the branches of the Christmas tree are widely used in the household.

Young spruces have tap roots. Small herringbones are formed from a central root covered with an abundance of adventitious roots. The rhizome of young individuals goes deep into the soil. By the time they reach 10-15 years of age, the roots of the fir trees become superficial, and the central root dies off. The superficial location of the rhizome in mature trees makes the trees difficult to withstand strong winds.

The trunk of the Christmas tree is pyramidal. The older the plant, the wider the diameter of the wood. A forest beauty over 15 years old reaches a diameter of about 50 cm. The trunk of a Christmas tree is covered with brown bark. Young individuals have smooth light wood, and plants older than 10 years are covered with thick brown bark, sometimes covered with deep cracks.

The plant has a wide base formed from branches. The cone shape of the tree changes based on the variety. In nature, there are Christmas trees, shaped like a narrow cone, and individuals in the form of a pyramid with a wide base. The first few years of life, there are no side shoots on the tree. The branches of the tree are arranged up or down, based on the type of crop.

The branches of the tree are completely covered with needle-like leaves - fragrant needles that give the tree a fluffy appearance. The needles are arranged in a circle of young shoots. The needles can be of different shades of green, based on the variety. The shape of the needles is tetrahedral. The needles are hard to the touch; if you press on them, you can injure your hand. The needles are attached to the stem with pads located at the base of the foliage. The foliage does not fall off the spruce even in the most severe frosts. However, foliage is replaced with a new one, approximately every 5 years.

The plant propagates with the help of seeds, which are located inside small ovoid cones. Spruce is a monoecious gymnosperm plant that forms both males and females at the same time. Cones form at the ends of the branches. Cones are brown in color, contain up to 20 seeds inside. The peculiarity is that the cones do not open even after ripening inside the seeds, like in other conifers. Whole fruits fall to the ground, which retain their integrity for another year after the fall.

Fir trees begin to bear fruit only 10-15 years after the emergence of shoots. The plant bears fruit in May and ripens in October. After dropping, the fruits remain viable for 10 years after ripening. After the seeds get into the ground, the plant germinates only after a few years.


Growing spruce

Many gardeners ask themselves the question: “How can you propagate a spruce yourself? And how to grow a spruce from seeds? "

All types of spruce are propagated by seeds, which begin to germinate in the year of sowing. For better germination, seeds are stratified using low temperatures. In the natural environment, the seeds crumble, they are covered with snow and they are stratified for 2-3 months. Under artificial conditions, it is necessary to tie the seeds in a gauze bag and keep them in a cool room before sowing, at a temperature of + 4-6C. Sowing of spruce is carried out in the spring, when the spring frosts have passed, to which the spruce is very sensitive.

Before sowing, the seeds must be treated with a growth stimulant to increase germination energy. For example, the drug "Epin-extra". Sowing is carried out to a depth of 1.5-2 cm.

In the nursery, spruce is grown in the formation department, periodically replanting and increasing the feeding area with each transplant. The areas on which plants are grown at different periods of growth are called schools.

According to the period of cultivation in the school department, the spruce belongs to slow-growing and has been in it for 8 years.

The period of stay in the first school is 4 years, then there is not enough food for the seedling at this place. This leads to a delay in the development of roots and crown. Therefore, the seedlings are dug up and transplanted to another place in the second school, where the plants are kept until the next transplant. Plants are planted in a square way, with an area of ​​0.7 * 0.7 m per seedling.

In the third school, our trees will be kept for another 2-4 years, the planting scheme is 1 * 1 m, for uniform development of the root system. When transplanting, seedlings are planted along the root collar (it is permissible to deepen it to 2 cm below the ground level, leaving a margin for earth shrinkage). The root system must be straightened out, without bending the roots. If individual roots are overgrown, they can be pruned with pruning shears. After planting, the soil is well trampled and spilled with water so that no voids remain.

In addition to seed propagation from the cone, many varieties of Christmas trees are cuttings to accelerate the propagation of planting material, less often they are grafted. The grafting is also used to obtain standard spruce forms.

Cuttings are harvested from trees at least 5 years old. Grown in greenhouses, pre-treated with growth stimulants: "Kornevin", "Heteroauxin".


Types of spruce

A botanical description of spruce trees is given for about 40 varieties of culture that actively grow in the wild. In addition, today several varieties have been created that are grown for decorative purposes.

Norway spruce picea abies

The most popular species found throughout Europe. Represented by culture, up to 50 meters high. The long-liver has a fairly dense trunk, reaching 2.5 meters in diameter. The tree has a spreading crown in the form of a wide pyramid. The diameter of the crown in some individuals exceeds 7 meters. The average life span of an ordinary spruce is, on average, 3 hundred years. In places where several spruce trees grow, the needles and the diameter of the trunks are much smaller than that of separately standing individuals.

Shoots of common spruce are light brown in color. At the ends of the branches, resinous buds are formed, which do not exceed half a centimeter in length. On the entire surface of the twigs, needles are located - evergreen needle-like leaves, the length of which does not exceed 2 cm. The needles are sharp, when pressed, they can easily pierce human skin.

The plant lives, both as separate crops, and in the form of thickets, forests. Dark green needles and a tree trunk have not only economic purposes, but also medical ones. Parts of the culture are used in traditional medicine recipes.

Acrocona acrocona

Exotic Christmas trees that are hybrids. The plant is represented by a small tree with irregular shapes. The difference between culture lies in the presence of creeping branches, which can bifurcate or triple at the ends. The crown top also has several shoots. Therefore, the tree of this variety grows mainly in different directions, reaching a height of 2 meters and a width of 4 meters. The Christmas tree in the spring gives red cones, which also give the plant a decorative effect. Cones hang from the ends of the branches, like earrings.

Formanek formanek

The plant is a weeping Christmas tree with creeping branches hanging to the ground throughout the growth of the crop. the plant is very decorative, as it can take any shape that the gardener gives them. In addition, the support placed next to this variety quickly ceases to be visible, since the hanging branches quickly cover the crop. At the same time, the plant becomes like a cap. Not only branches hang from the tree, but also the crown. A pruning hybrid is also an ornamental tree that takes on a variety of shapes.

Ohlendorffii ohlendorffii

It is a hybrid, dwarf type. The hybrid originated in Germany. The height of the bush does not exceed 3 meters, while active growth occurs in the first half of the life of the culture. Bushes are wide enough. At the beginning of life, the plant has a rounded shape, which gradually changes to longitudinal or conical. The plant has several tops, which is a feature of the culture. The needles are of a rich green color, intensively covering all branches. At the ends of the branches, small golden bumps form that hang down. Unlike many representatives of the genus, the hybrid is grown in a shady area, and also has a high unpretentiousness to conditions.

Serbian spruce picea omorika

Tree, height is about 5 meters, with a conical shape. The top of the forest beauty is pointed. The crown, densely covering the spruce, is painted in dark green tones. A special feature is the presence on the seamy side of the needle-like leaves of two strips of silver color, which give the spruce a decorative effect. In the spring, bluish cones appear on the crop, which hang from the top and stems.

Nana nana

The variety is small in size, up to 3.5 meters high. The forest beauty has a short stature, therefore, by the end of the 10th anniversary after planting, it does not exceed a height of 1 meter. This is a hybrid with a fairly wide crown, which in an old plant can be about 2 meters. The rounded crown of a dark green tone makes the plant decorative. The branches of the forest beauty are upward. The shade of the foliage takes on an emerald color. Young branches are colored golden.

Peve tijn

The plant is eaten away from the previous variety in Germany. It is a low-growing crop with spreading branches and a dense light green crown. The tree grows slowly, reaching only one and a half meters up by the tenth year of life. The forest beauty is actively gaining size at the time of being in sunny weather, so a tree of this variety is planted in bare places, as single plants.

Canadian spruce or gray picea glauca

Wild-growing representatives of the genus can be 40 meters high, however, when cultivated, the culture grows no more than 15 m high. The Christmas tree is formed by dense, upward-growing stems with gray needles. As it grows, the shoots gradually descend downward, taking a horizontal position.

Alberta globe alberta globe

A small tree with green stems. The height of the culture is about a meter, and the width of adults grows up to half a meter. The plant quietly grows in height, adding about 2 cm per year. The bush reaches a maximum height of about 1 m. The rounded shape is due to the width, which is almost equal to the height.

The tree has rather long light needles that densely cover the crown of the tree. Green branches give the impression of a bumpy crown surface. This structure of the Christmas tree makes it popular when placed in gardens and rockeries.

Conica conica

A hybrid produced in Canada. The bushes of this variety are distinguished by long growth in height. An adult forest beauty has a height of up to one and a half meters, with a width at the bottom of the crown of only 50-70 cm. The cone-shaped appearance of a light-colored tree has a thick surface that can be easily pruned. The stems are directed upwards. Due to this, the bush takes even forms. The forest beauty's needles are soft and highly elastic. The forest beauty prefers to grow in partial shade, since it is highly susceptible to the formation of burns on the foliage.

Sanders blue sander 39 s blue

A blue variety that is popular in the decorative arts. The tree has a flat conical shape with almost smooth surfaces. The forest beauty is rather quietly gaining growth, adding only 5 cm per year. The tree lives in sunny areas; when placed in partial shade, foliage becomes rare.

Sanders Blue has a bluish elastic crown. The branches have a rich color, which is not found more in any representative of conifers. Old stems take on a greener tint, while young ones have a rich bluish color, so the color of the tree is uneven, constantly changing. This makes it even more decorative.

Engelman spruce or weeping picea engelmanii

In the wild, the forest beauty lives in the impoverished substrates of the northern part of America. You can meet wild bushes on rocky terrain, in stones. This arrangement makes the culture unremarkable, with little decorative value. These are thin long trees up to 50 meters up, with hanging branches of a bluish color. Plants form an uneven cone with drooping branches covered with intense fine needle-like foliage. Green cones appear at the ends of the stems in spring, which become burgundy by autumn. Cones are round in shape, up to 7 cm in length.

Bush lace bush s lace

An unusual hybrid grown by breeders. The straight trunk is covered with loose foliage in places. The branches have various sizes, adding 15-30 cm per year. Slender, thin needles of the forest beauty with drooping branches of various sizes along the entire length of the tree. The maximum size of a crop is considered to be about 7 meters high and about one and a half meters wide at the ground. The drooping stems at the base of the crown cover the ground in a circle, forming a dense dome inside. Young shoots are lighter in color than the old ones located inside the crown. Hybrid varieties are regularly pruned to create a shape.

Snake snake

A tree up to 20 meters, formed by sparse branches with thorny bluish needles.The branches of this spruce practically do not give lateral shoots, growing mainly at the base of the culture. The branches are arranged horizontally, the ends of the shoots hang down. The plant is rarely found in garden conditions, but is popular among exotic crops.

Spruce prickly or blue picea pungens

A popular variety often used for decorating garden and park areas. The forest beauty is frost-resistant, easily survives cold winters. The popularity is due to the ability to grow on rocky terrain and in poor substrates. The forest beauty is represented by tall trees growing up to 50 meters up. The plant consists of a saturated cone-shaped crown. The branches are almost completely covered with young branching shoots with intensively growing bluish-green needles.

The needles are renewed every 5 years. At the same time, young naked shoots of brown color appear at the ends of the branches. The needles on the branches appear only a year after emergence. This structure gives the culture an unusual look. As the tree grows, the needles darken and acquire a green color. The tree is unpretentious to growing conditions, easily tolerates wetlands and high air humidity.

Hermann naue

A low-growing hybrid variety that grows in the form of a rounded bush up to one and a half meters high. The forest beauty does not have a visible central stem, however, a large number of equal-sized branches with lush gray needle-like foliage depart from the central stem. Almost the entire growing season, brown oblong fruits hang at the ends of the branches, which give the plant a spectacular appearance. The needles are hard to the touch, the length of the needles does not exceed a centimeter.

The blues the blues

An unusual decorative hybrid form, which is a tall tree up to 2.5 meters, with a drooping twisted top. The plant of an unusual shape has a fairly wide crown, reaching a meter wide at the ground. Closer to the apex, the branches decrease in size. The branches drooping at the ends are covered with dense and long needles. The needles have a gray color with a silvery sheen. Young branches are covered with bright blue foliage that darkens with age.

Hoopsie hoopsii

Representative of pyramidal trees with a flat spreading crown of a blue hue. The height of the culture reaches 12 meters, while maintaining the crown width at the base of 3-4 meters. Culture does not need to create conditions, it is considered one of the classic representatives of a green beauty, easily enduring severe frosts. The tree is distinguished by the rapid growth and development of young shoots with increased fragility and fragility. Therefore, when grown in garden conditions, heavy drifts of snow are removed from the spruce in winter in order to prevent the breakage of the shoots.

The tree is formed by a dense, even crown in the form of a cone. The needle-like leaves are hard to the touch and are bluish-green in color. The needles grow to a size of about 2 cm. In the spring, large female cones appear on the plant, which, when ripe, take on a purple hue. The plant is grown as a standalone crop, as well as in combination with other conifers.

Black spruce picea mariana

Trees with a height of about 25 meters. The culture is a dense, tough, drooping crown of a bluish color. The trunk and branches are covered with dark brown bark, which becomes covered with a yellowish coating with age. The plant survives frosty days well, but does not undergo hybridization well. The breeders managed to breed only 7 varieties of the variety.

Nana nana

A decorative representative, which is distinguished by a dense, flattened crown. The dwarf bush grows mainly in width. The height of the bush does not increase by more than 1 meter. The culture is characterized by quiet growth to the top, up to 3 cm per year. The appearance is due to the dense gray crown with small and prickly needles. Young shoots create a contrast with old ones, as they have a rich green color. The plant is planted in small flower beds and gardens, has decorative value in rockeries and large rock gardens.

Aurea aurea

A small tree with green needles and small brown cones hanging all year round. The forest beauty grows slowly and reaches a size of 7 meters in adulthood. Active growth is noted after the tenth year of growth, by which time the culture grows to 2-3 meters.

The branches are arranged horizontally, on the tree they are arranged intensively, in a circle. The branches form a conical crown covered with a tough, short crown. Young shoots differ from light green needles, because they are beige in color.

Siberian spruce picea obovate

One of the most commonly grown varieties, it is a small tree with a thin crown. A feature of the culture is its high resistance to frost, so the tree is often planted in the northern hemispheres. The shoots that form on the branches annually are painted in a light brown shade, and the old stems are pubescent with dark green needles. The foliage is long, up to 3 cm in size, has a glossy color. The description of the culture is in many ways similar to ordinary spruce, the only difference is in size and conical shape. In this case, the tree does not grow above 30 meters, and lives mainly in Asian countries.

Glauka var glauca

The tree, reaching a size of 12 meters, grows actively in the first decade after germination. The forest beauty adds 25 cm in growth annually. With age, the growth rate decreases several times. The crown is pyramidal, formed by skeletal branches covered with thick silvery-green needles. The trunk of the tree is visible among the needles, has a brown tint. The culture does not need additional conditions for normal growth, it can easily withstand frosts up to 30 degrees. It grows equally well both on rocky terrain and in partial shade.

Oriental spruce picea orientalis

Wild green beauties live in the mountains of the Caucasus and northern America. It is a tall tree, about 50 meters, with a symmetrical crown covered with bright needle-like foliage. The branches grow horizontally, the ends are drooping. Young shoots grow annually, forming small light green catkins. The needles of the culture are short, needle-like. At the ends of the processes, cones appear and ripen, taking on a reddish color. The plant is quite whimsical, does not grow in poor soil or poor soils.

Nutans nutans

A popular variety, which is a small tree with an uneven crown of a bright green hue. The branches are located horizontally along the entire length of the trunk, the ends of the shoots are slightly raised upward. As the tree grows, it gains growth intensity. By the age of 10, the growth rate is approximately 20-30 cm per year. The size of an adult tree is about 20 meters. The width of the tree does not exceed 7 m in diameter. The Christmas tree consists of dense, thick and strong needles, which are about a centimeter long. Young shoots are covered with light green needles, soft to the touch, while old ones are hard and dark. This contrast gives the tree an unusual look.

Aureospicata aureospicata

An unusual German hybrid, which is represented by a beautiful neat tree with an even crown in the shape of a pyramid with a large diameter at the bottom. Adults of the culture do not exceed 10 meters in height. The plant is covered with dark needles with a glossy surface. In places, gaps are visible among the crown. The needle-like leaves are short, densely covering the surface of the lateral branches. The length of the needles is about 7 mm. The decorativeness of the plant is given by growths, which are painted in a light green, sometimes golden tone.

Spruce mariorika picea x mariorika

A hybrid representative of the genus, obtained by crossing several species. The plant is large in size, exceeding 30 meters in length. The trees have a wide base and a pointed top. The horizontal branches are covered with dark greenish-blue needles. The needles are flat and quite stiff to the touch. There are silvery stripes on the seamy side of the needles. Unripe fruits have a deep pink hue, which then changes to light brown.

Machala machala

A popular variety of mariorica, which is a stunted crop, up to half a meter high and up to a meter in diameter. The flattened shape of the spruce allows you to grow it in the conditions of the backyard, as well as for decorating paths in parks and house plots. The central stem is almost invisible among the dense, upright needles that appear on stems that grow perpendicular to the trunk. The branches grow slightly upward, due to which the bush is raised to the ground. The forest beauty takes on a bluish-silver tone. The ends of the branches have green growths.

Eeska or Ayan spruce picea jezoensis

The ornamental tree, which is no more than 15 meters in size, is growing strongly in the first decade. In the wild, it lives in the Far East and Asia. It is a tree resistant to winds and cold weather, with shoots obliquely located slightly upward. The foliage is light green in color, oval in shape, with a smoothed end. The needles are tightly attached to the shoots, practically lying on the twig. The plant changes its crown every 10 years. The decorativeness of the green beauty is given by cones, about 7 cm in size, which, as they ripen, change from pink to light green color.

Nana kalous

A Christmas tree, taking the form of a flattened bush, round in shape. The stunted forest beauty grows only 1 meter in height, and the diameter of the branches is about one and a half meters. The central trunk is almost invisible as it is thin and flexible. Stems grow horizontally or at an upward angle. Adventure shoots grow over the entire surface of the stems, which are abundantly covered with fluffy green needles. This form of spruce allows you to grow it in rock gardens and gardens, as a single crop.

Picea breweriana spruce

Tall plant with dense dark needles. The length of the spruce often goes beyond 40 meters. The trunk is massive and grows in the form of a cone. The trunk diameter reaches 1.5 meters. The branches are dense brown, have an abundance of adventitious shoots, abundantly pubescent with needles. The needles grow up to 3 cm in length, arranged in a circle of branches. In the spring, female and male fruits are formed on the tree. Female fruits are colored brown, up to 7 cm in size. After exceeding the age of 10 years, weeping branches are formed, which hang down over the entire surface of the tree.

Korean spruce picea koraiensis

It is a tall tree with a spreading crown in the form of a pyramid. The trunk girth reaches one meter. The tree has a grayish bark with visible cracks. The branches are drooping, which is why some call it a weeping variety. Shoots growing at the ends of the main stems are colored at first in a light green or yellow tone, eventually darken, taking on a green color. The needles are sharp, with a pointed end. The length of the needles is about 2 cm. The needles are glossy, in the world they give off a bluish tone.


The best decorative spruce varieties for your garden

Spruce is the "queen" of the forest, leading the popularity rating among masters of landscape art. This sacred tree, acting as a guardian of the site and a powerful source of bioenergy, is valued not only for its unique healing properties, but also for its extraordinary decorativeness.

Needle foliage of emerald, dark green and even blue shades can transform plant compositions, giving a unique zest to the landscape design of the site.

Spruce applications in landscape design

Rarely can anyone remain indifferent to the luxury of color and the frozen beauty of the conifers' needles. It is not surprising that spruce is used quite often in landscaping a site. It looks great as container plantings to frame garden paths and when decorating rocky gardens.

Ephedra is ideal for creating multi-level compositions, in harmony with low-growing shrubs and beautifully flowering perennials.

Trees with needle-like foliage of a rich green hue look interesting in combination with bright flowers of annual and perennial plants. Perfect for creating compositions: Japanese anemones, pansies, aquilegia, phlox and hosts. Conifers are the ideal basis for creating evergreen sculptures that can make the garden look richer and more colorful.

Among the main advantages of using spruce in the design of the site, it is worth highlighting:

1. Ephedra will delight you with the saturation of shades of needle-like greenery in the summer, without fading under the sun's rays, and in the winter, contrasting with the whiteness of the snow.

2. The phytoncides secreted by the plant are capable of efficiently purifying the air, exerting a healing effect on the human body.

3. Spruce is great for all landscaping styles.

4. Fluffy branches are convenient to use when making crafts: creating paintings, herbariums, New Year's compositions.

But spruce, like any other plant, has its drawbacks. For example, this ephedra is able to grow strongly, darkening the territory and depleting the soil. Therefore, for the decoration of gardens, types of spruces are used that have a dwarf shape.

Spruce is also convenient because it is easy to prune. Thanks to this, even an experienced gardener does not have any problems with giving the crown a unique shape.

It is advisable to plant spruce along the fence. In a short period of time, the ephedra grows lush forms, and its thick paws form a solid and dense wall.

Varietal variety of decorative forms

There are more than 20 types of spruce in modern parks and gardens. The main thing when choosing the type of ephedra is the configuration of its crown and the size of the plant in adulthood.

In landscape design, 3 types of spruce are most common:

1. Common - a typical species represented by more than 50 garden forms. Low-growing forms created on its basis reach a height of 1.2 m, and medium-sized ones - 3 or more meters. A wide palette of needles coloring, starting from golden and ending with rich green, on branches collected in pyramidal or pillow-shaped crowns, makes this type of conifers welcome guests on garden plots.

2. Prickly - more than 70 varieties are represented in the culture. Most of them are medium and tall trees up to 40 meters high with a beautiful cone-shaped crown. Although there are also dwarf forms up to 2 m high. The needles are very prickly: hence the name of the species. It can be bluish white, steel blue, silver, and bluish green.

3. Sizaya - has more than 20 decorative forms. The species got its name due to the ash-gray color of the bark and the bluish shade of the needles. Dwarf forms of this species have a spherical and nest-shaped crown, and tall ones have a conical crown. The color palette of needles is quite wide, starting from yellowish-golden and gray-blue and ending with bright green.

Ate, like any plants, are divided into three groups: dwarf, medium and tall. When landscaping household plots, dwarf and medium-sized representatives of conifers are most popular.

Among all the variety of coniferous ornamental plants in landscape design, creeping and dwarf varieties are especially popular.

The stunted forms include plants, the size of which in adulthood is several times smaller in comparison with the original parent species. For example, in natural conditions, the common spruce, referred to as Picea abies, is a 50-meter beauty with a neatly shaped crown, the width of which reaches 8-10 meters.

The decorative form of this tall ephedra, known as Picea abies "Nidiformis" or "pillow-shaped" spruce, reaches no more than two meters in height with a crown width of 2-3 meters.

The main advantage of dwarf forms of conifers is the minimum annual growth of young shoots, which in most cases is limited to 10-15 cm.

Among modern varieties created on the basis of common spruce, conifers are famous for the greatest decorative effect, the crowns of which have a nest-like or spherical shape.

The miniature shrub Picea abies "Nidiformis" is perfect for the formation of low borders and the design of rocky gardens.

Dwarf spruce "Nidiformis" in adulthood reaches a height of only 40 cm, forming a spreading crown with a diameter of up to one meter.

The thin graceful shoots of "Nidiformis" arranged in a fan-like manner are decorated with soft and short needles of a delicate emerald shade.

Little Gemm is no less attractive. The shoots extending from the middle of the crown, framed by dark green thin needles, form a neat hemispherical "pillow". It looks especially interesting in the form of a standard form, planted in a floor container or flowerpot.

The branches of the miniature beauty Picea abies "Little Gem" are framed by soft short needles of a rich dark green hue.

Picea abies "Will's Zwerg" has a beautiful narrow conical dense crown shape. The plant is interesting due to the soft green shade of young needles covering the milk shoots, which contrasts favorably against the background of the dark green of old needles. An evergreen shrub is well suited for small backyard gardens.

Spruce "Will's Zwerg" looks interesting in group compositions and as a tapeworm when arranging gardens with a small area.

Glauka Globoza, bred by selection, is famous for its extraordinary decorativeness. The dwarf plant does not have a clearly defined trunk. Its spreading branches, dotted with millions of fine needles in an elegant silver-blue hue, form a beautiful spherical crown. The cones that form on the branches, reminiscent of New Year's decorations, give the tree a special appeal.

The blue beauty "Glauca Globosa" is often used to decorate city landscapes, often acting as an elegant addition to park alleys.

It is impossible to ignore the picturesquely creeping undersized varieties on the ground. The miniature "Nana" resembles a soft pillow, and the "Echiniformis" is identified with a kolobok, whose round shapes act as an original framing of garden paths.

Most types of spruce are shade-tolerant in themselves, but often their dwarf forms are very sensitive to a lack of light.

When creating a backyard design, it is also customary to use medium-sized conifers, the height of which reaches no more than 15 m. A low single tree with a clearly outlined crown looks picturesque against the background of a lawn "carpet" or walls of a house. A spectacular driftwood or white stone will help to complement the picture.

Spruce trees with spreading crowns are able to create a shady area for relaxation, filled with a special atmosphere of home comfort and unity with the wild nature.

Blue spruce is one of the most popular types of ephedra, revered by designers not only for unpretentious care, but also for the mesmerizing change in shades of needle-like foliage throughout the year. Only 20% of the representatives of this species have a pronounced color of the sky, the rest are rich in green and gray tones.

Blue beauties are not able to withstand temperature fluctuations in the northern regions and feel comfortable only in temperate latitudes. Spruce with blue needles looks advantageous along the garden paths, against the background of wooden buildings or stone buildings.

A bright representative of this species is Picea pungens "Blue Diamond", which means "blue diamond".

The graceful beauty of the Blue Diamonds, with a tall, thin trunk and a neatly shaped conical crown, is often used for mixed mixborders.

Weeping types of firs will help to diversify the collection. Given their aspiration to the aquatic environment, ephedra can be safely used when decorating the banks of reservoirs.

Full-size weeping spruce trees reach a height of 10-15 meters and a width of 2-3 meters. Thin branches, hanging down, bend around the curved trunk of the plant, giving it a weeping shape.

Serbian spruce "Glauka Pendula" with flexible thin shoots hanging along the trunk is a win-win option when implementing non-standard solutions in garden compositions.

The Canadian spruce is more adapted for our climate. Konika is famous for its frost resistance and unpretentious care. It is interesting for landscape design in that it has a decorative conical crown shape, gives a small increase in a year and fits harmoniously into the design of even very small areas.

Young shoots sparkling in the sun's rays make the coniferous beauty "Maygold" look like a queen wrapped in gold.

The mantle of the crown of the tree, reaching a height of 6 m, has a loose pyramidal shape. After a few weeks, the creamy yellow needles on young shoots gradually change their color, acquiring an equally attractive bluish-green hue.

If the area of ​​the site allows, then to create a picturesque and original picture, it is better to use spruce of different types and varieties.

Tall trees fit well into any landscape as tapeworms, more compact forms of conifers can be safely combined with other plantings.

In order for the conceived composition to turn out to be harmonious and attractive, the masters of landscape art advise taking into account a number of main points:

  • The composition should not be too colorful. For a group of three conifers, use two colors. When composing a composition of five evergreens, use only three colors.
  • When composing a multi-level composition, including 20-30 plantings, place the elements in groups, matching them by color.
  • The fir-tree and shrub ensemble requires competent placement of accents: the foreground is occupied by undersized plants, the back - by medium-sized conifers.
  • To avoid the feeling of the density of Christmas tree plantings, the arrangement of a regular or Moorish lawn in the near-trunk area of ​​conifers will help.

Luscious needles of a dark shade will emphasize the beauty of the flowering shrub located nearby. In addition to flowering plants, shrubs with unusually colored foliage will be a successful addition to the coniferous beauty: weigela, chubushnik, barberry.

Ate is perfectly combined with other coniferous varieties and flowering perennials, creating a picturesque picture that looks elegant at any time of the year.

Recommendations for the care of spruce

Proper planting and care is a guarantee that coniferous beauties will delight with their presentable appearance almost all year round.

Wanting to decorate your site with one or more fir trees, experienced gardeners advise you to adhere to certain rules:

Landing time. It is better to plant the ephedra in early spring or early autumn, when the plant has not yet entered or has already passed the phase of vigorous growth. To keep young shoots from frost and rodents, it is advisable to mulch the near-trunk zone with peat for the winter.

Placement location. Under natural conditions, the spruce grows well near the river valley, where it receives a sufficient amount of moisture to feed its powerful root system. But at the same time, she does not like wetlands, and therefore needs a drainage arrangement.

Soil composition. All types of firs love fertile alkaline and acidic soil. They are intolerant to heavy soil types. When planting ephedra in depleted soil, the planting pit should first be enriched by adding 100 g of complex mineral fertilizer. With a lack of oxygen and nutrition, the plant may even die.

It should be borne in mind that spruce strongly affects the flowers and shrubs surrounding it, so it is better to place it at a short distance from sun-loving plants. You should not plant conifers close to each other, since with their branches they will restrict access to sunlight.

Observing these simple rules when selecting varieties and drawing up plant compositions, you can create a cozy and picturesque design on your site that will delight the eye throughout the year.

Video instruction: we equip a hedge of fir trees

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Related species in the European part of Russia:

Norway spruce (European) (P. abies, P. excelsas)

It is widely distributed throughout the European part of Russia, with the exception of the southern regions, and is one of the main forest-forming species. Trees reach 40, and sometimes 50 m in height, trunk diameter up to one meter. The needles are prickly, dark green, up to 2.5 cm long, stays on the shoots for 10-12 years. The seeds ripen in the year of flowering - in September - October, as a rule, they spill out in the spring of next year. The cones on the tree remain after the seed leaves. Very shade-tolerant and frost-hardy, but can be damaged by late spring frosts. Suffers from drought and dry winds. Requires fertile soil for successful growth. Sensitive to air smoke.


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